Keywords : prevalence

Prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals: An interplay between seasonal predisposition and dietary imbalance

Khan Sharun; K. M. Manjusha; Rohit Kumar; A. M. Pawde; Yash Pal Malik; Prakash Kinjavdekar; S. K. Maiti; - Amarpal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126662.1358

The present study was aimed to record and analyze the prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals like cattle, buffalo, horse, goat, sheep, dog and cat presented at RVP-TVCC, Indian Veterinary Research Institute. A total of 777 cases were reported during the academic session starting from April 2018 to March 2019 from Bareilly and its surrounding regions. Incidence were highest among ruminants 92.92% comparing to other domestic animals 7.08%. Among the different animal species, caprine were found to be the most affected, followed by buffalo and canine. A positive correlation was noted between the occurrence of obstructive urolithiasis and the season with maximum number of cases being reported during the winter season December - February. The female to male ratios in urolithiasis affected animals were 1:81, 1:75 and 1:22 for buffalo, goat, and dog, respectively indicating higher occurrence in male animals. Majority of the goat 67.89% and buffalo 84.80% presented with obstructive urolithiasis were also found to be fed exclusively with a grain rich diet that are excess in phosphorous thereby contributing to urolith formation. The role played by behavioral changes associated with different seasons and the dietary status of the animal plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. Such an interplay between the season and the dietary imbalance will lead to higher incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals.

Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Prevalence and some risk factors of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma in Nineveh province - Iraq

Salam Abd Esmaeel; Basima albadrani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 427-431
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163170

The objective of current study was to determine the prevalence of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma in cattle using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Nineveh province/ Iraq, to investigate some of the epidemiological risk factors associated with occurrence of the disease. From September 2017 - September 2018, four hundred blood samples were obtained from cattle both sexes, different ages, origin, different management systems and from different regions in Nineveh province, ten milliliter blood were collected from the jugular vein for PCR test, whatever epidemiological data were collected through interview with the farms owners. The results of this study appear that the prevalence of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma was 75%. The risk factors associated with increased prevalence of disease include age, increased prevalence was at >3 years, females, imported animals, indoor animals which were 86.8, 80, 91.7, 77.5% respectively. The significantly increased prevalence of the disease 93.7% in the western regions of Nineveh province. In spring and summer months a significantly increased prevalence of disease which were 79.6 and 78.95 respectively. In conclusions, this study detected that bovine heamotropic mycoplasma was widely distributed in Nineveh province associated with several risk factors.

Prevalence of Parascaris equorum in native horses in West Bank Palestine

R. Othman; I. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 433-436
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163192

A total number of 435 fecal samples from native horses, aged between 6 months to 10 years of both sexes, were collected from eight cities at West Bank, Palestine during January 2015 to January 2017. The Mc Master egg counting and sedimentation methods were used for the detection of Parascaris equorum eggs in the collected samples. The overall prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum was found to be 15.6% (68 out of 435), and this rate varied significantly depending on the city. The highest prevalence rate was in Jericho 41.1% followed by Hebron 26.3%, Jenin 19.4%, Qalqilya 19.4%, Tulkarm 12.2%, Nablus 11.8% and Ramallah 5.3%. The results revealed also that there was no significant difference in the prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum between male 15% and female 16.5% as well as between young 17.6% and adult 10.9% horses.

Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in Baghdad province, Iraq

H.H. Alseady; M.H. Kawan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 389-394
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163084

The objective of this study was to record the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium and to determine the Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in different parts of Baghdad province. A total number of 100 fecal samples from different age groups were collected. Conventional method using modified Ziehl-Neelsen for staining fecal smears and molecular techniques for detection the prevalence and determines the species of Cryptosporidium that cause infection. The overall prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium was 21% (21/100) by conventional method; nested PCR was done that targeting 18S rRNA gene on the same samples in which Cryptosporidium DNA identified in 38 samples (38%). Four species of Cryptosporidium in cattle were detected for the first time in Baghdad province: C. parvum (6/10), C. andersoni (2/10), C. bovis (1/10) and C. ryanae (1/10). The determination and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle was very important to avoid the infection to other animals and handlers and for applying control programs.

Incidence rate of breast cancer, clinical and ultrasound approaches to diagnosing the same in dogs

V. Salautin; V. Gorinsky; A. Molchanov; G. Demkin; N. Pudovkin; S. Salautina

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 155-159
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153843

Mammary gland tumors in dogs rank second among all newly diagnosed tumors in this species. Research goalwas to study clinical/morphological characteristics of breast cancer in dogs with the use of ultrasound investigation. 34 dogs of different breeds and age groups with spontaneously emerging neoplasms of mammary glands were chosen for the study. To classify malignant tumors, the histological classification was applied. Complete examination of breast tumors was carried out with the help of clinical observation, ultrasound, radiologic, hematological and ultrasonographic methods applied. The largest percentage (23.5%) of animals with mammary gland neoplasms are mongrel female dogs. The breed predisposition was detected in dogs of the following breeds: Miniature Schnauzer - 11.9%, Standard Dachshund - 11.9%, American Bulldog, American Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle - 8% each. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 29 animals (85.3%), 100% of those cases in the nodular form with microcalcifications in the tumor parenchyma. The horizontal orientation of growth is more often typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs I and II at the initial stage of carcinogenesis, and is characterized by an inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure with sufficiently pronounced boundaries detected during the ultrasound investigation. The vertical orientation of growth is mainly typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs III, IV and V from the very beginning of the disease. The ultrasonography usually shows: inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure containing inclusions in the form of cords or foci of a higher acoustic solidity; also clearly defined lateral acoustic shadows and dorsal echo enhancement; as well as unevenness and indistinctness of borders. The performed histological study within the current research revealed a multifocal, infiltrating epithelial neoplasm with distinct edges, surrounded by a large amount of fibrous tissue. The tumor consisted of a number of acini with a tendency of forming a network structure. The shape of cells was detected from round to irregular, the cytoplasm was found scarce, often with uneven borders, with the large central core, with chromophilic substance and 1-2 nucleoli. The cells were characterized by the pronounced anisocytosis and anisocariosis, and a great number of mitotic figures. Lymphatic invasion was observed. Ultrasound investigation of the mammary gland allows for performing percutaneous minimally invasive interventions and differential diagnostics of cystic and solid lesions of the mammary gland (96-100% accuracy), mastopathy and carcinoma conditions.

Use molecular techniques as an alternative tool for diagnosis and characterization of Theileria equi

M.A. El-Seify; N.M. Helmy; N.M. Elhawary; Sh.S. Sorour; A.M. Soliman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 5-11
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153787

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical, subclinical and chronic infection with the equine parasite T. equi in some Egyptian localities (Cairo and Giza governorates). A panel of 396 equine blood samples representing 141 horses, 250 donkeys and 5 mules was collected from equines during the period from April 2015 to March 2016 using microscopic examination and conventional PCR. Microscopically a twenty two (5.56%) of 396 were positive for T. equi merozoites that appeared as small rounded, pyriform shaped and maltase cross shaped merozoites. Among 8/141(5.67%) horses and 14/250 (5.60%) donkeys were found to have positive for T.equi. A one hundred blood samples (45 horses, 50 donkeys and 5 mules) selected randomly were also examined by PCR. The results of PCR showed 30/100(11/45 (24.4%) horses, 18/50 (36%) donkeys and 1/5 (20%) mule) were positive for T.equi. When the sequenced PCR amplicons (n=3) were aligned to the reference nucleotide sequences of T. equi accessed in Genbank, the horse isolate showed insertion of Thymine (T) base at position 23 and substitution of Thymine (T) base with Cytosine (C) base at position 91, while the donkey and mule isolates have no alterations when compared to the reference sequences. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequenced PCR isolates belonged to T. equi. The obtained sequences were deposited in the GeneBank database under accession numbers MF192854, MF192855 and MF192856.