Main Subjects : Veterinary Pathology

Incidence rate of breast cancer, clinical and ultrasound approaches to diagnosing the same in dogs

V. Salautin; V. Gorinsky; A. Molchanov; G. Demkin; N. Pudovkin; S. Salautina

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 155-159
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153843

Mammary gland tumors in dogs rank second among all newly diagnosed tumors in this species. Research goalwas to study clinical/morphological characteristics of breast cancer in dogs with the use of ultrasound investigation. 34 dogs of different breeds and age groups with spontaneously emerging neoplasms of mammary glands were chosen for the study. To classify malignant tumors, the histological classification was applied. Complete examination of breast tumors was carried out with the help of clinical observation, ultrasound, radiologic, hematological and ultrasonographic methods applied. The largest percentage (23.5%) of animals with mammary gland neoplasms are mongrel female dogs. The breed predisposition was detected in dogs of the following breeds: Miniature Schnauzer - 11.9%, Standard Dachshund - 11.9%, American Bulldog, American Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle - 8% each. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 29 animals (85.3%), 100% of those cases in the nodular form with microcalcifications in the tumor parenchyma. The horizontal orientation of growth is more often typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs I and II at the initial stage of carcinogenesis, and is characterized by an inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure with sufficiently pronounced boundaries detected during the ultrasound investigation. The vertical orientation of growth is mainly typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs III, IV and V from the very beginning of the disease. The ultrasonography usually shows: inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure containing inclusions in the form of cords or foci of a higher acoustic solidity; also clearly defined lateral acoustic shadows and dorsal echo enhancement; as well as unevenness and indistinctness of borders. The performed histological study within the current research revealed a multifocal, infiltrating epithelial neoplasm with distinct edges, surrounded by a large amount of fibrous tissue. The tumor consisted of a number of acini with a tendency of forming a network structure. The shape of cells was detected from round to irregular, the cytoplasm was found scarce, often with uneven borders, with the large central core, with chromophilic substance and 1-2 nucleoli. The cells were characterized by the pronounced anisocytosis and anisocariosis, and a great number of mitotic figures. Lymphatic invasion was observed. Ultrasound investigation of the mammary gland allows for performing percutaneous minimally invasive interventions and differential diagnostics of cystic and solid lesions of the mammary gland (96-100% accuracy), mastopathy and carcinoma conditions.

Histological and fluorescent microscope studies for evaluation carbon accumulation in trachea and bronchi of birds in polluted area in Wasit province

H. K. Karadi; A. M. Al- badri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 135-141
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153839

The aim of this study was to detect the accumulation of carbon and determination its appearance in different areas of groups of ducks. Using special dyes to detect deposits of carbon particles. Also, using AO/ EB stains to detect early and late (progress) apoptosis that occurred due to the precipitated of carbon in both areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) but late apoptosis occurred in bronchi of brick factories area more than oil field area. The histological examination of trachea showed no any indicator of accumulation of carbon in three different areas, whereas in bronchi showed the presence of carbon in polluted areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) in different amounts. 

Vulvar and vaginal tumors in Hawshar dogs

B.T. Abbas; S.M.A. Hassan; A.K. Saeed; D.M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 67-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153800

Twelve Hawshar bitches were (3-5 years in aged) examined clinically and vulvovaginal tumor masses were diagnosed histopathologically revealed the three types of tumor which include; (three cases of vulvovaginal diffuse small cell lymphoma, six cases of vaginal transmissible venereal tumor, and three cases of leiomyoma), these masses were removed surgically with local excision with or without episiotomy and recurrence of the tumor showed in some cases after following up for different duration. In conclusion, this study revealed that the age with physical condition of the dog were played an important role in cancer occurrence, and the surgical excision was not regarded as the ideal treatment especially in malignant tumor.

Immunohistochemical expression levels of anterior pituitary LH, FSH and testicular testosterone of Allium sativum extract and thymoquinone in male treated rats

N.F. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153793

The present study was conducted to determine the immunohistochemical expression levels of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in the anterior pituitary gland and testicular testosterone of male rats treated with Allium sativum extract and Thymoquinone. Forty mature Waster male rats Rattus norvegicus, aged 60 days and weighed 140-150 g, were randomly divided into control and three treatment groups (10 rats each). Control group males were orally supplemented with 500 µL of normal saline daily. The treated groups of males were orally supplemented with TQ suspension, 50 mg/ kg, B.Wt (TQ group), Allium sativum aqueous extract, 50 mg/ kg bw (A group) and their combination (TQA group). At the end of experiment, all male rats were sacrificed and pituitaries and testes were dissected and fixed in neutral formalin buffer 10% for immunohistochemical examination of pituitary LH and FSH and testicular testosterone. The results demonstrated high immunohistochemical density in treated male’s pituitary tissues for both LH and FSH compared with the control group. In comparison with control, testicular tissues of treated group males showed stronger immune reaction for T especially around Lydig’s and Sertoli cells. It can be concluded that TQ and Allium sativum have potent improving effects on reproductive hormones production and could be increase the male fertility.

Pathological and bacteriological study of bovine renal lesions slaughtered in Mosul region

O.A. Abdullah; H.Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 51-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145565

This study was carried out on 100 Kidney Samples collected from clinically healthy cattle slaughtered at Mosul abattoir to investigate the renal lesions and to isolate the bacterial causes of these lesions. The bacterial isolation included E. Coli 32%, Corynebacterium spp 27%, Proteus spp 16%, Staphylococus spp 12%, Streptococsus spp 7% while 6% of samples showing no bacterial isolation. The most common gross lesions were seen included multifocal white spots, swallen pale kidneys, congested enlarged kidneys, hyperemic hemorrhagic kidneys. The common observation in histopathological examination reveled to multifocal infiltration of inflammatory cells (Monocytes, Macrophages and Lymphocytes), degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells lining renal tubules with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues with atrophy of glomerular tufft. Additionally cysts were observed in kidney tissues.

Pathological study of subchronic oral toxicity induced by Di (2- ethyl hexyl) phthalate in Japanese quails

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; S.M. Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145567

In present study, we aimed to investigate the pathological changes induced by subchronic oral toxicity induced by sub lethal dose of Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. Forty male quails at one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group (treated group) was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP (557.41 mg/kg of body weight) for 42 days, while second group (control group) left without treatment throughout experiment period. The results of current study showed that there is congestion of kidney, microscopically they showed presence of hyaline degeneration in renal tubules, glomerulosclerosis, wide spread of degenerative and necrotic lesions in renal tubules, hemorrhage, infiltration of inflammatory cell especially macrophages and lymphocytes in interstitial tissue of kidney. While grossing of liver showed hepatomegaly with hemorrhage, microscopically the sections showed wide distributing of vacuolar degeneration (fatty change) in different size and shape of vacuoles in cytoplasm of affected hepatocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly macrophages and lymphocytes. In conclusion, the oral administration of DEHP at dose 557.41 mg/kg of body weight for 42 days induced degenerative and necrotic irreversible changes in both kidney and liver of Japanese quail that affect their health and production.

Pathological Study of Acute Oral Toxicity Induced by Plasticizer Di (2- ethyl hexyl) Phthalate in Japanese Common Quails Coturnix coturnix japanies

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; S.M. Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126714

The current study aimed to identified the pathological changes of oral toxicity induced by Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. To a chief this aim a pilot study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of DEHP. Forty male quails one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP daily for fourteen days, while second group was considered as control group and left without treatment all over the experimental time. The result of pilot study showed that the LD50 of DEHP in quails is 5574,1 mg/kg of body weight and the dose used in experiment to induced the acute oral toxicity was 557.4 mg/kg of quail's body weight. The result of gross pathological appearance of euthanized quails at fourteen days of experiment revealed presence of sever congestion in kidney lobules as well as congestion of liver with hemorrhagic ecchymotic patches while at other case the liver appear pale in color. The histopathology of kidney revealed presence of degenerative changes represented by cloudy swelling of the cell lining renal tubules lead to narrowing the lumen of affected tubules as well as interstitial edema with coagulative necrosis associated by infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as interstitial hemorrhage. The liver sections revealed presence of fatty change in hepatocytes in which the liver cell contained vacuoles of different size and shape also hepatocytes suffered from coagulative necrosis with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells as macrophages with presence of hemorrhage. We conducted from current study that the oral administration of plasticizer DEHP in fourteen days at dose of 557.4 mg/kg of quail body weight induced degenerative and coagulative necrosis in both kidney and liver tissue in Japanese common quail.

Comparative histopathological effects of aqueous, hexane extracts of Iraqi sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus) with atorvastatin for treating hyperlipidemia induced in mice

L.A. Kafi; N.TH.N. Al- Ezzi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126705

This research was carried out to find out the treatment impact of aqueous and hexane extracts of sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus) on some histopathological indicators of heart, aorta and liver related to hyperlipidemia that induced in mice and compare them with Atorvastatin. Sweet almond was dried and grinded by an electrical grinder to form fine crude powder that extracted by two ways: by using 95% hexane and water by using the distilled water with Soxhlet apparatus. Forty mature mice were randomly divided into 8 groups (5 mice per group) and treated every day for 60 days, the first group was fed and drank normally and regarded as a negative control group, a second group was given polypropylene glycol offered as negative control group, third group was given tap water containing 0.5% of hydrogen peroxide and 1% of cholesterol in the feed for 60 days for induction of hyperlipidemia and offered as positive control group. Hyperlipidemia was induced in the other five groups as in the third group. The treatment of hyperlipidemia was done by using hexane extract at a dose of 500 mg/ kg of body weight and aqueous extract of sweet almond with three different doses (500, 750 and 1000) mg/ kg of body weight and compared with the other group that treated with atorvastatin 20 mg/ kg B.W. as antihyperlipidemic drug. The outcomes discovered that histopathological changes of heart, aorta and liver exposed to hydrogen peroxide and cholesterol revealed congested blood vessels with inflammation relevant cells in their lumen with necrosis of hepatic cells and inflammation relevant cells collected in sinusoids and inner surfaces of the blood vessels and infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes in the liver moreover to the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the heart while in the aorta showed the vacuolation in the sub intimae and vacuolation and increase the thickness of intimate layer. Furthermore, inflammation relevant cells particularly infiltration around aorta. While therapy with almond extracts and Atorvastatin lead to valuable changes in therapy of damaging happened in the heart, aorta and liver induced with hyperlipidemia. In addition a dose of 1000 mg/kg of aqueous extracts of sweet almond was the best in treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Pathological study of liver lesions in cattle slaughtered at Kirkuk province abattoir

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; A.M. Farhan; Z.S. Daoud; O.S. Hamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 7-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126713

Current study aimed to identify the gross and microscopic lesions and their percentage in liver of cattle slaughtered in Kirkuk province abattoir. A total of 6211 liver sample were examined during period from 01/08/2016 until 01/12/2016 with total cattle liver that showed gross lesions 738 cases. A gross examination was applied to affected liver and tissue sample were taken from lesions for histopathological examination. The result of current study showed that the total liver lesions in cattle is about 11.88% (738/6211) which distributed as liver fluke infestation 3.34% (213/6211), hydatid cyst 3.12% (194/6211), liver abscess 2.29% (142/6211), cholangiohepatitis 2.01% (125/6211), and hepatic hemorrhage with congestion 1.03% (64/6211). The results of gross and microscopic examination of liver infested with liver fluke showed presence of thickening in bile ducts with adult fluke as well as liver atrophy with hyperplasia of epithelial cell in affected bile ducts with dystrophic calcification. While in case of hydatid cyst the lesions composed from presence of larval stage in form of white cyst in different size and their walls composed from hyperplasia of fibrocytes and fibrin strands. In case of hepatic hemorrhage and congestion the result showed sever congestion with staining of liver tissue by blood color, with presence of red blood cells in association with inflammatory cells between hepatocytes. While in case of hepatic abscess we noticed presence of white to yellow solid lesions that randomly distributed in different shape and size composed from necrotic center with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and hyperplasia of fibrocytes. While in case of cholangiohepatitis the affected area showed paleness with accumulation of bile material inside bile ducts, as well as hyperplasia of affected ducts and fibrosis in portal areas with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in liver tissue with dystrophic calcification in bile ducts. We concluded from current study that wide spread of hepatic lesions in liver of cattle in Kirkuk province and this result should be taken in more serious action which can result in economic losses as well as possibility of zoonosis of these pathogens to human, also the gross lesions described by current study were identically similar to microscopic lesions.

Pathological study of intrauterine infection to embryos by Encephalitozoon cuniculi spores in pregnant mice

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; H.I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121383

This study aimed to investigate pathology of oral E. cuniculi infection during pregnancy in pregnant mice and embryos. A total of 40 pregnant mice at first day of gestation were divided into two groups, first group were infected orally by E. cuniculi sores of 107 spores/ mice, second group left without any treatment. At 18th days of gestation all pregnant mice were euthanized. Gross pathology finding in pregnant mice of infected group included congestion of liver and lung, the embryos lesions consisted from enlargement of head and abdomen. Histological lesions in pregnant mice of infected group consisted of hepatic non-suppurative granulomatous lesions with E. cuniculi spores aggregation with lymphocytic infiltration, the lungs lesions consisted of infiltration of lymphocytes with E. cuniculi spores, kidney lesions composed from degenerative and necrotic changes in renal tubules, brain lesions consisted from lymphocytic infiltration with increase in number of glial cells, while intestine tissue sections showed hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue with present of parasitic vacuoles at tips of villi, the placenta exhibited E. cuniculi spores with hyperplasia of trophoblast in chorionic villi, while histological lesions in embryos showed lymphocytic infiltration around alveoli with hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue around bronchioles with absent the normal architecture of hepatic cords and vacuolation of hepatocytes with hyperplasia of lymphocytes in white pulp of spleen. This study provides insight into the pathology of E. cuniculi infection in pregnant mice and their embryos, also supports the hypothesis of intrauterine transmission of E. cuniculi infection to embryos during pregnancy period.