Keywords : Dairy cows

Prevalence of non-infectious claw disorders in Egyptian dairy farms in relation to the flooring system

Walid Refaai; Mohammad Gomaa; Abdelbasit M. Abdelaal; Ahmed S. Behery; Ahmed Abdelaal; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 207-211
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129754.1685

Lameness is one of the most prevalent and costly maladies affecting dairy cattle. It has been ranked as the third after mastitis and reproductive failure. One of the leading causes of lameness is corium tissue damage and hence claw horn lesions development. Flooring system was found to have an impact on the development of such lesions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to study the effect of flooring system on the development of four non-infectious claw disorders in Egyptian dairy farms. Another objective was to study the effect of claw disorders on reproductive performance and total milk production. Four dairy herds with earthen floor (n=2) and desert floor (n=2) from Ash-Sharkia and Ismailia Provinces were included in this study. Results revealed that the prevalence of white line disease (WLD) was the highest among recorded lesions in earthen floor farms (2.7%) followed by sole ulcer (SU) 2.1% and sole abscess (SA) 1.7% then vertical wall fissures (VWF) 1.6%. While in the desert floor farms, VWF and SA were reported in 0.8% of animals followed by WLD and SU in 0.4% and 0.3% of animals, respectively. The non-infectious claw disorders were detected mainly in hindlimbs in earthen floor farms when compared to forelimbs (6.6% and 1.5%, respectively) while in the desert floor farms were nearly equal for the forelimbs (1.1%) and hindlimbs (1.2%). In conclusion, the animals housed in earthen floor farms were more susceptible to non-infectious claw disorders than those housed in desert floor.

Association between clinical and subclinical mastitis and reproductive performance of cows at Nottingham dairy centre

Zeravan A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 343-350
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126843.1398

Clinical and subclinical mastitis regarded as important diseases causes a reduction in reproductive performance in dairy cows in the UK during the last decade. This study was aimed to assess the association between clinical mastitis, subclinical mastitis and the reproductive performance of cows. Data from 184 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were collected. Binomial logistic regression used to determine the incidence rate of clinical mastitis and subclinical mastitis between parity, calving year and seasons of the year. Linear mixed model used to determine the effect of clinical and subclinical mastitis on reproductive performance. The association between clinical or subclinical mastitis and the probability of a cow to get pregnant at 1st, 2nd or 3rd service was evaluated using binomial logistic regression. The same model used to illustrate the probability of a cow getting pregnant from 30-60 days postpartum or 61-90 days postpartum. The incidence of clinical mastitis was different between calving years (P<0.01). Cow with clinical mastitis or subclinical mastitis had longer calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval (P<0.05). Cows clinical mastitis had a lower rate to get pregnant within 20-30 days postpartum compared to healthy cows (P<0.05). Cows with higher somatic cells count, (especially cows with greater than 399,000 cells/mL of milk), had a higher number of services compared to cows with a lower number of individual cow somatic cell counts. The study concluded that both clinical and subclinical mastitis have a relationship with a reduction in reproductive performance in high yielding dairy cows.

Detection of the extended spectrum β-lactamase produced by Escherichia coli from dairy cows by using the Vitek-2 method in Tulungagung regency, Indonesia

Akyun R. Putra; Mustofa H. Effendi; Setiawan Koesdarto; Suwarno Suwarno; Wiwiek Tyasningsih; Acts T. Estoepangestie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 203-207
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125707.1134

The use of antibiotics in inappropriate on food producing animals can lead to resistance many of the pathogenic bacteria to the various types of antibiotics, one of which is the Escherichia coli (E. coli) which produces extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Antibiotic resistance in animals and humans has become a global problem that needs attention and immediate management by using specific antibiotics that used for therapeutic the infected animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and detect E. coli producing ESBL. All E. coli from the surface of dairy cow rectal swabs in Sendang District, Tulungagung Regency, Indonesia using the Vitek-2 method. The number of rectal swab samples used in the present study was 50. The results of this study showed that all the samples were suspected of being E. coli, based on the morphological growth of colonies on the EMBA media. The isolates were identified by using the biochemical tests. All the samples were positive. In this study the double disc synergy test (DDST) method was using to confirm the ESBL. The antibiotics were used amoxicylyn-clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefotaxime for DDST. In additional ESBL confirmation test was used the Vitek-2 method. The presence of ESBL producing by E. coli isolated from rectal dairy swabs in tulungagung was 6% (3/50).

Levels of some biochemical markers in sera of pregnant and non-pregnant lactating dairy cows in Baghdad, Iraq

Masar Kadhim; Basim Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 353-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163027

This study aimed to measure the biochemical markers including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin / globulin (A/G) ratio, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total bilirubin in sera of dairy cows from the period of February-2016 to March-2018. For this purpose, 78 dairy cows of >3 years old reared at some areas of Baghdad province were subjected to blood sampling from the jugular vein. Study values (mean ± standard error) of ALT, AST, GGT, A/G ratio and total bilirubin markers were found outside the normal ranges of international reference values. Conversely, ALP, CK, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and BUN were found within the normal ranges of international reference values. To investigate changes that occur during late stage of pregnancy, study animals were dividedinto two groups (non-pregnant lactating and pregnant dairy cows). Statistically, significant decrease (P<0.05) was encountered in values (M ± SE) of ALT, AST, and GGT enzymes; and significant increase (P<0.05) in ALP and CK values of pregnant compared to non-pregnant dairy cows. Data concerning the serum proteins, results also indicated a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of total protein, whereas there no significant differences (P>0.05) were showed in values of albumin, globulin and A/G ratio. Pregnant dairy cows were showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of BUN and total bilirubin; however, glucose appeared without significant differences (P>0.05). It has been concluded that the lactation and gestation periods have a great impact on activity of biochemical indices in blood of dairy cows; therefore, there is a need for constant periodic monitoring for the described indices in this study to maintenance on animal’s health status.

First phylogenetic characterization of Pseudocowpox virus from cattle in Al-Qadisiyah province/ Iraq

Salah Mahdi Karim; Khalefa Ali Mansour; Ali Hassan Janabi; Nawras K. M. Al-Nakeeb

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 123-126
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125525.1047

This study was initiated for the first time for identification, using sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, of pseudocowpox PCPV that inhabit dairy cows in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. Scab sampling was performed to obtain specimens from udder and teats of 18 affected cows. Initially, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was followed to target a 408-bp piece of the GM_CSF/IL-2 inhibition factor gene (GIF) that belongs to PCPV. Then, the PCR products were sent out to partial sequencing of the GIF gene. The results of the PCR have indicated the presence of the virus in only 3 out of 18 samples. When the sequences were studied using phylogeny, the results have revealed that one of our PCPV strains has a close matching with some of the world strains such as from New Zealand. While two of the current study strains have clustered together with a strain from Finland. The results of our study confirm the presence of the PCPV in dairy cows that induces milker’s nodules.