Keywords : Environment

A study of the gastrointestinal parasites in awassi sheep and surrounding environment

Dhyaa M. Jwher; Maan T. Jarjees; Aqeel M. Alshater

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 561-567
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127174.1478

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence gastrointestinal parasites in Awassi sheep and the contamination of surrounding environment in ten different locations of Nineveh governorate, during March up to June/2018. A total of 781 of different samples including 231 fecal, 192 soil, 188 feed and 170 water samples were investigated for the detection of ova and oocysts. Traditional parasitic techniques were followed in the study. The results showed that fecal samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts 30.63, 9.09, 14.28% respectively. Soil samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts at 21.35, 10.93, 44.79% respectively. Feed samples declared that contamination with nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts were 22.34, 26.06, 51.59%, respectively. Examination of water troughs examined, showed that nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts were occurred at 14.11, 8.82, 31.76%, respectively. It concluded that parasitic infection in sheep could attain from different sources, and every effort should be applied to reduce the contamination.

Mini Review: Current tick control strategies in Pakistan are possible environmental risks

A. Iqbal; M. Usman; M. Abubakar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 81-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145601

Ticks infestation is the major problem of cattle and buffalo of Pakistan. Tick acts as vectors of many viral, protozoal and bacterial diseases and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is one of the most lethal in that list. During the last sixteen years, many sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in Pakistan has been reported with 24 percent case fatalities. In Punjab and Sind provinces mass tick control campaigns have been started to control the tick’s population and spread of zoonotic diseases through tick’s. In these tick control campaigns deltamethrin and ivermectin are used extensively. We highlighted that how extensive use of deltamethrin and ivermectin can adversely affect the environment and possible alternative methods for tick control. Extensive use of deltamethrin can damage the kidneys of insect eating birds and disturb the life cycle of many aquatic organisms if deltamethrin solution is mixed with water of streams. Widespread ivermectin use in domestic animals poses some serious threats to dung beetles and other coprophagic insects as almost 60-80 percent of total dose comes in feces without any metabolism in the body of animal. Decrease in dung beetles can result in decreased dung degradation.