Keywords : Lambs

Improved vaccination protocol to enhance immunity in lambs of Kuwait farms

Hana A. Burezq; Faten Khalil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 539-548
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130837.1883

The susceptibility of lambs to infective diseases should be minimized by improving the immunity of lambs through effective vaccination procedures to abate lamb mortality in sheep farms. In this regard, field experiments were carried out with 180 pregnant ewes of Naeemi sheep breed at the PAAFR (Public Authority for Agriculture and Fisheries Research Station, Kuwait). The results revealed that the concentration of serum Ig’s in blood samples collected from ewes vaccinated during pregnancy with Pasteurella, Clostridia, FMD (Foot and Mouth Disease) and PPR (Peste des Petits Ruminants) vaccines was significantly elevated as vaccination against these four diseases agents would have ultimately resulted in circulating antibodies protecting the animals against natural exposure. Theconcentration of colostral Ig’s produced by vaccinated ewes during the pregnancy period was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the normal colostrum secreted from unvaccinated ewes during pregnancy, ensuring the positive role of the colostrum in transferring passive immunity. The results clearly illustrated no cases of mortality and abortion, as vaccination has played a role in maintaining the health of ewes by overcoming the targeted pathogens and preventing any abnormalities in the pregnant ewes. The present study confirmed the improved immune status of young lambs born to ewes vaccinated twice during pregnancy, reflecting improved health status. It is recommended to maintain 21 days’ intervals in vaccinating ewes with different vaccines for specific diseases.

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs at Basrah, Iraq

Jihad A. Ahmed; Hassanin H. Al-Autaish; Kamal M. AlSaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 471-477
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130539.1841

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs due to vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency was suspected in local adult lambs of Basrah, Iraq. The study was conducted on 82 adults local breed lambs 8-11 months of age. Suspected animals show panting with increase abdominal respiration and mouth breathing, recumbence and unable to stand with acute death within 24-48 h. Fifteen clinically healthy lambs were considered as controls. The hematological changes indicated a significant decrease in RBC, Hb, and PCV reflected macrocytic hypochromic type of anemia. Indices of clotting factors show significant changes in diseased adult lambs. Results of the biochemical changes indicated a significant decrease of vitamin E, and the glutathione peroxidase, in diseased animals, whereas, a significant increase indicated in the values of AST, CK and troponin I. Results of the post-mortem examinations showed enlargement of the heart with a white-colored irregular patch. Furthermore, results of histopathological changes indicated an acute cellular degeneration of myocardial fibers associated with diffuse interstitial edematous fluid in the myocardial parenchyma and acute cellular degenerative myocardial fibers with a marked degree of degeneration in the myocardial parenchyma. It has been concluded that, acute enzootic muscular dystrophy has an adverse harmful clinical effect on adult diseased lambs which could always be terminated with death.

Study of the relationship between the production of milk and some of its components with the growth of lambs in two breeds of Iraqi sheep

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163172

A total of 1116 records Awassi ewes and 432 of Hamdania ewes were collected and which belong animals resource department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors in milk production and some of its components from birth until weaning. The results showed significant effects (p≤0.05) for the breed and highly significant effects (p≤ 0.001) for the year, mother's age, sex, and type of birth in the daily milk production. There was a highly significant effect of year in milk fat, protein, and lactose. same there was a significant effect for age at weaning on birth weight, and highly significant effects for the breed, year, age of dam, sex, type of birth, and age at weaning on birth, weaning and weight gain from birth to weaning. The highest value for repeatability was 0.398, 0.309 in Awassi ewes for weight gain and in Hamdani ewes for daily milk yield respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between protein and lactose in Awassi ewes 0.507 and 0.410, and in Hamdani ewes 0.641 and 0.157 respectively were highly significant.

Lambing and mortality rate in Ouled-Djellal sheeps in Tebessa region-Algeria

M. Douh; C. Aissaoui; A. Hicher; S. Abdelmajid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 267-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153863

The aim of this work is to study lamb births and mortalities in Algerian sheep Ouled Djellal breed distributed in different zones of Tébessa region, which is divided according to bioclimatic stage, staff in livestock and area agricultural vocation, into four distinct zones: northern (A, B), middle (C) and southern zone (D). During two years 2015-2016, birth numbers (BN) and mortality rates (MR) of 355 sheep flocks were recorded using a questionnaire. Concerning BN the total number was 21244 lambs representing a mean 59±31 per flock. No significant differences between the birth means of C and D (75±28 vs 83±30) were registered. Birth mean was significantly higher (P<0,05) in B (40±17) than A (29±10), when comparison with C and D, the births of A and B were highly significantly (P<0,001). According to (BN) the studied region were classified into 3 zone groups: (a) with high lambing rate (C, D); (b) with medium lambing rate (B); (c) with low lambing (A). In regard to mortality rates, the total rate was 24±6%. The (MR) in A (27±5%) was significantly higher (P<0,05) as compared to other zones (B) 24±4%, (C) 23±7% and (D) 22±4%. However, no significant differences between B, C and D were revealed. According to the results of (MR) the studied region was classified into two groups: (a) with low MR (C, D), (b) with high MR (A, B). Our result showed that zones influence the (BN) and (MR) in Tébessa region, and southern zones especially D seems the appropriate to practice breeding of Ouled Djellal breed.

Isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from suspected enterotoxaemia cases in lambs

N. S. Mechael

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 29-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46947

Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens), while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.