Main Subjects : Veterinary Pathology

Investigation of the principal vectors of abortive diseases in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius)

El Aid Kaaboub; Nassim Ouchene; Nadjet A. Ouchene; Ali Dahmani; Imene Ouchtati; Asma Haif; Djamel Khelef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126914.1415

One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) are important source of meat, milk and leather production for humans in southern Algeria. Camel livestock farming is confronted with several obstacles, including abortive diseases which can be transmitted mainly by ticks. The study was carried out in Ouargla region, South Algeria, between January and December 2017. The objective of this study was to identify ticks in camels and to study the relationship between camel abortion rate and the presence of different species of ticks. A total of 350 camels (including 171 males and 179 females) was used in this study. Ticks were searched on the entire camel body (head, neck, hump, abdomen, forelegs, back legs, and tail area). Results showed that 215/350 (61.4%) camels were infested by ticks including 137/171 (80.1%) and 78/179 (43.6%) males and females, respectively. A total of 46/179 (25.7%) camel females had aborted and all these were revealed infested by ticks. A total of 298 ticks was collected including the following species Hyalomma dromedarii (90.9%), Hyalomma impeltatum (5.37%) and for the first time in Algeria, Amblyomma variegatum (2.35%) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.34%). H. dromedarii was the most frequent (p<0.001). The study showed that the dromedary was highly infested by ticks. The presence of ticks in all aborted female camels certainly indicates their important role in one-humped camel abortions in Algeria. The identification of tick-borne abortive agents in camels is important in order to establish an effective abortion control plan.

Experimental study on the effect of toxin fractions isolated from hydatid cyst fluid of sheep on the cardiac muscles of mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Ilham A. AL-Saleem; Afrah Y. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127124.1463

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hydatid cyst toxin fractions in mice. Fifty male mice were divided into five groups with 10 mice for each group the first group as control the second group was injected with toxin fractions at the concentrations 25Mg/ml PBS, the third group are the mice that injected intraperitoneally with toxin fractions at the concentrations 25Mg/ml PBS and treated with vitamin E at the concentration of 40 mg/ 100 g of feed, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 1 ml of raw fluid and the fifth group was injected intraperitoneally of 1ml of row fluid with the vitamin E at the concentration of 40 mg /100gm feed. The mice were sacrificed after 15 and 30days post injection, specimen of heart are fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histological techniques. The histopathological changes in cardiomyocyte were edema, infiltration of mononuclear cell and thickening of blood vessels wall with congestion in it. The results confirm that the toxin fraction have more effect than the raw fluid and that there is the regeneration effect of vitamin E on hydatid cyst cardiomyocyte.

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and histopathological changes in muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the Iraqi rivers

Basim Al-Mayahi; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa; Shahbaa AL-Taee; H.H. Nahi; Mohammed Adnan; M.A. Al-Salh Al-Salh; B. Al-Mayahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 245-249
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126748.1368

The aim of this study is to evaluate the contamination status of Iraqi rivers in the north of the Tigris river (Tikrit city) and the middle region of Euphrates (Babylon Governorate). In this study As, Zn, Fe, Pb, and Cu in the muscle tissue of carp fish were measured. The results show that the concentration of arsenic in the fish muscles in the middle region was 425.05 ppm higher than its concentration of about 192.25 ppm in fish muscle in the Tigris river with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Which it causes histopathological changes characterized by Zenker necrosis in skeletal muscle and infiltration of inflammatory cells with edema additional to edematous dermatitis. Other heavy metals in fish muscle were less than in fish muscles which agreement with the international legislation limits. Also, there were positive correlation ships between Zn and Pb and between Cu and Zn. While negative correlation has been detected between arsenic and both (Pb) and(Zn). This study is concluded that the accumulation of heavy metals causes histological changes in fish muscle provides an opportunity to assess fish health as well as information on possible health hazards coming from their environment.

Histopathological alterations of male and female reproductive systems induced by alloxan in rats

Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 223-226
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126626.1351

The objective of this study is to determine the histological effects experimentally induced by injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg B.w. on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration in testis include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells and paucity of sperms in the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. The histological alteration of female reproductive organs includes disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.

Histopathological and some biochemical effects of platinum drug on the liver and kidney of pregnant mice Mus musculus and their embryos

Baidaa A. barwarei; Hanan S. Sadoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 291-300
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126793.1382

The current study was done to investigate the effects of two doses 3and 6 mg/kg B.w. of the Platinum drug on the structure of the liver and kidney of pregnant mice, and embryos in addition to the weight of the mothers', embryos ,'maternal liver and kidneys, as well as some biochemical parameters, were established. For this study, thirty pregnant mice were used, divided into three groups (10 mice/group) as follows; group I (control group); animals were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with distilled water on the days 7th, 12th, and 17th of gestation. The other both groups II, and III were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with the selected doses above of the Platinum at the days 7th, 12th, and 17th of gestation, respectively. Microscopically, maternal and fetal' liver sections of group II revealed vacuolation, swelling, apoptosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion, degeneration, and presence of the extramedullary hematopoietic cells, respectively. Previous lesions were increased in group III. Maternal and, fetal kidney sections of group II revealed degeneration, expansion of Bowman's space, inflammatory cells infiltration into interstitial tissue, and blood capillaries congestion. However, the previous lesions showed more severity in group III. The drug caused a reduction in the body weight of the mothers, selected organs, and embryos. Biochemical assessment of the maternal serum AST, ALT, and ALP levels showed an increase in both experimental groups II and III, but to varying degrees. Moreover, both groups II and III showed an increase in the levels of the maternal BUN and, urea. Whist, group III showed a significant increase of the creatinine compared to the control group. In conclusion, using anticancer drugs during pregnancy will harm both mothers and fetal organs. The risk of these medications represents their ability to cross the placenta and enters the fetal body. Therefore, the drug may affect the formation of the fetal organs. The drug also alters the regulatory antioxidant mechanism in the maternal body during the treatment duration. The drug should be used under medical follow up.

Histopathological effects of experimental exposure to lead on nervous system in albino female rats

Asrar Al-khafaf; Hana Kh. Ismail; Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 45-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126248.1273

Lead toxicity is a common health issue. Lead (Pb) is harmful to vital organs of body particularly the nervous system. This study aimed to estimate the effects of lead on the cerebellum, cerebrum and spinal cord in rat model, focusing on histopathological changes. 24 female mature albino rats of 200-300g randomly divided into 2 groups, the first is the control, and the second group were treated with lead acetate at dose 30mg/kg B.W. for 30 days. Microscopic examination revealed degeneration and necrosis of Purkinje cells and molecular cells and decrease in the number of granular cells and molecular cells also observed. Some Purkinje cells lost axons and shrunken and some areas showed depletion of Purkinje cells. Congestion of blood vessels with perivascular cuffing of mononuclear inflammatory cells, hemorrhage, neurophagia, glial nodules were observed in the brain parenchyma. Demyelination reported in white matter, with microglial proliferation around vertebral canal of spinal cord. This study referred to the increased risk of central nervous system damage due to the exposure to lead.

Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria galls on DMBA induced mouse skin tumorigenesis

Sherzad Ibrahim Mustafa; Bushra M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 57-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126267.1281

Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis and a number of plants with anti-cancer properties are being researched, some of which have shown promising results. Quercus infectoria galls is a well-known medicinal plant which has been used in medicine as larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of the aqueous extract on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis, consisting of initiation with a single topical application of a carcinogen 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a promoter (croton oil) three times in a week were employed. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, and cumulative number of papilloma was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with 2 gm/kg of Quercus infectoria galls extract as compared to the positive control group treated with DMBA plus croton oil administered. Furthermore, Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced significantly before and after galls extract oral administration. The results thus concluded that Quercus infectoria galls extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity and may serve in future drug development programs for the cancer prevention of skin cancer.

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the veterinary teaching hospital

Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Layth M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that the total number of the excised tumours was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. The tumours were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leucosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and transmissible venereal tumour 2.78%. We concluded from the current study occurrence a different type of tumours which was malignant or benign in different species of animals.

Effect of silver nanoparticles on some blood parameters in rats

Azhar AL-Baker; A.A. AlKshab; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 389-395
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.165812

The present study aims are investigating the effects of oral administration of AgNPs on some blood the parameters to show potential of toxicity of AgNPs as tool therapy and diagnosis. In this study, 20 healthy male and female rats were used. Randomly, rats were divided into 5 groups depending on the period variable respectively; AgNPs-treated rats' groups for a period of 3 days in concentration 0.2 and 0.4 gm/kg B.W, while the second period after 20 and 30 days after treatment with concentration 0.08 and 0.008 gm/ kg B.W. In addition to a control group. A Manual method was used to measure Hematological parameters. Rats treated with AgNPs showed the significant P<0.05 decrease in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume, Red Blood Cells. Also, Mean Corpuscular Volume; Mean Corpuscular Hb and Mean Corpuscular Hb Concentration. Platelets levels and White Blood Cell Count were After the administration of AgNPs, a protective effect on hematopoietic levels and on Red Blood Cell morphology were shown respectively as it is assessed by Leishman stained blood smears resulted in ovalocytosis at the dose 0.4 gm/kg body weight, while at the dose, 0.08 gm/kg showed echinocytes, acanthocytes, tear drop, stomatocyte and codocyte (target RBCs). Thus, it is concluded that oral administration of AgNPs caused a decreased in the level of Hb concentration, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, but increase PLTS and WBCs. It means that AgNPs has a toxic effect on blood.

Comparative treatment of induced ulcerative colitis in male rat model by using cinnarizine and sulfasalazine

Rana Kh. Atarbashe; Ahmed Abu-Raghif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 465-472
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126170.1254

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic and intermittent illness. The current treatment failed to cure the disease which requires to investigate other drug with minimal side effects. The goal of the research is to assess the histological outcome, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnarizine in comparison with that of sulfasalazine (salazosulfapyridine) in experimentally induced colitis in rats. Acetic acid 4% (vol/vol) was used rectally to induce experimental colitis in rats. After induction, rats were administered either sulfasalazine 100mg/kg or cinnarizine 20 mg/kg as a therapeutic dose in rats orally for one week. The duration of treatment was depended on previous studies. There were estimation of histopathological and clinical parameters also the expression of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)), and adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and endothelial (E)-Selectin) in the colonic tissue. Results showed that both cinnarizine and sulfasalazine significantly reduced the clinical and histological injury in colon that induced by acetic acid. In addition to the down regulation of the increased colonic cytokines, MDA, MPO parameters and adhesive molecules. These results concluded that cinnarizine had an effective therapeutic role which is comparable with sulfasalazine on the experimental colitis through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions with down regulation the colonic adhesion molecule.

Using T cell lymphokines to enhance the immune response against Newcastle disease in vaccinated broiler chickens fed naturally contaminated diet with different mycotoxins

Basher H. Saud; Mushtaq T. AL-Zuhariy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 427-433
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125977.1204

The current study aimed to reduce the toxic effect of different mycotoxins and enhance the immunity against ND virus in broiler chickens by using lymphokines from hyperimmunized birds with Salmonella typhymurium. The study included three stages, the first stage included isolating Salmonella typhymurium. The second stage was immunized chicks with Salmonella typhymurium. The final stage of the study was accomplished by treating 250 broiler chicks (divided into 5 groups, 50 chicks /each) with the following treatments; G1: 0.5 ml lymphokines was injected I/P at day one old with live ND vaccine (la Sota strain) after 30 minutes in drinking water, the process repeated after 10 days; G2: the same as in G1 but inactivated killed vaccine was used s/c,no repetition was carried out at 10 days ; G3: a combination of G1 and G2 with revaccination of live La Sota vaccines only at 10 days; G4 : only vaccinated with live La Sota vaccine repeated at 10 days; G5: no treatments (negative control). All groups were challenge with local isolate of NDV (100ELD50 105) at 25 days, all groups except the fifth group were fed on contaminated diet withmycotoxin. The results of the present study showed a significant increase (P <0.05) in antibodies titre against ND in the third group, followed by the first and second groups Measured by ELISA and hemagglutination (HI) test, A significant decrease (P >0.05) in the oxidation status (H2O2, MDA and LPO) and significant increase in the antioxidant defense (GSH-PX) in the liver and spleen samples. We conclude from the current study that the Salmonella immune lymphokines (SIL) helps in enhancement the level of immunity against Newcastle disease and n reduction the side effects of which mycotoxin.

Improving light microscopic detection of collagen by trichrome stain modification

Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 273-281
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126176.1256

In present study we aimed to introduce modifications in classical protocol applied to stain collagen fibers by Masson's trichrome stain, in order to decrease time and concentration of different steps and chemical in this traditional protocol. The experiment design contains a series of successive amendment steps based on previously successful steps, in which every step where be modified to get the best result, then the next step of staining protocol will be modified in the classical Masson's trichrome staining protocol in a samples of tissue from liver, heart and intestines of sheep diagnosed with chronic fasciolosis. The result showed that the new modified protocol gives the same staining efficiency to collagen fiber when we used Harris hematoxylin as a nuclear strainer or even excluded this stain from staining protocol. In conclusion this new modified staining protocol give a perfect staining reaction to collagen fibers in pathological samples which is similar to that obtained by Masson's trichrome stain, also this new modified procedure is less time consuming and less toxic effect on human and environment than other trichrome stains, and can be easily conducted either by the technician or the pathologists.

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

The histological changes induced by Cytarabine on rabbits livers (with and without vitamin E administration)

Saif Al-Jammas; Ayad Al-Saraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 9-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163564

The present study was intended to determine the histological changes induced by Cytarabine drug on the structure of rabbit's livers and the protective effects of vitamin E on these histological changes. The treated group with daily intraperitoneal dose of (50 mg/kg body weight) of Cytarabine alone, showed a massive histological change represented by infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, epithelioid cell and Kupffer's cells in hepatic tissue. Fibrosis in portal area, congestion of blood vessels as well as hyperplasia of bile canaliculi and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes were also noticed in other sections. While the group that received protective (800 IU of vitamin E) prior to each Cytarabine injection, showed a considerable histological improvement than the group received Cytarabine alone, as the histological sections of this group showed a nearly normal histological architecture of the liver that represented by normal arrangement of hepatic cords, no fibrosis no congested blood vessels were seen. though distension of hepatic sinusoids and coagulative necrosis of some hepatocytes were still observed. The present study suggested that vitamin E is an effective chemo-protective agent against hepatotoxicity when used as a protective agent prior to Cytarabine drug taken.

Protective effect of placental mesenchymal stem cells on histological changes of pancreas experimentally induced by alloxane in mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Rasha A. Al-Sabawy; Hamad J. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163563

In an attempt to find a treatment for diabetes by Placental mesenchymal stem cells, we induced diabetes in albino mice by injected them with the diabetic agent Alloxan intra peritoneal cavity dose 70 mg / kg of body weight for the group 1 and 2, then injection of the diabetic mice with Placental mesenchymal stem cells in the peritoneal cavity for the group 2 then the glucose levels in the blood of these mice were measured by using a GLUCOTREND 2, while group 3 was control injected with normal saline only. Pancreas tissue where tested by studying histopathological effect of Alloxan, the endocrine pancreas histologically showed decreased in the size and number of Langerhans islets with vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of almost all cells in the atrophied islets. Also, there was congestion of blood vessels in the interlobular space and there was distortion of exocrine pancreas. There was vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial cells of the acini, also there was atrophy of acini which lead to edema and dilatation of interacini space. Moreover, there was thickening in the wall of blood vessels, and there was thrombus in some blood vessels. In addition to the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interlobular septa. Compared with the section of pancreas of control group showed the normal structure of islets notice the normal cells shape surrounding by exocrine pancreas. Then the pancreas studied after injection of Placental mesenchymal stem cells, while there was regeneration of islets and acini which seem to be normal comparing with control group, there was improvement of normal histological appearance of mice treated with alloxan and then injected with placental mesenchymal stem cells. The results of the diabetic mice which treated with placental mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated present of significant differences (P≤0.05). Our conclusion of this study revealed that placental mesenchymal stem cells have a protective role against the histological changes of pancreas induced by alloxan.

Investigation of urinary bladder lesions of slaughtered local bovine calves in Mosul city

Mohammed G. Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 45-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125541.1063

One hundred fifteen samples of the urinary bladder were collected randomly from slaughtered local bovine calves in Mosul city during March 2018. Gross and histopathological changes revealed in 37 samples 23.1%. Gross changes represented by congestions, petechial hemorrhage, inflammation and cystic hernia. Histopathological changes included the disturbances of cell metabolism represented by cell swelling of transitional epithelial cells and smooth muscle cell 16.2%, and coagulative necrosis of epithelium of mucosa and Zenker's necrosis of muscular layer 40.5%. cell adaptation manifested by epithelial hyperplasia 18.9% and smooth muscle fibers atrophy 8.1%. Circulatory disturbances represented by hyperemia and congestion 51.3%, petechial hemorrhage, edema and thrombi 5.4% for each. Acute cystitis showed in percentage of 18.9% while chronic cystitis was 13% and fibrosis 21.6%. Congenital deformities represented by cystic hernia 13% and bladder wall intrusion 5.4%. This study concludes the presence of different types of pathological changes in the urinary bladder of slaughtered local bovine calves in Mosul city which indicates presenting different types of causative agents and infections.

Influence of chitosan on hematological and histopathological changes in mice infected with Brucella melitensis immunized with Rev - 1 vaccine

Muna A. Al-Khafaji; Hamza H. Al-Sultany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163583

This study aimed to assess the changes of blood cells constitutions and study the histopathological sections of liver and spleen in dual sexes mice infected with brucella melitensis and the role of chitosan supplement with and without Rev-1 vaccine in enhancing the inflammatory proses, two experiments were undertaken on 100 albino mice, aged 8-10 weeks for 60 days, first experiment done on 50 males and second one done on 50 females. Results of hematological analysis showed that there are significant increase at P3), red blood cells count RBC (× 106), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular value (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocyte (LY%), granulocyte (GR) and lymphocytes m/mm3 (LYM) in males treated groups comparing with females, the highest values were in immunized infected mice with chitosan diet supplement compared to infected animals. The histopathological lesions recorded there is presence of chronic inflammatory reaction characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration with presence of granulomatous lesion in the liver of immunized animals, presence of mild to moderate lesions characterized by hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue in spleen and small granulomatous lesions in liver of immunized animals fed diet with chitosan supplement.

Histopathological effect of fluoxetine drug on the brain of pregnant mice and their embryos

Baidaa Barwarei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 71-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125467.1006

The present study was designed to identify the histopathological effect of fluoxetine (fluoxetine hydrochloride) on the pregnant mice brain and their fetuses as well as recording weight changes at doses of 60 and 80 mg/kg of body weight which were administrated to the pregnant mice from the 7th up to the 18th day of pregnancy and once a day. The results showed histopathological lesions in the adult pregnant mice brain at the dose of 60 mg/kg. induced massive necrotic area of neurons in the cerebral cortex, necrosis of the molecular layer cells while the dose of 80 mg/kg the changes include vasogenic edema in the sub cortical area, severe degeneration and necrosis of the cortex. The lesions in cerebellum were more severe than recorded in the cerebrum. The results also showed the presence of many lesions in the fetus brain at the dose 60 mg/kg and they were degeneration, necrosis of many neurons in the cerebrum while at the dose of 80 mg/kg. There were increase of degeneration and necrosis in the cortical area of fetus brain. In conclusion, the use of fluoxetine in pregnant mice caused decrease in body weight and Histopathological changes in the brain of both of the mothers and their embryos, thus the use of antidepressant by pregnant woman can be harmful for the mothers and the fetus.

Pathological study of some esophageal lesions of slaughtered sheep in Mosul abattoir

Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 145-151
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125649.1121

This study includes collection of 120 samples of sheep esophagus from slaughtered sheep in Mosul abattoir from December 2013 to March 2014 for detection of lesions and their incidence. Total 85 esophagus samples showed lesions from the total collected samples. The revealed lesions included disturbance of cell metabolism manifested by coagulative necrosis, sloughing of epithelial lining the esophagus and vacuolar degeneration at incidence rate 67.7, 23.5 and 17.6% respectively, circulatory disturbances like petechial, diffuse hemorrhage and edema were noticed at incidence rate 7.05, 4.7 and 3.5% respectively. Also results showed epithelial hyperplasia, fibroplasia and hyperkeratosis at 47, 24.7 and 31.7% of the total collected samples respectively, whereas eosinophilic inflammation of esophagus appeared at 3.5% of collected samples. Jaundice represent the disturbance in pigmentation reported at ratio of 16.4%, also additionally there was parasitic infestation represented by sarcocystosis and worm infestation which impeded in muscularis layer of esophagus at percentage ratio 50.5% and 3.5% respectively and a single case of esophageal diverticulosis was recorded at percentage ratio of 1.17%. Section that stained which Masson trichrome stain showed fibroplasia with proliferation of fibroblasts that take a bluish green color between muscle fibers.

Incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors of dogs from Baghdad city: Clinical, cytological and histopathological features

Inam J. Lafta; Huda H. Alabbody

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125624.1111

The present study was conducted to estimate the incidence, clinical findings, cytological and histopathological characteristics of spontaneously occurring skin neoplasms in dogs. A total of 40 grossly suspected cases of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors were gathered during the period from July 2016 to August 2018 from male and female dogs in Baghdad city. Dogs with skin neoplasia revealed various clinical signs, and their ages were older than 5 years to 15 years. German shepherd 30% followed by Terrier dogs 25% were more influenced than other breeds. Concerning tumor features, the majority of neoplasms had solitary lesion 70%, regular shapes 65% with black color 55%. The tumors frequently occurred on fore-limbs and abdomen, and 80% of them lasted for 1-6 months. Cytological examination was valuable for initial evaluation of benign and malignant tumors. Its results were confirmed by the histopathology, in which the majority of neoplasms sized more than 5 cm and grade I. Nine different types of skin neoplasms were recognized, while 65% of them were malignant, the others were benign. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas were the most common comprising 35% and 25%, respectively.

Experimental detection of antioxidant and atherogenic effects of grapes seeds extracts in rabbits

Shihaab Al-Bajari; Moataz Al- Akash; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 243-249
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162881

The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Grapes seeds (Vitis vinifera) aqueous, proteinous, non- proteinous and alcoholic extracts as antioxidant and antiatherogenic in rabbits after exposure to 0.5% H2O2 in drinking water for 30 days. The results illustrated capability of 0.5% H2O2 to initiate oxidative stress via significant decrease in Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxdiase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in heart and liver concomitant with significant increase in malondialhyde (MDA) in addition to decrease in high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-c) and increase low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-c) in serum of treated only with H2O2 rabbits. While rabbits treated with H2O2 associated with Grapes seeds (aqueous, proteinous, non- proteinous and alcohol) extracts for 15 days showed a significant increase of Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxdiase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration in the heart and liver tissue as well as increase HDL-c, decrease in LDL-c and VLDL-c. While, the histolopathological examination of heart and liver tissue demonstrated that H2O2 induces, degeneration, necrosis and few inflammation foci in the liver and myocardial muscle. While the administration of (Vitis vinifera) aqueous, proteinous, non-proteinous and alcoholic extracts cause improvement in the histological picture of the liver and the myocardial muscle. It was concluded that the (Grapes extracts) aqueous, proteinous, non-proteinous and especially the alcoholic extracts can reduce the damage caused by H2O2 and this will pave the way to investigate the protective effects of the natural substances in the diseases caused by oxidative stress.

Study of histopathological and biochemical effect of Punica granatum L. extract on streptozotocin -induced diabetes in rabbits

E.R. Sarhat; S. A. Wadi; B.I. Sedeeq; Th. R. Sarhat; N.A. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125523.1045

This study was undertaken to determine the antidiabetic effects of oral administration of Punica granatum L. extract on serum and tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rabbits at 100 mg/kg. The present study was carried out at the Faculty of veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University, from February to August 2017 for 10 weeks. For this purpose, 30 rabbits were randomly separated into three groups, each containing 10 animals: Group 1, healthy control rabbits; Group 2, diabetic rabbits received streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg); Group 3, diabetic rabbits treated with PS extract (the 100 mg PS+1 ml DW) for 21 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken for measuring serum biochemical parameters. For histopathological evaluation, sections of kidneys were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and 5micron thick sections with H&E stain were prepared using routine histopathological techniques. The treatment revealed that PSE extract significant decreased serum glucose throm-bospondin-1, nitric oxide, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein in diabetic treated rabbits as compared to diabetic rabbits. Histopathology of kidney showed lesions similar to human glomeruloscleroses, glomerular membrane thickening, arteriolar hyalinization and tubular necrosis. From the above one can conclude that PSE extract possess nephroprotective effect in experimentally induced diabetic rabbits.

Histological and antimicrobial effects of tramadol infiltration on incisional oral mucosal wound healing in rabbits

F.A. Al-Mashhadane; E.A. Mustafa; G.A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 335-340
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162996

The present study compared effects of tramadol with lidocaine on healing processes of incisional intraoral mucosal wounds in rabbits and to study the antimicrobial effect of tramadol. For this purpose, fifteen apparently healthy male rabbits of 5-6 months old were used. They were classified into three groups, first group treated with 0.5 ml distilled water infiltration as control (n=5), second group treated with 0.5 ml tramadol infiltration in dose of 100 mg/2 ml (n=5), and third group treated with 0.5 ml of 2% vasoconstrictor-free lidocaine infiltration, then an incision was done to the buccal mucosa of all animals and they slaughtered on day 10 and their wounds were evaluated by histopathologic for presence of edema, vascularity, and inflammatory cells. For antimicrobial effect, swabs from tramadol group were taken from sites of wounds before incision and other swabs were taken after surgical incision on the first day, third day and seventh day, then the colony forming units (CFU)/ml of microorganisms were counted. The present study found that the infiltration with tramadol in dose of 100mg/2ml result in new epithelialization and wound healing occurred faster than infiltration with lidocaine 2% group also this study found that tramadol has significant decrease in the means of colony forming units of oral microorganisms. This study demonstrated that tramadol accelerated stages of buccal wound healing faster than lidocaine in rabbits.

Fasciolosis: grading the histopathological lesions in naturally infected bovine liver in Mosul city

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hadil Basim Al-Sabaawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 379-387
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125546.1066

Fasciolosis cause economic losses in cattle that breed in Iraq and the world. About 4% of bovine liver’s samples included in the current study exhibited classical pathological lesions of fasciolosis. Samples of cattle livers infected with fasciolosis were taken for histopathology. Eighteen grading criteria with four scoring level have been chosen to grading the microscopic lesions caused by Fasciola hepatica into a mild infection (grade I), moderate infection (grade II) and severe infection (grade III). The type of hepatic degeneration or necrosis, cloudy cell swelling, coagulative necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, with patterns of infiltration, also type of infiltrated cells, fibrosis between hepatic cells or in portal area, affection to hepatic cords arrangement, hepatic sinusoids, extensions of hemorrhage, pigment deposition, hyperplasia of bile duct, thickness of hepatic capsule and presence of liver fluke were the main grading levels. In grade, I the microscopic lesions were characterized by simple or mild in their nature with very good reversible prognosis, while grade II characterized by moderate severity of the lesions with a good reversible prognosis, while grade III characterized by hostile severity with bad irreversible prognosis as a result of architecture changes in liver histology. In conclusion, we believed that this grading system could be used as a guide when examining histopathological liver's samples infected with F. hepatica to identify the stage of infection and proposed an accurate prognosis.

Ovarian lesions in non pregnant ewes in Mosul city

Maryam Hussien; karam yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163028

This study aimed detection and identification of the lesions in the ovaries of ewes and determination of their percentages in Mosul region. For that purpose, ovaries from 108 genital systems were randomly collected from non-pregnant ewes slaughtered at Mosul slaughter house and private butcheries for a period extended from 1/11/2012 to 1/5/2013. All of them were grossly and histologically examined. The result showed occurrence of ovarian cortical atrophy at 0.93% of total samples, also ovarian medullary sinusoidal congestion, ovarian cortical hemorrhage, cortical and medullary perivascular fibrosis at ratios 5.0, 1.39, 1.85, 0.46% respectively noticed. Ovarian follicular degeneration, cortical oophoritis, purulent oophoritis and ovarian cortical scarification also recorded at the ratios 1.39, 0.46, 0.46 and 1.39% respectively, both fibroma and fibrosarcoma were diagnosed at the ratio 0.46% for each. It is concluded from the present study that variable lesions were noticed at the examined samples that may reflect multiple causative agents inducing it.   

Mixed thymic tumor in a rooster: gross and histological features

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Ahmed Al-Qadhi; Radhwan Al-Ajeli; layth Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 201-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125536.1058

A 2-year-old rooster local breed suffered from anorexia, emaciation with abnormal large mass in lateral side in cervical region was attended to Veterinary Teaching Hospital belong to College of Veterinary Medicine, Mosul University. After physical examination a movable and friable mass were recognized in cervical region. The case sends for surgical intervention. Gross examination of removed mass showed a friable, pale, will capsulated with hemorrhagic areas. Microscopically, the mass included three types of tumors. Squamous cell thymic carcinoma characterized by presence of keratin pearl. Lymphoma that characterized by atypical polymorphic lymphocytes, vesicular nucleus, and pyknotic nucleoli, while cytoplasm appears eosinophilic to granular with ill- define borders. Lipoma which appear as irregular shape of adipocytes that lack their nucleus, with scattered infiltration of pyknotic lymphocytes. This is the first pathological report of mixed tumor of thymus gland in rooster that composed from squamous cell thymic carcinoma, lymphoma and lipoma.

The histological changes induced by cytarabine on rabbits kidneys (with and without vitamin E administration)

Saif Al-Jammas; ayad Al-Sarraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 311-316
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162910

The present study was designed to determine the histological changes induced by Cytarabine drug on the structure of rabbits kidneys and the protective effects of vitamin E on these histological changes. The treated group with daily intraperitoneal dose of (50 mg/kg body weight) of Cytarabine alone, showed a massive histological changes represented by renal tubular necrosis, glomerular atrophy and enlarged urinary spaces (widening of Bowman’s spaces), infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages within interstitium of the cortex, formation of hyaline cast in some of the tubular lumens as well as fibrosis and hemorrhage in the cortex were also observed. While the group that received a protective (800 IU of vitamin E) prior to each Cytarabine injection showed a significant improvement that represented by focal regions in the cortex with a normal renal tubules except for a cloudy cell swelling which is a reversible injury, also neither cortical hemorrhage nor hyaline cast formation were seen, in addition to presence of focal areas of normal glomeruli. The present study suggests that vitamin E is an effective chemo-protective agent against nephrotoxicity when used prior to each Cytarabine administration.

Prevalence and pathological evaluation of hepatic fatty change in cattle slaughtered at Urmia Abattoir, Northwest Iran

Amir Amniattalab; Behzad Ghalandarzadeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 45-50
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125518.1040

Three hundred and sixteen bovine livers were inspected during slaughtering at Urmia Abattoir in May 2016. Eighty-nine inspected livers have various gross and microscopic lesions. 89 hepatic tissue samples were processed routinely and stained by Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Periodic Acid- Schiff reagent (PAS) and Sudan IV for frozen sections. Hepatic lesions were observed in 89 samples (28.16%) of 316 liver samples. lesions in the inspected cattle were consisted 33/316 (10.44%) fatty change, 40/316 (12.65%) fascioliasis, 8/316 (2.53%) hydatid cyst, 6/316 (1.89%) focal coagulative necrosis and 2/316 (0.63%) hemorrhage. The results show that abundance of hepatic fatty change in male cattle is more than females. Indeed, abundance of mild type of hepatic fatty change 15/33 (45.45%) is more than moderate type 11/33 (33.33%) and severe type 7/33 (21.21%). According to presence of hepatic fatty change in most livers affected by fascioliasis, it seems fascioliasis may be a cause of hepatic fatty change in cattle slaughtered at Urmia Abattoir.

Effects of red reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) on the reproductive system in female and male rats

Buthina Abdulhameed Abdullah; Maad Alfahad; Dakhell Hussein Hdree

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 137-141
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125547.1067

The present study aimed to investigate the histological changes of Ganoderma lucidum (Red Reishi mushroom) on female and male reproductive system by using light microscope. Fifteen white rat weighing 200-250g was used in the experiments. The animals was divided mainly into three groups and these groups were subdivided into 3 groups for female, and 3 groups for male, that’s group represented as control group without treatment (G1). The 2nd received only 0.03 gm and vitamin C diluted with D.W. and the 3rd group received 0.03 gm of Ganoderma lucidum . The results of the present study showed that there are no side efects of Ganoderma lucidum on female and male genital system of rats (positive effects).

Incidence rate of breast cancer, clinical and ultrasound approaches to diagnosing the same in dogs

V. Salautin; V. Gorinsky; A. Molchanov; G. Demkin; N. Pudovkin; S. Salautina

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 155-159
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153843

Mammary gland tumors in dogs rank second among all newly diagnosed tumors in this species. Research goalwas to study clinical/morphological characteristics of breast cancer in dogs with the use of ultrasound investigation. 34 dogs of different breeds and age groups with spontaneously emerging neoplasms of mammary glands were chosen for the study. To classify malignant tumors, the histological classification was applied. Complete examination of breast tumors was carried out with the help of clinical observation, ultrasound, radiologic, hematological and ultrasonographic methods applied. The largest percentage (23.5%) of animals with mammary gland neoplasms are mongrel female dogs. The breed predisposition was detected in dogs of the following breeds: Miniature Schnauzer - 11.9%, Standard Dachshund - 11.9%, American Bulldog, American Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle - 8% each. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 29 animals (85.3%), 100% of those cases in the nodular form with microcalcifications in the tumor parenchyma. The horizontal orientation of growth is more often typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs I and II at the initial stage of carcinogenesis, and is characterized by an inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure with sufficiently pronounced boundaries detected during the ultrasound investigation. The vertical orientation of growth is mainly typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs III, IV and V from the very beginning of the disease. The ultrasonography usually shows: inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure containing inclusions in the form of cords or foci of a higher acoustic solidity; also clearly defined lateral acoustic shadows and dorsal echo enhancement; as well as unevenness and indistinctness of borders. The performed histological study within the current research revealed a multifocal, infiltrating epithelial neoplasm with distinct edges, surrounded by a large amount of fibrous tissue. The tumor consisted of a number of acini with a tendency of forming a network structure. The shape of cells was detected from round to irregular, the cytoplasm was found scarce, often with uneven borders, with the large central core, with chromophilic substance and 1-2 nucleoli. The cells were characterized by the pronounced anisocytosis and anisocariosis, and a great number of mitotic figures. Lymphatic invasion was observed. Ultrasound investigation of the mammary gland allows for performing percutaneous minimally invasive interventions and differential diagnostics of cystic and solid lesions of the mammary gland (96-100% accuracy), mastopathy and carcinoma conditions.

Histological and fluorescent microscope studies for evaluation carbon accumulation in trachea and bronchi of birds in polluted area in Wasit province

H. K. Karadi; A. M. Al- badri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 135-141
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153839

The aim of this study was to detect the accumulation of carbon and determination its appearance in different areas of groups of ducks. Using special dyes to detect deposits of carbon particles. Also, using AO/ EB stains to detect early and late (progress) apoptosis that occurred due to the precipitated of carbon in both areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) but late apoptosis occurred in bronchi of brick factories area more than oil field area. The histological examination of trachea showed no any indicator of accumulation of carbon in three different areas, whereas in bronchi showed the presence of carbon in polluted areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) in different amounts. 

Immunohistochemical expression levels of anterior pituitary LH, FSH and testicular testosterone of Allium sativum extract and thymoquinone in male treated rats

N.F. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153793

The present study was conducted to determine the immunohistochemical expression levels of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in the anterior pituitary gland and testicular testosterone of male rats treated with Allium sativum extract and Thymoquinone. Forty mature Waster male rats Rattus norvegicus, aged 60 days and weighed 140-150 g, were randomly divided into control and three treatment groups (10 rats each). Control group males were orally supplemented with 500 µL of normal saline daily. The treated groups of males were orally supplemented with TQ suspension, 50 mg/ kg, B.Wt (TQ group), Allium sativum aqueous extract, 50 mg/ kg bw (A group) and their combination (TQA group). At the end of experiment, all male rats were sacrificed and pituitaries and testes were dissected and fixed in neutral formalin buffer 10% for immunohistochemical examination of pituitary LH and FSH and testicular testosterone. The results demonstrated high immunohistochemical density in treated male’s pituitary tissues for both LH and FSH compared with the control group. In comparison with control, testicular tissues of treated group males showed stronger immune reaction for T especially around Lydig’s and Sertoli cells. It can be concluded that TQ and Allium sativum have potent improving effects on reproductive hormones production and could be increase the male fertility.

Vulvar and vaginal tumors in Hawshar dogs

B.T. Abbas; S.M.A. Hassan; A.K. Saeed; D.M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 67-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153800

Twelve Hawshar bitches were (3-5 years in aged) examined clinically and vulvovaginal tumor masses were diagnosed histopathologically revealed the three types of tumor which include; (three cases of vulvovaginal diffuse small cell lymphoma, six cases of vaginal transmissible venereal tumor, and three cases of leiomyoma), these masses were removed surgically with local excision with or without episiotomy and recurrence of the tumor showed in some cases after following up for different duration. In conclusion, this study revealed that the age with physical condition of the dog were played an important role in cancer occurrence, and the surgical excision was not regarded as the ideal treatment especially in malignant tumor.

Pathological study of subchronic oral toxicity induced by Di (2- ethyl hexyl) phthalate in Japanese quails

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Saeed Majed Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145567

In present study, we aimed to investigate the pathological changes induced by subchronic oral toxicity induced by sub lethal dose of Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. Forty male quails at one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group (treated group) was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP (557.41 mg/kg of body weight) for 42 days, while second group (control group) left without treatment throughout experiment period. The results of current study showed that there is congestion of kidney, microscopically they showed presence of hyaline degeneration in renal tubules, glomerulosclerosis, wide spread of degenerative and necrotic lesions in renal tubules, hemorrhage, infiltration of inflammatory cell especially macrophages and lymphocytes in interstitial tissue of kidney. While grossing of liver showed hepatomegaly with hemorrhage, microscopically the sections showed wide distributing of vacuolar degeneration (fatty change) in different size and shape of vacuoles in cytoplasm of affected hepatocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly macrophages and lymphocytes. In conclusion, the oral administration of DEHP at dose 557.41 mg/kg of body weight for 42 days induced degenerative and necrotic irreversible changes in both kidney and liver of Japanese quail that affect their health and production.

Pathological and bacteriological study of bovine renal lesions slaughtered in Mosul region

O.A. Abdullah; H.Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 51-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145565

This study was carried out on 100 Kidney Samples collected from clinically healthy cattle slaughtered at Mosul abattoir to investigate the renal lesions and to isolate the bacterial causes of these lesions. The bacterial isolation included E. Coli 32%, Corynebacterium spp 27%, Proteus spp 16%, Staphylococus spp 12%, Streptococsus spp 7% while 6% of samples showing no bacterial isolation. The most common gross lesions were seen included multifocal white spots, swallen pale kidneys, congested enlarged kidneys, hyperemic hemorrhagic kidneys. The common observation in histopathological examination reveled to multifocal infiltration of inflammatory cells (Monocytes, Macrophages and Lymphocytes), degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells lining renal tubules with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues with atrophy of glomerular tufft. Additionally cysts were observed in kidney tissues.

Comparative histopathological effects of aqueous, hexane extracts of Iraqi sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus) with atorvastatin for treating hyperlipidemia induced in mice

L.A. Kafi; N.TH.N. Al- Ezzi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126705

This research was carried out to find out the treatment impact of aqueous and hexane extracts of sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus) on some histopathological indicators of heart, aorta and liver related to hyperlipidemia that induced in mice and compare them with Atorvastatin. Sweet almond was dried and grinded by an electrical grinder to form fine crude powder that extracted by two ways: by using 95% hexane and water by using the distilled water with Soxhlet apparatus. Forty mature mice were randomly divided into 8 groups (5 mice per group) and treated every day for 60 days, the first group was fed and drank normally and regarded as a negative control group, a second group was given polypropylene glycol offered as negative control group, third group was given tap water containing 0.5% of hydrogen peroxide and 1% of cholesterol in the feed for 60 days for induction of hyperlipidemia and offered as positive control group. Hyperlipidemia was induced in the other five groups as in the third group. The treatment of hyperlipidemia was done by using hexane extract at a dose of 500 mg/ kg of body weight and aqueous extract of sweet almond with three different doses (500, 750 and 1000) mg/ kg of body weight and compared with the other group that treated with atorvastatin 20 mg/ kg B.W. as antihyperlipidemic drug. The outcomes discovered that histopathological changes of heart, aorta and liver exposed to hydrogen peroxide and cholesterol revealed congested blood vessels with inflammation relevant cells in their lumen with necrosis of hepatic cells and inflammation relevant cells collected in sinusoids and inner surfaces of the blood vessels and infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes in the liver moreover to the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the heart while in the aorta showed the vacuolation in the sub intimae and vacuolation and increase the thickness of intimate layer. Furthermore, inflammation relevant cells particularly infiltration around aorta. While therapy with almond extracts and Atorvastatin lead to valuable changes in therapy of damaging happened in the heart, aorta and liver induced with hyperlipidemia. In addition a dose of 1000 mg/kg of aqueous extracts of sweet almond was the best in treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Pathological study of liver lesions in cattle slaughtered at Kirkuk province abattoir

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; A.M. Farhan; Z.S. Daoud; O.S. Hamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 7-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126713

Current study aimed to identify the gross and microscopic lesions and their percentage in liver of cattle slaughtered in Kirkuk province abattoir. A total of 6211 liver sample were examined during period from 01/08/2016 until 01/12/2016 with total cattle liver that showed gross lesions 738 cases. A gross examination was applied to affected liver and tissue sample were taken from lesions for histopathological examination. The result of current study showed that the total liver lesions in cattle is about 11.88% (738/6211) which distributed as liver fluke infestation 3.34% (213/6211), hydatid cyst 3.12% (194/6211), liver abscess 2.29% (142/6211), cholangiohepatitis 2.01% (125/6211), and hepatic hemorrhage with congestion 1.03% (64/6211). The results of gross and microscopic examination of liver infested with liver fluke showed presence of thickening in bile ducts with adult fluke as well as liver atrophy with hyperplasia of epithelial cell in affected bile ducts with dystrophic calcification. While in case of hydatid cyst the lesions composed from presence of larval stage in form of white cyst in different size and their walls composed from hyperplasia of fibrocytes and fibrin strands. In case of hepatic hemorrhage and congestion the result showed sever congestion with staining of liver tissue by blood color, with presence of red blood cells in association with inflammatory cells between hepatocytes. While in case of hepatic abscess we noticed presence of white to yellow solid lesions that randomly distributed in different shape and size composed from necrotic center with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and hyperplasia of fibrocytes. While in case of cholangiohepatitis the affected area showed paleness with accumulation of bile material inside bile ducts, as well as hyperplasia of affected ducts and fibrosis in portal areas with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in liver tissue with dystrophic calcification in bile ducts. We concluded from current study that wide spread of hepatic lesions in liver of cattle in Kirkuk province and this result should be taken in more serious action which can result in economic losses as well as possibility of zoonosis of these pathogens to human, also the gross lesions described by current study were identically similar to microscopic lesions.

Pathological Study of Acute Oral Toxicity Induced by Plasticizer Di (2- ethyl hexyl) Phthalate in Japanese Common Quails Coturnix coturnix japanies

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; S.M. Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126714

The current study aimed to identified the pathological changes of oral toxicity induced by Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. To a chief this aim a pilot study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of DEHP. Forty male quails one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP daily for fourteen days, while second group was considered as control group and left without treatment all over the experimental time. The result of pilot study showed that the LD50 of DEHP in quails is 5574,1 mg/kg of body weight and the dose used in experiment to induced the acute oral toxicity was 557.4 mg/kg of quail's body weight. The result of gross pathological appearance of euthanized quails at fourteen days of experiment revealed presence of sever congestion in kidney lobules as well as congestion of liver with hemorrhagic ecchymotic patches while at other case the liver appear pale in color. The histopathology of kidney revealed presence of degenerative changes represented by cloudy swelling of the cell lining renal tubules lead to narrowing the lumen of affected tubules as well as interstitial edema with coagulative necrosis associated by infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as interstitial hemorrhage. The liver sections revealed presence of fatty change in hepatocytes in which the liver cell contained vacuoles of different size and shape also hepatocytes suffered from coagulative necrosis with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells as macrophages with presence of hemorrhage. We conducted from current study that the oral administration of plasticizer DEHP in fourteen days at dose of 557.4 mg/kg of quail body weight induced degenerative and coagulative necrosis in both kidney and liver tissue in Japanese common quail.

Pathological study of intrauterine infection to embryos by Encephalitozoon cuniculi spores in pregnant mice

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; H.I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121383

This study aimed to investigate pathology of oral E. cuniculi infection during pregnancy in pregnant mice and embryos. A total of 40 pregnant mice at first day of gestation were divided into two groups, first group were infected orally by E. cuniculi sores of 107 spores/ mice, second group left without any treatment. At 18th days of gestation all pregnant mice were euthanized. Gross pathology finding in pregnant mice of infected group included congestion of liver and lung, the embryos lesions consisted from enlargement of head and abdomen. Histological lesions in pregnant mice of infected group consisted of hepatic non-suppurative granulomatous lesions with E. cuniculi spores aggregation with lymphocytic infiltration, the lungs lesions consisted of infiltration of lymphocytes with E. cuniculi spores, kidney lesions composed from degenerative and necrotic changes in renal tubules, brain lesions consisted from lymphocytic infiltration with increase in number of glial cells, while intestine tissue sections showed hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue with present of parasitic vacuoles at tips of villi, the placenta exhibited E. cuniculi spores with hyperplasia of trophoblast in chorionic villi, while histological lesions in embryos showed lymphocytic infiltration around alveoli with hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue around bronchioles with absent the normal architecture of hepatic cords and vacuolation of hepatocytes with hyperplasia of lymphocytes in white pulp of spleen. This study provides insight into the pathology of E. cuniculi infection in pregnant mice and their embryos, also supports the hypothesis of intrauterine transmission of E. cuniculi infection to embryos during pregnancy period.

The first unequivocal report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116859

The aim of present study was to report spontaneous Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) infection in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (E. intestinalis) infection in cattle in Mosul city - Iraq. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 142 rabbits and 115 cattle during the period from June, 2012 to June, 2013. Thin smears were prepared from the fecal samples and stained with different fecal stains, as well as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. Infected rabbits were necropsied and pathology of the infection was described. The result showed that microsporidiosis was detected in 41 (26.9%) rabbits and in 12 (10.4%) cattle. E. cuniculi spores were identified in 31 out of the 41 rabbits (73.2%) and E. intestinalis in 7 out of the 12 cattle (58.3%). Infected rabbits showed vasculitis, granulomatous encephalitis, chronic interstitial nephritis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholangitis, vasculitis and non – suppurative pneumonia, infiltration of mononuclear cells in most layers of the intestines, and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues. E. cuniculi spores were seen in the liver, kidneys and lungs. This study considered the first one that report microsporidiosis (E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis) in Mosul city - Iraq.

Pathological changes on stomach of rats treated with a high dose of ethanol and the protective role of licorice ethanolic extract

M. D. Nasir; S. H. Matti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 105-110
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166881

This study aimed to identify the lesions resulting from administration high dose of ethanol in stomach of rats for 60 days, also to identify the protective role of the alcoholic extract of licorice to reduce effects of ethanol. This study included four groups, group one considered as control, while the second dealed with the effect of ethanol alone at a concentration 40% and a dose of 3000 mg/kg body weight orally, the third group was a protective (alcoholic licorice extract at a dose 200 mg/kg body weight orally before two hours of ethanol administration), while the fourth group using of alcoholic licorice extract alone. Results revealed significant elevation in MDA level as well as significant decrease in the GSH in all treated group. Gross pathological changes in ethanol treated group showed the presence of erosion in gastric epithelium. Histologically, it has been showed the presence of necrosis in gastric pits and glands with atrophy of some of them and infiltration of inflammatory cells and hemorrhage, while the protective group showed presence of necrosis in epithelial cells linning the gastric glands and desquemation from basement membrane at 60 day, while the histopathological changes was mild in the group given licorice ethanolic extract alone. In conclusion, inefficiency of licorice ethanolic extract in reducing the effects of high dose of ethanol on the stomach.

Correlation of malondialdehyd and glutathione levels with pathological changes of sheep liver infected with hydatid cyst

H. Kh. Ismail; E. R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 151-157
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166890

This study was conducted to resolve the hypothesis that oxidation stress has been accompanied the hydatid cyst infection. For this purpose, 50 hepatic samples of sheep origin have been inspected and results revealed for that hypothesis via the elevation of MDA and reduction in GSH levels of the germinal layers of that hydatid cyst. Furthermore, the results elucidate that oxidative stress status will appear both of the liver infested only with hydatid cyst or accompanied with other pathological lesions namely, coagulative and liquifactive necrosis, fatty changes and liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Pathological findings associated with experimental Mycobaterium bovis infection in rabbits

Khalel H. Al-Joboury

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 83-89
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37424

During the 2nd week post inoculation of thirteen rabbits with Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis lesions appeared in the lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, mediastinal and hepatic lymph nodes and in the omentum with an equal distribution in these organs. During the 4th week post inoculation, these tuberculosis lesions increased in size to become well developed granulomas with caseated centers. These granulomas persisted to the 6th, 8th and 10th weeks post inoculation and became more encapsulated later on. Three rabbits died during the 7th week post inoculation due to generalized tuberculosis.