Keywords : Toxicity

Morphohistopathological alteration in the gills and central nervous system in Cyprinus carpio exposed to lethal concentration of copper sulfate

Adeeb F. Saied; Shahbaa K. Al-Taee; Nidhal T. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 981-989
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132781.2131

Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) is the most used in aquaculture as chemotherapeutic bath against bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases but it is very toxic for fish so the goal of this study was to determine the lethal concentration of CuSO4 and evaluate it is toxicity in the gill and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) in Cyprinus carpio. Fish exposed to 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L for 24 hours, each concentration with three replication each have six fish. The mortality rate was 100% at concentration 10 mg/L, which represented lethal concentration, while medium lethal concentration (LC50) was determined by Trevan method and it is 5mg/L. The fish with LC100 concentration exhibit abnormal respiration with gasping swimming, nervous sings with up down and stay at basin then die at 2-3 hours. The histopathological examination of the gills revealed circulatory disturbances, cellularity reaction, progressive and regressive alteration, this microscopic alteration was evaluated as semi-quantities analysis and there was variable significant (P≤0.05) in the pathological alteration and gill indexes between two treatments. In the brain and spinal cord, the lesions are represented by vasogenic edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells with atrophy in the neuronal body cells and hemorrhage. It is concluded from this study that the use of copper sulfate is within limited concentrations because increasing its concentration leads to fish toxicity, and it was observed that the gill tissue is more sensitive to toxicity than the central nervous system

Acute toxicity events of ivermectin in chicks’ model

Tamara K. Al-Najmawi; Muna H. Al-Zubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1119-1124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133188.2188

Ivermectin is a very safe drug; however, there are many studies on its toxic effects in different animals due to sensitivity, misuse, or accidental overdose. This study aimed to further characterize the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin in chicks and identify possible therapeutic strategies for use in cases of ivermectin toxicity. The LD₅₀ of ivermectin was determined by the Dixon method. The acute toxicity signs of ivermectin were induced at doses of 131.5,2629 and 394.5 mg/kg orally. The therapeutic effect of flumazenil on ivermectin poisoning was also studied. Administration of repeated doses of ivermectin for five consecutive days was recorded to measure the neurobehavioral within the open field and tonic immobility test. The oral LD₅₀ of ivermectin was 525.9mg/kg. The acute signs of poisoning on ivermectin-treated chicks were lethargy, ataxia, tremor, diarrhea, recumbency, and death. Flumazenil at a dose of 0.1mg/kg significantly reduced the toxicity signs induced by the ivermectin in chicks, especially tremor and ataxia, and prevented death. The administration of ivermectin at 26.3, 52.6, and 105.2 mg/kg doses led to a significant decrease in motor activity through a significant increase in the time of starting the movement and a decrease in the number of cross lines. We concluded that ivermectin has a neurotoxic effect in chicks when used in high doses; the results also indicate a potential clinical application of flumazenil for treatment side effects and toxicity of ivermectin, as well as ivermectin, has depressant effect in chicks represented by open-field activity.

Effect of boric acid on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabbasi; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 123-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129497.1653

The aim of this study to explore the therapeutic effect of boric acid on the neurobehavioral (motor activity) level, and histopathologic changes in the brain, liver and kidneys against fluorosis. In this study rose chicks have been used and determined medium lethal sodium fluoride dose at 346.5 mg/kg orally. The chicks divided into four random groups each one consists of 10 chicks. The first group considered to be a control group, the second received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride, the third group received 10 mg/kg of boric acid and the fourth received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride and boric acid at the same previous dosages. After two weeks of daily treatment, neurobehavioral measures were taken, the use of boric acid has a major effect to improve the neurobehavioral measurement and develop complications of ALT, AST, creatinine, Ca, MDA. The results indicate that boric acid may be a therapeutic agent against the fluoride toxicity of the brain, liver and kidney. This result support by histopathological changes which represented by inflammation, congestion of portal vein and dilation of sinusoids in the liver and vacuolation, vasogenic edema and gliosis in the brain and Kidney of showed segmentation of glomeruli, dilation of Bowman’s space, necrosis of epithelial cells renal tubules and hemorrhage of NaF group, while the liver of the NaF with boric acid group showed an improvement the results of histopathological examination of the liver, brain and kidneys compared to the NaF group alone. The results revealed that boric acid has a preventing effects against fluoride after two weeks of treatment with boric acid.