Keywords : Prevalence

Prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species in Indonesia: A review

Saifur Rehman; Fedik Abdul Rantam; Khadija Batool; A. Rahman; Mustofa Helmi Effendi; Muhammad Ilyas Khan; Bilal -

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 709-718
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131590.1976

Avian influenza, commonly called bird flu, is highly contagious and pandemic zoonosis of global importance, primarily affecting birds and other mammals, including humans. The present review is intended to highlight a report on the prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species of Indonesia.The study is based on 27 scientific articles from 2004 to May 2021 in which the prevalence of avian influenza is determined mainly by the following molecular, virological, and serological tests: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ®Rapid antigen detection test. A vast divergence in the prevalence of avian influenza was observed due to the diversity in sensitivity and specificity of the tests applied. The prevalence of avian influenza varies due to spatial and temporal factors, bird species, and breed differences. An average maximum prevalence (25%)) was found in poultry (domestic and commercial birds) as compared to ducks (20.13%) and other birds (10.66%). An average documented prevalence (16.3%) was found in humans. Birds sold in live bird markets showed maximum prevalence due to different geographical distribution. The already published studies dissection illustrates that avian influenza infects all types of birds and humans in Indonesia. A proper surveillance system, effective vaccination plan, and segregation and culling strategy regarding avian influenza-infected birds are desperately needed to eradicate avian influenza in Indonesia.

Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and some risk factors in cross breed and imported breed dairy cows in Mosul, Iraq

Mohsin H. Ali; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 273-277
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129949.1707

Although ongoing control strategies are attempting to minimize certain metabolic disorders such as hyperketonemia, factors such as genetics, management, environment, and geography still present a potential challenge to the achievement of the desired results. In light of this, this study was conducted (i) to determine the prevalence of subclinical and clinical ketosis based on the concentration of ketone bodies (BHB) using ELISA Kit, and (ii) to examine a number of epidemiological risk factors related to the conditions. From October, 2020 to the January, 2021. A 80 blood samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey in different areas of Mosul. Data included age, management systems, parity, and origin. At the cut-off point ≥1.2-≤ 1.4 mmol / L, the prevalence of subclinical ketosis was 27.5% and for clinical ketosis it was 5%. Results revealed that the animals aged > 3 years were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to animals aged ≤ 3 years RR = 2.6471. Multiparous animals were more at risk compared to the primiparous (two or less births) RR = 2.0652. No significant difference between the animals’ origins RR = 0.6863. Indoor and outdoor system animals were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to the indoor system only RR = 2.1389. In conclusion, hyperketonemia is prevalent in Mosul. Certain risk factors should be taking into account when planning control programs. Attention should be paid to diagnosis, management, and control of this disease during the risk stage to avert economic loss to the dairy farmers.

Detection of endoparasites in mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in north Sumatra province, Indonesia

Eri Yusni; Agung Batubara; Cahya Frantika

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 519-524
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130703.1867

The purpose of this study was to determine the species and the prevalence value of endoparasites that infect male and female mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in Tanjung Balai Port, North Sumatra Province. This research was conducted from August to September 2020. Research on endoparasite identification was carried out at the Laboratory of the Technical Implementation Unit for the Implementation of Fishery Product Quality (UPT PMHP), Medan. The method used in this study is a survey method with direct collection at the research location. The sample was taken using random sampling techniques. Endoparasite research was conducted on 30 fish samples, divided into 15 samples of male mackerel tuna with an average size of 26.92 cm and an average weight of 258.451 g, and 15 samples of female mackerel tuna with an average size of 29.50 cm and an average weight of 352.249 g. Four genera of endoparasites were found that infect male and female mackerel tuna, namely Rhadinorhynchus sp., Echinorhynchus sp., Acanthocephalus sp., and Neoechinorhynchus sp. with the highest prevalence value, namely the type of Rhadinorhynchus sp. 6.66% in the stomach and 76.66% in the intestine, the type of Echinorhynchus sp. 3.33% in the stomach and 33.33% in the intestine, as well as Acanthocephalus sp 26.66% and Neoechinorhynchus sp 13.33% only in the intestine.

An epidemiological and therapeutic study of Sarcoptes scabiei parasite in cows of Anbar province, Iraq

Suad Sh. Shahatha; Inaam M. Ayyed; Mohammed O. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 103-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129420.1646

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in cows in Anbar province, Iraq. The parasite was diagnosed in the laboratory via examining skin scrapings taken from the suspected cows. The results indicated that the infection rate in cows with S. scabiei reached 37.5%, the animals of 3 months - Hammada articulate had a great effect on the parasite, however, the concentration 10 mg/ml leads to the complete disappearance of all parasites and the cure of the infected cows on the 14th day of treatment, which is equal to the drug Abamectin in its effect on the parasites. The current study concluded that cows in the study areas were infected with scabies mites at a high rate, and this calls for finding safe treatment methods by using medicinal herbs and plants because they contain many active compounds that affect the parasite and lead to its mortality, and they are safe strategic alternatives to harmful chemical drugs. This necessitates the establishment of an integrated control approach through treatment with effective plant extracts and to maintain the cleanliness of the animal environment.

Phynotypic and genotypic identification of Eimeria species in backyard chicken in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Adnan M. Ahmed; Haitham S. AlBakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 41-46
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130487.1834

Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by a parasite of the genus Eimeria. This parasite mainly affects poultry species and causes great economic losses in the poultry industry. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coccidiosis in the local breed of domestic chicken in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. 450 faecal swabs and intestinal samples (intestinal scraping) were collected from different local breeds of home-bred chickens from October 2020 to the end of March 2021. All fecal samples were examined using the flotation method by using sugar solution, and Eimeria was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction method. Fecal examination results showed that 32.6% of the total samples were positive for Eimeria oocysts, classified into six species including E. brunetti, E. mitis.E. maxima E. acervulina E. necatrix, E. tenella with infection rates are 57.5, 44.2, 42.1, 26.5, 20.4, 16.3%, respectively. The phenotypic results were genetically confirmed by the result of the reaction of 455 base pairs. The prevalence of coccidiosis was highest in chickens less than three months of age 49.2% and lowest in chickens older than 6 months 23.9%

A study of the incidence of Lucilia sericata fly in ovine in Mosul city

Nadia S. Alhayali; Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 739-743
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128276.1566

The objective of the current study is to examine the incidence of Lucilia sericata larvae in the sheep in Mosul city, Iraq. From a total of 670 sheep examined, 92 sheep of them 13.7% were infested with Lucilia sericata larvae. For the 516 larvae found in the sheep, 146 (28.3%) was detected to be of the first instars larva, 120 (23.3%) was second in stars larva and 250 (48.4) as third instars larva. As the average number of larvae in the infested animals was 5.6. The infestation percentage in males was higher 26.3% compared to the females 4.2%, where there is no significant difference reported concerning with the age. The prevalence of Lucilia sericata larvae was 8.4% in spring, 38.9 % in summer, 2.4% in autumn and 1.5% in winter. The difference in terms of seasons were statistically significant. Sheep in the rural areas had higher infestation rate in comparison to the sheep in urban area. Most lesions occurred in the breech region, flank, leg and inter digital space of a foot. The percentage of adult flies that merged was 73.3% and the pupariation period was 12 to 20 hours, while the incubation and moulting periods were 7 to 10 days. All flies were similar in the external appearance and belonging to Lucilia sericata causing strike disease in sheep.

Prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals: An interplay between seasonal predisposition and dietary imbalance

Khan Sharun; K. M. Manjusha; Rohit Kumar; A. M. Pawde; Yash Pal Malik; Prakash Kinjavdekar; S. K. Maiti; - Amarpal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 227-232
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126662.1358

The present study was aimed to record and analyze the prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals like cattle, buffalo, horse, goat, sheep, dog and cat presented at RVP-TVCC, Indian Veterinary Research Institute. A total of 777 cases were reported during the academic session starting from April 2018 to March 2019 from Bareilly and its surrounding regions. Incidence were highest among ruminants 92.92% comparing to other domestic animals 7.08%. Among the different animal species, caprine were found to be the most affected, followed by buffalo and canine. A positive correlation was noted between the occurrence of obstructive urolithiasis and the season with maximum number of cases being reported during the winter season December - February. The female to male ratios in urolithiasis affected animals were 1:81, 1:75 and 1:22 for buffalo, goat, and dog, respectively indicating higher occurrence in male animals. Majority of the goat 67.89% and buffalo 84.80% presented with obstructive urolithiasis were also found to be fed exclusively with a grain rich diet that are excess in phosphorous thereby contributing to urolith formation. The role played by behavioral changes associated with different seasons and the dietary status of the animal plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. Such an interplay between the season and the dietary imbalance will lead to higher incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals.

Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 257-262
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in Baghdad province, Iraq

H.H. Alseady; M.H. Kawan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 389-394
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163084

The objective of this study was to record the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium and to determine the Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in different parts of Baghdad province. A total number of 100 fecal samples from different age groups were collected. Conventional method using modified Ziehl-Neelsen for staining fecal smears and molecular techniques for detection the prevalence and determines the species of Cryptosporidium that cause infection. The overall prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium was 21% (21/100) by conventional method; nested PCR was done that targeting 18S rRNA gene on the same samples in which Cryptosporidium DNA identified in 38 samples (38%). Four species of Cryptosporidium in cattle were detected for the first time in Baghdad province: C. parvum (6/10), C. andersoni (2/10), C. bovis (1/10) and C. ryanae (1/10). The determination and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle was very important to avoid the infection to other animals and handlers and for applying control programs.

Prevalence of Parascaris equorum in native horses in West Bank Palestine

R. Othman; I. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 433-436
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163192

A total number of 435 fecal samples from native horses, aged between 6 months to 10 years of both sexes, were collected from eight cities at West Bank, Palestine during January 2015 to January 2017. The Mc Master egg counting and sedimentation methods were used for the detection of Parascaris equorum eggs in the collected samples. The overall prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum was found to be 15.6% (68 out of 435), and this rate varied significantly depending on the city. The highest prevalence rate was in Jericho 41.1% followed by Hebron 26.3%, Jenin 19.4%, Qalqilya 19.4%, Tulkarm 12.2%, Nablus 11.8% and Ramallah 5.3%. The results revealed also that there was no significant difference in the prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum between male 15% and female 16.5% as well as between young 17.6% and adult 10.9% horses.

Prevalence and some risk factors of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma in Nineveh province - Iraq

Salam Abd Esmaeel; Basima albadrani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 427-431
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163170

The objective of current study was to determine the prevalence of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma in cattle using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Nineveh province/ Iraq, to investigate some of the epidemiological risk factors associated with occurrence of the disease. From September 2017 - September 2018, four hundred blood samples were obtained from cattle both sexes, different ages, origin, different management systems and from different regions in Nineveh province, ten milliliter blood were collected from the jugular vein for PCR test, whatever epidemiological data were collected through interview with the farms owners. The results of this study appear that the prevalence of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma was 75%. The risk factors associated with increased prevalence of disease include age, increased prevalence was at >3 years, females, imported animals, indoor animals which were 86.8, 80, 91.7, 77.5% respectively. The significantly increased prevalence of the disease 93.7% in the western regions of Nineveh province. In spring and summer months a significantly increased prevalence of disease which were 79.6 and 78.95 respectively. In conclusions, this study detected that bovine heamotropic mycoplasma was widely distributed in Nineveh province associated with several risk factors.

Incidence rate of breast cancer, clinical and ultrasound approaches to diagnosing the same in dogs

V. Salautin; V. Gorinsky; A. Molchanov; G. Demkin; N. Pudovkin; S. Salautina

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 155-159
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153843

Mammary gland tumors in dogs rank second among all newly diagnosed tumors in this species. Research goalwas to study clinical/morphological characteristics of breast cancer in dogs with the use of ultrasound investigation. 34 dogs of different breeds and age groups with spontaneously emerging neoplasms of mammary glands were chosen for the study. To classify malignant tumors, the histological classification was applied. Complete examination of breast tumors was carried out with the help of clinical observation, ultrasound, radiologic, hematological and ultrasonographic methods applied. The largest percentage (23.5%) of animals with mammary gland neoplasms are mongrel female dogs. The breed predisposition was detected in dogs of the following breeds: Miniature Schnauzer - 11.9%, Standard Dachshund - 11.9%, American Bulldog, American Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle - 8% each. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 29 animals (85.3%), 100% of those cases in the nodular form with microcalcifications in the tumor parenchyma. The horizontal orientation of growth is more often typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs I and II at the initial stage of carcinogenesis, and is characterized by an inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure with sufficiently pronounced boundaries detected during the ultrasound investigation. The vertical orientation of growth is mainly typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs III, IV and V from the very beginning of the disease. The ultrasonography usually shows: inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure containing inclusions in the form of cords or foci of a higher acoustic solidity; also clearly defined lateral acoustic shadows and dorsal echo enhancement; as well as unevenness and indistinctness of borders. The performed histological study within the current research revealed a multifocal, infiltrating epithelial neoplasm with distinct edges, surrounded by a large amount of fibrous tissue. The tumor consisted of a number of acini with a tendency of forming a network structure. The shape of cells was detected from round to irregular, the cytoplasm was found scarce, often with uneven borders, with the large central core, with chromophilic substance and 1-2 nucleoli. The cells were characterized by the pronounced anisocytosis and anisocariosis, and a great number of mitotic figures. Lymphatic invasion was observed. Ultrasound investigation of the mammary gland allows for performing percutaneous minimally invasive interventions and differential diagnostics of cystic and solid lesions of the mammary gland (96-100% accuracy), mastopathy and carcinoma conditions.

Use molecular techniques as an alternative tool for diagnosis and characterization of Theileria equi

M.A. El-Seify; N.M. Helmy; N.M. Elhawary; Sh.S. Sorour; A.M. Soliman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 5-11
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153787

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical, subclinical and chronic infection with the equine parasite T. equi in some Egyptian localities (Cairo and Giza governorates). A panel of 396 equine blood samples representing 141 horses, 250 donkeys and 5 mules was collected from equines during the period from April 2015 to March 2016 using microscopic examination and conventional PCR. Microscopically a twenty two (5.56%) of 396 were positive for T. equi merozoites that appeared as small rounded, pyriform shaped and maltase cross shaped merozoites. Among 8/141(5.67%) horses and 14/250 (5.60%) donkeys were found to have positive for T.equi. A one hundred blood samples (45 horses, 50 donkeys and 5 mules) selected randomly were also examined by PCR. The results of PCR showed 30/100(11/45 (24.4%) horses, 18/50 (36%) donkeys and 1/5 (20%) mule) were positive for T.equi. When the sequenced PCR amplicons (n=3) were aligned to the reference nucleotide sequences of T. equi accessed in Genbank, the horse isolate showed insertion of Thymine (T) base at position 23 and substitution of Thymine (T) base with Cytosine (C) base at position 91, while the donkey and mule isolates have no alterations when compared to the reference sequences. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequenced PCR isolates belonged to T. equi. The obtained sequences were deposited in the GeneBank database under accession numbers MF192854, MF192855 and MF192856.

Prevalence and pathological study of schistosomiasis in sheep in Akra/Dohuk province, northern Iraq

I.K. Zangana; K.J. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 125-130
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168750

The occurrence of Schistosomiasis was detected by fecal examination (Formalin- ether centrifugalsedimentation technique) and abattoir Survey during a period from October 2006 to March 2007,andhistopathological study. Schistosomabovis was identified with prevalence rate 11.37% by fecal examination where as 1.6% by abattoir survey. Diseased animals exhibited acute clinical signs, which included emaciation, sunken eye, pale mucus membrane and diarrhea. The Infections was more prevalent in age 1-3 years 15.9%. The histopathological findings reveal characteristic lesions in blood vessels and some tissues including thrombosis in veinuoles and mesenteric vein and minute granuloma around the eggs in portal area and fatty necrosis in the liver, cystic structure of some mucosal glandsof the intestine containing eggs, with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in different tissues.

Prevalence of helminthes, pneumonia and hepatitis in Kirkuk slaughter house, Kirkuk, Iraq

M.A. Kadir; N.H. Ali; R.G.M. Ridha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 83-88
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168743

The study was carried out in Kirkuk official slaughter house for the period from the beginning of July 2009 to end of June 2010. Macroscopic examination was performed to demonstrate the distribution of hydatid cyst, fascioliasis, lung worms, pneumonia and hepatitis and their impact on economic losses in the governorate. The number of animals slaughtered during the period of study was: sheep 50518, cattle 16177, goats 7662, buffalos 48 and camels 24. In sheep, the rate of hydatid cysts was 0.77%, with the highest rate was in autumn; liver flukes 0.36% with the highest rate in summer 0.33%; lung worms 0.19%, the highest was in winter 0.27%; pneumonia 0.58%, the highest was in summer 0.74% and hepatitis was 0.32%, the highest was in winter 0.42%. In cattle, the rate of hydatid cysts was 1.70%, the highest was in summer1.65%; liver fluke 1.27%, the highest was in winter 1.57%; lung worms 0.71%, the highest was in spring 0.94%; pneumonia 0.79%, the highest was in summer 0.88% and hepatitis 1.12%, the highest was in summer 1.16%. In goats, no hydatid cysts were seen; the rate of liver fluke was 0.14%, with the highest rate was in winter 0.51%; lung worms was 0.03% and only seen in winter and autumn; pneumonia 0.14%, the highest was in summer 0.25%; hepatitis 0.05% and only seen in summer and autumn. In buffaloes and camels, only 1 case of fascioliasis was seen for each in spring. The economic losses due to condemnation of organs of infected animals in Iraqi diners was: Sheep 4.840.00 millions, cattle 5.434.000 millions and goats 156.000 thousands. The overall economic losses were 10.430.000 Iraqi diners.