Keywords : Dairy Cows

Detection of the extended spectrum β-lactamase produced by Escherichia coli from dairy cows by using the Vitek-2 method in Tulungagung regency, Indonesia

Akyun R. Putra; Mustofa H. Effendi; Setiawan Koesdarto; Suwarno Suwarno; Wiwiek Tyasningsih; Acts T. Estoepangestie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 203-207
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125707.1134

The use of antibiotics in inappropriate on food producing animals can lead to resistance many of the pathogenic bacteria to the various types of antibiotics, one of which is the Escherichia coli (E. coli) which produces extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Antibiotic resistance in animals and humans has become a global problem that needs attention and immediate management by using specific antibiotics that used for therapeutic the infected animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and detect E. coli producing ESBL. All E. coli from the surface of dairy cow rectal swabs in Sendang District, Tulungagung Regency, Indonesia using the Vitek-2 method. The number of rectal swab samples used in the present study was 50. The results of this study showed that all the samples were suspected of being E. coli, based on the morphological growth of colonies on the EMBA media. The isolates were identified by using the biochemical tests. All the samples were positive. In this study the double disc synergy test (DDST) method was using to confirm the ESBL. The antibiotics were used amoxicylyn-clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefotaxime for DDST. In additional ESBL confirmation test was used the Vitek-2 method. The presence of ESBL producing by E. coli isolated from rectal dairy swabs in tulungagung was 6% (3/50).

Levels of some biochemical markers in sera of pregnant and non-pregnant lactating dairy cows in Baghdad, Iraq

Masar Kadhim; Basim Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 353-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163027

This study aimed to measure the biochemical markers including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin / globulin (A/G) ratio, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total bilirubin in sera of dairy cows from the period of February-2016 to March-2018. For this purpose, 78 dairy cows of >3 years old reared at some areas of Baghdad province were subjected to blood sampling from the jugular vein. Study values (mean ± standard error) of ALT, AST, GGT, A/G ratio and total bilirubin markers were found outside the normal ranges of international reference values. Conversely, ALP, CK, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and BUN were found within the normal ranges of international reference values. To investigate changes that occur during late stage of pregnancy, study animals were dividedinto two groups (non-pregnant lactating and pregnant dairy cows). Statistically, significant decrease (P<0.05) was encountered in values (M ± SE) of ALT, AST, and GGT enzymes; and significant increase (P<0.05) in ALP and CK values of pregnant compared to non-pregnant dairy cows. Data concerning the serum proteins, results also indicated a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of total protein, whereas there no significant differences (P>0.05) were showed in values of albumin, globulin and A/G ratio. Pregnant dairy cows were showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of BUN and total bilirubin; however, glucose appeared without significant differences (P>0.05). It has been concluded that the lactation and gestation periods have a great impact on activity of biochemical indices in blood of dairy cows; therefore, there is a need for constant periodic monitoring for the described indices in this study to maintenance on animal’s health status.

First phylogenetic characterization of Pseudocowpox virus from cattle in Al-Qadisiyah province/ Iraq

Salah Mahdi Karim; Khalefa Ali Mansour; Ali Hassan Janabi; Nawras K. M. Al-Nakeeb

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 123-126
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125525.1047

This study was initiated for the first time for identification, using sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, of pseudocowpox PCPV that inhabit dairy cows in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. Scab sampling was performed to obtain specimens from udder and teats of 18 affected cows. Initially, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was followed to target a 408-bp piece of the GM_CSF/IL-2 inhibition factor gene (GIF) that belongs to PCPV. Then, the PCR products were sent out to partial sequencing of the GIF gene. The results of the PCR have indicated the presence of the virus in only 3 out of 18 samples. When the sequences were studied using phylogeny, the results have revealed that one of our PCPV strains has a close matching with some of the world strains such as from New Zealand. While two of the current study strains have clustered together with a strain from Finland. The results of our study confirm the presence of the PCPV in dairy cows that induces milker’s nodules.