Keywords : ALT

Experimental infection in mice with Acremonium spp. mold and Rhodotorula spp. yeast isolated from cow's milk

Shaimaa N. Yassein; Zainab R. Zghair

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 165-171
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125718.1138

This study was performed in isolation of some pathogenic fungi from milk of apparently healthy cows. Eighty milk samples were collected from four quarters of twenty cows in the Abu Ghraib. Each sample was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose Agar at 28±2 ºC for 4-7 days. The most predominant mold and yeast were Acremonium spp. and Rhodotorula spp. that had used in the experimental infection. The number of experimental mice used in this study was 30 which divided into three equal groups. The 1st group was infected with Acremonium spp. by injection of 0.2 ml of 2*107 conidia/ml intraperitoneally. The 2nd group was inoculated with same dose and route with Rhodotorula spp., while the3rd group served as control group. All mice were sacrificed after 2 weeks of injection, Serum was obtained for biochemical analysis of hepatic and renal enzymes. Some of internal organs of infected groups were taken for histopathological study. The result recorded that the total percentage of fungal infection was 53 (66.3%) of these Acremonium spp. 9 (24.3%) and Rhodotorula spp. 7 (43.8%). Histopathological sections of the 1st group showed severe lesions in kidney than 2nd group although both groups showed lesions in most internal organs. Blood biochemical results showed the yeast has highest significant differences on ALT levels, while the mold has highest effect on serum creatinine, with insignificant difference on urea. In conclusion it could be said that in spite of Acremonium spp. and Rhodotorula spp. are considered as contaminant fungi, but they can cause disseminated mycosis in mice.

Potency of garlic juice supplementation on some physiological and immunological aspects of broilers exposed to heat stress

H.A.J. Al-Shwilly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 107-112
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145606

The current study aimed to investigate the effect of garlic juice supplementation with broiler drinking water on performance, immune response, lipid profile, blood picture and activity of liver enzymes under heat stress. For this purpose 100 four days aged broiler checks (Ross) were allocated into control (C) and three treatment groups (25 each). All group checks were housed at 5 ºC above normal ambient temperature during the experiment. Treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3) checks were supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/L, respectively, with garlic juice in drinking water (6 hrs a day). Food and water were supplemented ad libitum. Body weights were monitored every five days and blood samples were obtained at 25 days for assessment of blood picture and antibody titers after vaccination, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and activity levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated. At 30 days age, T3 group broiler checks reported higher body weights than other groups. Total number of white and red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit levels and ratio of heterocytes to lymphocytes increased significantly in treated groups, whereas significant decline of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations as well as ALT and AST levels were shown in T3 group broiler checks. Significant increase was shown in the levels of antibody titers against both Newcastle (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines. In conclusion, treatment of broiler checks early with garlic juice increase broiler performance and immune response against vaccination program and may be protect the broilers from heat stress.