Keywords : Ivermectin

Detection of resistance against anti-helminths drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes of calves using fecal egg count reduction test FECRT

Hasan H. Shehab; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 283-288
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134037.2333

The species of parasite, low dose, and continual employ of the same drug may predispose to the evolution of anthelmintic resistance AR. In Mosul, Iraq, this is the first study investigating AR in gastrointestinal GIT nematodes of calves. Four hundred eighty fecal samples through a cross-sectional survey were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC. A herd of calves consisting of 60 male calves was divided into four groups of 15 calves: group A counted as control, group B was treated with Reemazol® 25% (Albendazole) 7.5 mg/kg of body weight orally, group C received Dufazan® (Levamisole and Oxyclozanide) 7.5 mg/kg BW orally, and group D gave Ivermectin 1% by S/C injection 0.2 mg/kg BW. The efficacy asset employs the Fecal Egg Reduction Test (FECRT). AR judgment obtains relying on the instructions of the World Association of advancement for Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). GIT nematode prevalence was 50.6%. The effectiveness of mentioned drugs was 84, 87, and 95%, respectively. The lower limit confidence interval 95% level was 89, 86, and 80%, respectively, indicating AR to albendazole and levamisole, while ivermectin was questionable. In conclusion, the high prevalence of GIT nematodes in Mosul indicate that AR is present against the three classes of deworming drugs. Awareness of the associated aspects and sources of resistance is essential to face and minimize the development of resistant worms.

Acute toxicity events of ivermectin in chicks’ model

Tamara K. Al-Najmawi; Muna H. Al-Zubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1119-1124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133188.2188

Ivermectin is a very safe drug; however, there are many studies on its toxic effects in different animals due to sensitivity, misuse, or accidental overdose. This study aimed to further characterize the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin in chicks and identify possible therapeutic strategies for use in cases of ivermectin toxicity. The LD₅₀ of ivermectin was determined by the Dixon method. The acute toxicity signs of ivermectin were induced at doses of 131.5,2629 and 394.5 mg/kg orally. The therapeutic effect of flumazenil on ivermectin poisoning was also studied. Administration of repeated doses of ivermectin for five consecutive days was recorded to measure the neurobehavioral within the open field and tonic immobility test. The oral LD₅₀ of ivermectin was 525.9mg/kg. The acute signs of poisoning on ivermectin-treated chicks were lethargy, ataxia, tremor, diarrhea, recumbency, and death. Flumazenil at a dose of 0.1mg/kg significantly reduced the toxicity signs induced by the ivermectin in chicks, especially tremor and ataxia, and prevented death. The administration of ivermectin at 26.3, 52.6, and 105.2 mg/kg doses led to a significant decrease in motor activity through a significant increase in the time of starting the movement and a decrease in the number of cross lines. We concluded that ivermectin has a neurotoxic effect in chicks when used in high doses; the results also indicate a potential clinical application of flumazenil for treatment side effects and toxicity of ivermectin, as well as ivermectin, has depressant effect in chicks represented by open-field activity.

Detection of microfilaria infection in horses in Mosul city

E. G. Suleiman; S. S. Aghwan; O. M. Al- Iraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.167131

The study was performed on 78 horses in Mosul city were examined from April 2007 to September 2009 for the detection of microfilaria in the blood Twenty five clinically normal animals served as control. The percentage of the infection with microfilaria of Setaria spp was 30.76% they were sheathed, measuring 204-228 µm within a mean of 218.4 µm in length and 4.5-4.8 mµ within a mean of 4.62 µm in width. A high percentage of infection was reported in females 54.28%) with significant differences from that of males. No significant differences were noticed between the healthy and these showing some clinical sings or between these treated with ivermectin or non treated. Haematological changes indicated decrease in level of hemoglobin concentration packed cell volume whereas there was significant increase (P≤0.05) in total leukocytes count, anemia was macrocytic hypochromic type.