Keywords : Camels

Microscopic and molecular detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in female camel from Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Ghaidaa A. Jasim; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Zainab H. Chaid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133428.2226

This study identified the etiological pathogens responsible or protozoal-like disease conditions in female camels from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. For this reason, 125 female camels (one blood sample per animal) that showed signs of weakness and pale mucus membranes were considered for the study. The samples of stained blood smears were explored microscopically and via a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that the targeted glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSII) gene for identifying Babesia bovis and 18S rRNA gene for detecting B. bigemina. The results of the microscopic technique uncovered the occurrence of Babesia spp. in 76 (60.8%) of the examined samples, which encourage the use of PCR to identify the protozoal species. The PCR findings demonstrated that B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 8 (8.9%) and 11 (12.22%), respectively, of the positive microscopic samples. The study findings reveal that weakness and paleness of mucus membranes in camel females can be attributed to the presence of infections by blood protozoa, mainly Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina.

Clinical and molecular detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in the Iraqi camels

Mohammad H. Al-Hasnawy; Hamed A. Al-Jabory; Lina S. Waheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 923-930
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132573.2106

Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the most frequent zoonotic species of mites causing mange in camels worldwide. The prevalence of camel’s mange in Iraq is still little studied. Thus, this research is conducted to detect S. scabieiin camels in the four provinces of the Middle-Euphrates area: Al-Muthanna, Al-Diwaniyah, Najaf, and Babil, from January 2020 to December 2020. The Molecular technique depending on the conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) is performed for the direct detection of S. scabiei based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene from skin scrape lesion samples. The results reveal that 125 out of 425 samples (29.41%) of the examined camels are infested with S. scabiei. According to the sex of the infested animals, the infestation rate was higher in females than in males, 85 (30.91 %) and 40 (26.67%) respectively. In addition, the 1.5 year age shows the highest number of infestation (83 out of 85) with a percentage of 97.65%, but the percentages are 21 out of 60 (35%) and four out 68 (5.88%) in 2 and 7 years old animals, respectively. The results also record that infested animals found in Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah have the highest number of infestations, with of 36% and 35%, respectively. The findings also demonstrate that the highest infestation percentage is during the winter months (January and February), with of 92.31% and 80%, respectively. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis shows that the local isolates of the Iraqi camels are consistent with the isolates recorded in China.

Investigation of the principal vectors of abortive diseases in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius)

El Aid Kaaboub; Nassim Ouchene; Nadjet A. Ouchene; Ali Dahmani; Imene Ouchtati; Asma Haif; Djamel Khelef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 411-415
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126914.1415

One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) are important source of meat, milk and leather production for humans in southern Algeria. Camel livestock farming is confronted with several obstacles, including abortive diseases which can be transmitted mainly by ticks. The study was carried out in Ouargla region, South Algeria, between January and December 2017. The objective of this study was to identify ticks in camels and to study the relationship between camel abortion rate and the presence of different species of ticks. A total of 350 camels (including 171 males and 179 females) was used in this study. Ticks were searched on the entire camel body (head, neck, hump, abdomen, forelegs, back legs, and tail area). Results showed that 215/350 (61.4%) camels were infested by ticks including 137/171 (80.1%) and 78/179 (43.6%) males and females, respectively. A total of 46/179 (25.7%) camel females had aborted and all these were revealed infested by ticks. A total of 298 ticks was collected including the following species Hyalomma dromedarii (90.9%), Hyalomma impeltatum (5.37%) and for the first time in Algeria, Amblyomma variegatum (2.35%) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.34%). H. dromedarii was the most frequent (p<0.001). The study showed that the dromedary was highly infested by ticks. The presence of ticks in all aborted female camels certainly indicates their important role in one-humped camel abortions in Algeria. The identification of tick-borne abortive agents in camels is important in order to establish an effective abortion control plan.