One hundred fifteen samples of the urinary bladder were collected randomly from slaughtered local bovine calves in Mosul city during March 2018. Gross and histopathological changes revealed in 37 samples 23.1%. Gross changes represented by congestions, petechial hemorrhage, inflammation and cystic hernia. Histopathological changes included the disturbances of cell metabolism represented by cell swelling of transitional epithelial cells and smooth muscle cell 16.2%, and coagulative necrosis of epithelium of mucosa and Zenker's necrosis of muscular layer 40.5%. cell adaptation manifested by epithelial hyperplasia 18.9% and smooth muscle fibers atrophy 8.1%. Circulatory disturbances represented by hyperemia and congestion 51.3%, petechial hemorrhage, edema and thrombi 5.4% for each. Acute cystitis showed in percentage of 18.9% while chronic cystitis was 13% and fibrosis 21.6%. Congenital deformities represented by cystic hernia 13% and bladder wall intrusion 5.4%. This study concludes the presence of different types of pathological changes in the urinary bladder of slaughtered local bovine calves in Mosul city which indicates presenting different types of causative agents and infections.
Troponin-I, homocysteine, Creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase and acute phase response had been evaluated in calves with myocarditis due to FMD. The study was conducted on 52 local breed calves 1-6 months old and from both sexes, their dams have no history for vaccination against FMD and show classical foot and mouth disease signs. Ten clinically healthy calves of the same ages were considered as controls. Suspected calves neither show oral blisters, rope salivation, nor foot lesions. Diseased calves showed signs of dullness, in activity, panting with mouth breathing, unable to suck, recumbency, However, five of diseased calves were died within 24-72 hours and on macroscopic examinations of autopsied animals, necrotic myocarditis with pale foci with a zone of hyperemia which were present on the papillary and ventricular cardiac muscles, moreover, on histopathological examinations there were severe inflammatory cells infiltration in the interstitial of myocardial fibers with obvious area of coagulation of myocardial fibers and marked area of hyalinization, furthermore, severe mononuclear cells infiltration, mainly lymphocytes, with few neutrophils closed to necrotic myocardial fibers were also detected. Diagnosis of FMD virus was confirmed by using commercially NSP ELISA kits for foot and mouth. A significant increase (p>0.05)was encounteredin body temperature, respiratory and heart rates in diseased animals than in controls, Furthermore, abnormal cardiac sounds (organic murmurs) were indicated on auscultation of the heart. Results of hematological parameters shown a significant increase indicated in ESR values of diseased calves than in controls, moreover, total leukocyte count was increased significantly with significant lymphocytosis. Furthermore, the results were also showed significant increase in values of serum cardiac troponin, homocysteine, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and fibrinogen in seropositive calves for FMD compared with controls. It can be concluded that determination of cardiac biomarkers and acute phase response concentration in calves with myocarditis can considered as a guide to quantify early heart damage.
The study was planned to show the prevalence of Cryotosporidium spp. in calves and water sources in Salahaddin governorate.
The study included 137 faecal samples of calves in the villages and indoor husbandry from Al-Ishaky private farm, 87 males and 50 females for period from beginning of July 2000 to end of April 2001. The age of calves was ranging from one month to one year.
Water samples were collected from tap water, panel of Tikrit city, pond water of rain, river water and sewage water.
Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was done by modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Carbol Fuccin Dimethyl Sulfoxide Methods, Direct Immunofluorescent Test was also used in water samples.
The rate of infection in calves was (37.95%); in males (40.2%) being higher than females (34%). The distribution of infection was highest among calves below one month (43.2%) of age. The highest rate of Cryptosporidium was in summer (50%) and the lowest was in winter (18.5%).
In the number of oocysts per liter of filtrated tap water was (0.2 oocysts/ liter), which was lower than infiltrated water of Tikrit planet
(3 oocysts/ liter), pond water (20 oocysts/ liter), river water (6 oocysts/ liter) and farm water (40 oocysts/ liter). In sewage water, oocyst was isolated only in one sample (0.1 oocyst/ liter). There was a strong correlation between turbidity of water samples and number of oocysts detected; as water samples with highest turbidity contained greatest number of oocysts.