Keywords : pregnancy

Transabdominal ultrasonographic determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in buffalo cows

Dhafer M. Aziz; Barra D. Al-Watar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 233-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129858.1694

The study was conducted to evaluate the application of transabdominal ultrasonography for the determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in Iraqi buffaloes. Thirty-two buffaloes at different periods of gestation were included. The buffaloes were palpated transrectally and transabdominal ultrasonography was applied to determine the pregnancy and fetal viability status. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the positive and negative predictive value of transrectal palpation were 93.7, 100, 83.3, 90.9, and 100%, and for transrectal palpation were 78.1, 100, 58.8, 68.2, and 100%, respectively. The values of accuracy and specificity in the first trimester obtained by transabdominal ultrasonography were lower than those obtained by rectal palpation (66.6 vs. 94.4% and 62.5 vs. 90.9%), whereas the same values of accuracy and specificity were at second and third trimesters. Notwithstanding the values of the transrectal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography sensitivity were 100% in the three trimesters of buffalo’s gestation. At the first trimester of gestation, transabdominal ultrasonography required more time in comparison to transrectal palpation to get the final decision. Conversely, transrectal palpation required more time than transabdominal ultrasonography to diagnose the pregnant buffalos which were at the second and third trimesters of gestation. The transabdominal ultrasonography pregnancy diagnosis in the third trimester was faster than at the second and first trimester, a highly significant (P<0.001) negative correlation was reported between the time required for pregnancy diagnosis and the gestation age. It can be concluded that the transabdominal is a practical approach of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and determination of fetal viability in buffalo cows especially at the second and third trimesters of gestation. 

Toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride on some selected vital organs of pregnant mice Mus musculus

Baidaa A. Mohammed; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 239-243
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129864.1695

The current study intends to look at the impact of the fluoxetine hydrochloride on specific tissues lung and pancreas of mature pregnant mice. The two doses used during the study were 45,75mg/kg b.w. from the 7th to the 17th day of pregnancy. Experimental animals received fluoxetine orally at a dosage of 45mg/kg b.w. The findings indicate variable pathologic changes in the lungs. At the dose of 75 mg/kg b.w. hyperplasia of pneumocytes occurred. In the pancreas, there were no detectible lesions at the dose of 45mg/kg b.w. while at the dose of 75 mg/kg b.w. the severity of tissue lesions was seen. In conclusion, antidepressants may stimulate oxidative injury throughout the body's internal organs, particularly if taken at high doses during pregnancy. Consequently, these lesions have a great impact on the heath of both fetus and pregnant mice since the most common lesions were observed in fetus which cause abortion which effect on the health of pregnant mice.

Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic infection; A critical and updated analysis: A Review Article

Wassan Nori; Alaa I. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 95-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131607.1980

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic illness caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. It may infect humans and pets, as well as other warm-blooded mammals. Toxoplasmosis can be silent in the general public but it can be deadly in immunocompromised patients. This neurotropic protozoan has been linked to an increased risk of behavioral changes in infected animals and mental illnesses in human beings. The detection of a biological pathogen linked to schizophrenia is critical to comprehend the pathogen's biological influence on affected cases. Moreover, in schizophrenia cases, toxoplasmosis infection and lipid profile disturbance are frequent. The exact underlying pathology is yet unknown. Pregnant women are a particular risk group; they are liable to a higher risk of infection, leading to miscarriage, stillbirth, or permanent impairments in the unborn child. This review aimed to explore the up-to-date knowledge on this zoonotic parasite and critically analyze current information, inconsistencies, and implications on public health. We discuss the pathological pathways by which it produces its devastating effect on the central nervous system in both animals and human models, in addition to its enigmatic impact on lipid profile. 

Effect of boron on some organs of pregnant BALB/c mice

Baidaa A. Salah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 633-642
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127549.1509

Current research had been conducted to assess the impact of boric acid (boron) on the different tissues of the fetal and maternal bodies of pregnant mice Mus musculus and its influence on the maternal plasma biochemistry, hematology, in addition to the fetal and maternal bodies weight, moreover the weight of a certain motherly tissues included liver, kidney, lung, brain and spleen. The pregnant mice were administered orally with boric acid at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg during pregnancy. The observations at a concentration of 50 mg / kg demonstrated several histopathological patterns in different mothers and fetal body parts. The lesions were increased at the dose of 100 mg / kg. Moreover, boron caused weight decrease in the maternal body weight, fetuses, and liver, but it caused an increase in weight of the kidney at the concentration 100 mg/ kg. The biochemical assessment of the maternal serum showed a high rise in the level of liver enzymes, blood urea, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL at the concentration 100mg mg/kg. Furthermore, there was a meaningful change in the blood hematology at the concentration 100mg/kg. In conclusion, the exposure of pregnant mice to high concentrations of boric acid can alter the structure, the function of maternal and embryos organs by inducing oxidative stress, which in turn resulting in the accumulation of toxins in the blood that cause different effects during the exposure period. 

Histopathological and some biochemical effects of platinum drug on the liver and kidney of pregnant mice Mus musculus and their embryos

Baidaa A. barwarei; Hanan S. Sadoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 291-300
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126793.1382

The current study was done to investigate the effects of two doses 3and 6 mg/kg B.w. of the Platinum drug on the structure of the liver and kidney of pregnant mice, and embryos in addition to the weight of the mothers', embryos ,'maternal liver and kidneys, as well as some biochemical parameters, were established. For this study, thirty pregnant mice were used, divided into three groups (10 mice/group) as follows; group I (control group); animals were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with distilled water on the days 7th, 12th, and 17th of gestation. The other both groups II, and III were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with the selected doses above of the Platinum at the days 7th, 12th, and 17th of gestation, respectively. Microscopically, maternal and fetal' liver sections of group II revealed vacuolation, swelling, apoptosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion, degeneration, and presence of the extramedullary hematopoietic cells, respectively. Previous lesions were increased in group III. Maternal and, fetal kidney sections of group II revealed degeneration, expansion of Bowman's space, inflammatory cells infiltration into interstitial tissue, and blood capillaries congestion. However, the previous lesions showed more severity in group III. The drug caused a reduction in the body weight of the mothers, selected organs, and embryos. Biochemical assessment of the maternal serum AST, ALT, and ALP levels showed an increase in both experimental groups II and III, but to varying degrees. Moreover, both groups II and III showed an increase in the levels of the maternal BUN and, urea. Whist, group III showed a significant increase of the creatinine compared to the control group. In conclusion, using anticancer drugs during pregnancy will harm both mothers and fetal organs. The risk of these medications represents their ability to cross the placenta and enters the fetal body. Therefore, the drug may affect the formation of the fetal organs. The drug also alters the regulatory antioxidant mechanism in the maternal body during the treatment duration. The drug should be used under medical follow up.