Keywords : Infertility

Review of diagnostic procedures and control of some viral diseases causing abortion and infertility in small ruminants in Egypt

Mohamed A. Mahmoud; Alaa A. Ghazy; Raafat M. Shaapan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 513-521
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127114.1461

Sheep and goats represent an essential source of meat, milk and wool production. Infectious viral diseases of small ruminants hinder the expected benefits from these animals. The aim of the present review was to shed light on diagnostic procedures and monitoring of some important infectious viral diseases that affect small ruminants. Border disease (BDV) is caused by Pestiviruses. The affected herds are usually expressed high rates of infertility and production of underweighted-lambs. Affected lambs usually die within days after lambing. A commercial killed whole virus vaccine was produced for BDV. Louping ill (LI) is caused by the Louping ill virus, which is transmitted by Ixods ricinus ticks. The LI virus typically causes fever, anorexia and encephalomyelitis. Death could occur 1-3 days after the beginning of signs. The available Louping ill vaccine is composed of inactivated killed virus. Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) is a tick-born infectious disease caused by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, characterized clinically by fever, abortion hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and high mortality. Inactivated killed oil adjuvant virus vaccines are available for the control of Nairobi sheep disease. Akabane disease (AKAV) is a Culicoides borne viral disease belongs to orthobunyavirus that has a teratogenic effect on the fetus of cattle and small ruminants. A live attenuated virus vaccine and inactivated virus are commonly used. This review concluded that the modern diagnostic tools are urgently needed not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring viral disease control and control programs.