Keywords : ESBL

Molecular detection of ESBL/AmpC ß-Lactamase Escherichia coli isolated from sheep in Mosul city

Fatma R. Rafee Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 387-392
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130380.1810

Globally, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/Ampicillin ß-lactamase (AmpC) producing Escherichia coli has become the greatest threat for distributing antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, this study was designed to detect and screen the genes that confer resistance in E. coli isolated from sheep as main livestock in Mosul city. Forty E. coli isolates previously recovered from milk and fecal samples were included in this study. These isolates were obtained from healthy ewes, their lambs, and also from ewes with clinical mastitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the E. coli isolates targeting the 16sRNA gene. Furthermore, screening of different genotypes of ESBL/AmpC was conducted using specific primers. The results showed that the CTX-M gene was predominant among ESBL genotypes and recorded 40/40 (100%). While, SHV and TEM genes recorded 7/40 (17.5%) and 5/40 (12.5%), respectively. Moreover, fecal carriage of resistance genes was more than that obtained from milk in both healthy and diseased animals. However, none of the 40 isolates showed positive results for AmpC genes. The presence of different genotypes of ESBL E. coli isolated from feces or milk origin may act as a potential source for transferring antibiotic resistance to humans, other animals, and the environment.

Phenotypic characterization and antibiogram of extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from sheep

Fatma R. Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 303-307
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130112.1732

This study aimed to isolate and characterize extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC producing E. coli in sheep in Mosul city. A total of 260 milk and fecal samples were collected aseptically from healthy ewes (n=60), their respective lambs (n=60), and ewes with clinical mastitis (n=40). Standard bacterial isolation and identification on special culture media were performed to isolate ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli. While special antibiotic discs D68C MASTDISCS® Combi AmpC and ESBL ID set were used to characterize positive ESBL/AmpC E. coli. The results showed that 99/260 (38.1%) of tested samples were ESBL-E. coli positive and distributed as follows, 7/60 (11.7%) and 39/60 (65%) from milk and feces of clinically healthy ewes, respectively, and 37/60 (61.7%) from feces of clinically healthy lambs, while 4/40 (10%) and 12/40 (30%) from the milk and feces of ewes with clinical mastitis, respectively. However, we could not obtain any AmpC positive isolate from all tested samples. The high recovery percentages of ESBL from feces or milk of sheep reflect the arbitrary use of the antibiotic in sheep farming. This could significantly increase the resistance of the bacterial population that might represent a potential source for transmission of antibiotic resistance to humans.

Multi-drug resistance profile of extended spectrum β-Lactamases producing Escherichia coli isolated from sheep in Mosul city

Fatma R. Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 37-40
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130475.1829

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major threat due to their ability to overcome different types of antibiotics. However, Extended Spectrum β-lactamase E. coli (ESBLE) imposes an additional threat due to their ability to resist the 3rd generation cephalosporins. Accordingly, our study aimed to investigate the antibiogram profile of ESBLE isolates obtained from sheep. A Total of 40 ESBLE isolates were included in this study which represents sheep fecal and milk samples. Twelve antibiotics were selected to perform antibiotic sensitivity tests following standard microbiological methods. The results of the study showed that the highest resistance percentages were recorded for tetracycline 97.5%, ciprofloxacin 80%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 65%, and streptomycin 57.5%. While other antibiotics recorded lesser values. On the other hand, all isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and tobramycin each at 92.5%, followed by chloramphenicol and levofloxacin each at 82.5% and nitrofurantoin 72.5%. While fewer values of sensitivity were recorded for streptomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and, tetracycline. The study concluded that ESBLE of sheep origin that have additional resistance features to other antibiotics could be a major threat for spreading resistance and contaminating the environment and finally impose negative impact for response to antibiotic treatment in humans.

Detection of the extended spectrum β-lactamase produced by Escherichia coli from dairy cows by using the Vitek-2 method in Tulungagung regency, Indonesia

Akyun R. Putra; Mustofa H. Effendi; Setiawan Koesdarto; Suwarno Suwarno; Wiwiek Tyasningsih; Acts T. Estoepangestie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 203-207
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125707.1134

The use of antibiotics in inappropriate on food producing animals can lead to resistance many of the pathogenic bacteria to the various types of antibiotics, one of which is the Escherichia coli (E. coli) which produces extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Antibiotic resistance in animals and humans has become a global problem that needs attention and immediate management by using specific antibiotics that used for therapeutic the infected animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and detect E. coli producing ESBL. All E. coli from the surface of dairy cow rectal swabs in Sendang District, Tulungagung Regency, Indonesia using the Vitek-2 method. The number of rectal swab samples used in the present study was 50. The results of this study showed that all the samples were suspected of being E. coli, based on the morphological growth of colonies on the EMBA media. The isolates were identified by using the biochemical tests. All the samples were positive. In this study the double disc synergy test (DDST) method was using to confirm the ESBL. The antibiotics were used amoxicylyn-clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefotaxime for DDST. In additional ESBL confirmation test was used the Vitek-2 method. The presence of ESBL producing by E. coli isolated from rectal dairy swabs in tulungagung was 6% (3/50).