Keywords : Mosul

Histopathological and histochemical study of mastitis in sheep

Asseel M. Rahawi; Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 719-723
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131595.1978

Ovine mastitis is considered one of the problems that cause economic losses through its impact on milk production, which is unfit for human consumption. The current study aimed to shed light on mastitis in sheep in different areas of Mosul city. The results of the recent study showed the presence of mammary macroscopic and microscopic changes. Macroscopic changes were represented by the large size of the udder and changes in the color and texture, as well as clarity of sloughing and desquamation of the skin with clear exudation, especially in advanced cases. On the other hand, other samples showed the presence of hard nodules on the udders. In contrast, the histological changes represented by degenerative and necrotic changes 3.5%, and 21.4% of the sample appeared to suffer from liquefactive necrosis and abscesses infiltrated with inflammatory cells, 25% of the samples infected with granulomatous mastitis (nodular mastitis), other models showed that the udder infected with atrophy and metaplasia in the rate of 21%, thickening of the blood vessel wall with clot represented 14.2% and the deposition of calcium salt was 14.2%. The current study concludes that mastitis in sheep is widespread in sheep raised in different areas of Mosul city.

Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and some risk factors in cross breed and imported breed dairy cows in Mosul, Iraq

Mohsin H. Ali; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 273-277
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129949.1707

Although ongoing control strategies are attempting to minimize certain metabolic disorders such as hyperketonemia, factors such as genetics, management, environment, and geography still present a potential challenge to the achievement of the desired results. In light of this, this study was conducted (i) to determine the prevalence of subclinical and clinical ketosis based on the concentration of ketone bodies (BHB) using ELISA Kit, and (ii) to examine a number of epidemiological risk factors related to the conditions. From October, 2020 to the January, 2021. A 80 blood samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey in different areas of Mosul. Data included age, management systems, parity, and origin. At the cut-off point ≥1.2-≤ 1.4 mmol / L, the prevalence of subclinical ketosis was 27.5% and for clinical ketosis it was 5%. Results revealed that the animals aged > 3 years were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to animals aged ≤ 3 years RR = 2.6471. Multiparous animals were more at risk compared to the primiparous (two or less births) RR = 2.0652. No significant difference between the animals’ origins RR = 0.6863. Indoor and outdoor system animals were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to the indoor system only RR = 2.1389. In conclusion, hyperketonemia is prevalent in Mosul. Certain risk factors should be taking into account when planning control programs. Attention should be paid to diagnosis, management, and control of this disease during the risk stage to avert economic loss to the dairy farmers.

Detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in cats in Mosul city

Wasan A. Alobaidii; Zeena D. Mohammed Zaki; Manal H. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 57-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128997.1616

This study is the 1st trial to detect of Dirofeleria imitis in cats in Mosul city, Iraq, Dirofilariasis is the most dangerous nematodes which infect cats, through this study blood samples was collected from 200 cats (different ages, source and rearing management) to investigate from the mature female worms of D. immitis by using direct ELISA, results showed total percentage of infection was 7% (14/200 animals), the relationship between the infection with age of cats was proportional to the age of cats, as the percentage increases with the age of cats, the high prevalence of infection was recorded in cats more than 2 years old 4%, the kittens less than 1 year old showed low prevalence of infection 0.5%, statistically there is a significant differences (P<0.05) between the oldest animals with other ages, significant differences (P<0.05) between Outdoor cats which recorded high prevalence of infection 4%, while Indoor animals recorded low prevalence of infection 3% with D. imitis, 10 of imported cat was infected with D. imitis with high prevalence of infection (5%) when compare with native cats 2%, without significant differences (P<0.05) between two groups, this study was conducted that the prevalence of D. imitis is high in adult cats, with high prevalence in outdoor rearing and the cats with imported origin. 

Clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffalue in Mosul area, Iraq

Abdulsatar S. Sadoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 177-186
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129644.1671

This paper aims to investigate the occurrence of clinical and sub-clinical cases of mastitis in buffaloes, and to identify the differences in the components of the mastitis milk, to facilitate the investigation of a number of epidemiological risk aspects in relation to the occurrence of mastitis and to detect the different bacterial species associated with the disease. Eight hundred buffalo milk samples were randomly extracted from the animals of different ages in Mosul city, Iraq and examined by California mastitis test (CMT) and Ultrasonic milk analyzer. According to the clinical signs and CMT, the results indicated the prevalence of the clinical and subclinical cases of the disease in buffaloes to be 10.62% and 27.37% respectively. There was a substantial rise in the population of somatic cells /ml in both clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis. The risk factors included third trimester of lactation period, old ages 10-11 years, outdoor feeding animals, > 30 buffaloes/herd, northern and southern parts of the city, Spring and Winter seasons. In clinical instances of mastitis, the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was 25.88%, Streptococcus agalactiae 18.82%, Streptococcus pyogenes 16.47%, Corynebacterium bovis 14.11%, Escherichia coli 10.58%, Pseudomonus aeruginosa 7.05%, and Pasteurella multocida 7.05%. In the subclinical cases of mastitis, the prevalence of Staphylococcus chromogens was 14.61%, Staphylococcus xylosus 12.78%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.87%, Streptococcus dysagalactiae 11.41%, Streptococcus uberis 10.04%, Proteus vulgaris 10.04%, Klebsiella pneumonae 9.58%, Escherichia coli 8.21%, Corynebacterium bovis 7.30%, and Pasteurella multocida 4.10%. It is concluded that mastitis leads to a significant reduction in the levels of total solids, lactose, protein, fat, density, and a significant rise in the levels of pH values and electrical conductivity of the milk samples of clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.

Seroprevalence of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in cows by ELISA in Mosul city

Salam A. Esmaeel; Khder J. Hussain; Mohammad A. Al-Taliby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 803-807
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128668.1595

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is described as a tick-borne viral zoonosis highly prevalent in Africa, Asia, Russia and the Balkans within the distribution range of ticks that belong to the genus Hyalomma. This research aimed to verify the seroprevalence of CCHF in cows employing Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) in Mosul city / Iraq, to ​​examine some epidemiological risk factors related to the incidence of CCHF. From October 2019 - September 2020, one hundred eighty-four blood samples were taken from 3-8-year-old cattle of both sexes, from several management systems and origins, from various parts in Mosul city, 10 ml of blood was taken from the jugular vein in test tubes without anticoagulant to obtain the sera for I-ELISA test, while epidemiological data were obtained by interviewing the farm-owners. I-ELISA was applied to detect the antibodies of CCHF in the serum. The overall seroprevalence of CCHF in cows was 40/184 (21.7%). As for the risk factors associated with increased seroprevalence of the disease, an increase in seroprevalence rates was observed at ages 6, 7 and 8 years 30.5%, among females 26.3% and imported animals 27.5%. which showed that the serological prevalence in indoor feeding and outdoor feeding, was not significantly different (p<0.05). This study concluded that there is a higher seroprevalence of CCHF in Mosul city along with many risk factors related to its incidence.

Necropsy findings and histopathological analysis of a terminal stage ewe from a herd with sudden deaths in Mosul

Karam H. Yahya; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Thanoon Y. Al-Hubeity

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 599-604
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127015.1435

A three-year-old ewe was received as a terminal stage animal for necropsy in the Teaching Veterinary Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, the University of Mosul, on 18/12/2018. The animal was carried alive from the Al-Fthilya region in the eastern north of Mosul and expired before hospitalization. Statement of the owner prevailed sudden deaths of healthy animals or a concise course of illness followed by respiratory distress and nervous manifestations and death at 14 mature animals within mortality rate reached 15.5% in the herd. Necropsy findings and histopathological analysis showed that encephalitis included hyperemic cortical blood vessels, severe perineuronal edema, microglial proliferation. The lungs revealed severe pulmonary edema and signs of peracute pneumonia. Liver sections demonstrated congested portal and central veins and lobular sinusoids with centrilobular coagulative degeneration. At the kidneys, we detected both glomerular and interstitial nephritis with severe tubular cell necrosis. We concluded a state of bacterial septic shock, suggesting Pasteurellosis as a probable etiologic factor from the symptoms and pathological examination. The case was reported, and laboratory tests were requested.

Seroprevelance of schmallenberg virus infection as emerging disease in cattle in Iraq

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 495-499
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127071.1454

Schmallenberg virus is an emergent disease which infect cattle, sheep and goats which cause loss of condition, diarrhea, and abortion in pregnant animals, so this study was conducted to detect the antibodies in imported calves by using cELISA, so 400 blood samples was collected calves in different ages and healthy status in a period between October 2018 to September 2019 in Nineveh province, the investigation of specific antibodies was done by competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay, the results showed that the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus in imported calves was 21% (84 positive from 400 samples), high prevalence of infection in the animals more than 6 months to 1 year old 11.5% when compare with animals less than 6 months of age 9.5%, high incidence of infection in animals suffer from various clinical signs 17% and the healthy apparent animals recorded low prevalence of infection 4%, samples which collected in spring months recorded high prevalence of infection 7.5% while the lowest prevalence of infection with the virus recorded in winter months 2%, with significant variance in spring and summer months compared with other seasons, in conclusion this study was conducted that schmallenberg virus is newly emerge in Iraq and this study is firstly recorded this virus in cattle in Iraq.

Isolation and identification of Circovirus in pigeon

Safwan Yousif Al-Baroodi; Mozahim yasen Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 207-210
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126706.1364

The purpose of this study is first trial to detect of pigeon circovirus, so 1sr group include 100 cloacal swabs were collected 55 healthy and 45 ill pigeons, 36 yearlings and 64 adults, the 2nd group included organs was liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius from 41 young pigeons 10-30 days old and bursa of Fabricius, liver, spleen from 28 dead in shell pigeon embryo in the 3rd group. DNA extracted from this samples and detection of virus DNA was attempt using polymerase chain reaction, after DNA amplification, the final products of the amplicon with 331 bp was cleared by using electrophoresis using agarose gel at concentration 2%. Results of viral DNA amplification were positive, which revealed as band in 331 bp the results showed that ill yearling pigeons recording high infectivity rate 66.7% compare with healthy yearling pigeons and adult once, the bursa of Fabricius samples of dead yearling pigeons recorded high prevalence 36.58% when compare with liver and spleen samples, DNA of pigeon circovirus high detected 60.71% in bursa of Fabricius of dead in shell pigeon conclusion pigeon circovirus affected the racing pigeon in Mosul, Iraq.

Molecular detection of Hammondia heydorni in dogs in Mosul city

Wasan A. Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 329-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126052.1219

Through this study 122 individual fecal samples were collected from dogs, with different ages, sexes, and breeding management (stray and pet house hold). Some dogs were with healthy appearances while others were suffered from diarrhea, anorexia, depression, dehydration. Infection was investigated by light microscope after flotation technique by using Sheather's sugar solution. if the sample gives positive to oocyst (H. heydorni or other relative group), were mixed with potassium dichromate solution a rate of 2.5% for the stimulation of sporulation. DNA extraction was done using 2% sarcosyl, pronase E followed by phenol/chloroform extraction then precipitation attempt using ethanol. DNA amplification was attempt using H. heydorni primers JS4 and JS5 n microscope examination give 78 sample positives to the presence of oocyst, while polymerase chain reaction showed total percentage of infection with H. heydorni was 34.6% (27 case give positive reaction to PCR). Dogs less than 6 months of age show high infective rate 17.9%, dogs which suffer from gastrointestinal tract troubles (diarrhea, anorexia and dehydration) gave high infective rate 24.4%. Stray dogs gave high prevalence of infection to H. heydorni 25.6% when compared with pet house hold dogs which recorded 9% percentage of infection. This study is the first recorded H. heydorni in dogs in Mosul city.