Keywords : Abortion

Investigation of the principal vectors of abortive diseases in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius)

El Aid Kaaboub; Nassim Ouchene; Nadjet A. Ouchene; Ali Dahmani; Imene Ouchtati; Asma Haif; Djamel Khelef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 411-415
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126914.1415

One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) are important source of meat, milk and leather production for humans in southern Algeria. Camel livestock farming is confronted with several obstacles, including abortive diseases which can be transmitted mainly by ticks. The study was carried out in Ouargla region, South Algeria, between January and December 2017. The objective of this study was to identify ticks in camels and to study the relationship between camel abortion rate and the presence of different species of ticks. A total of 350 camels (including 171 males and 179 females) was used in this study. Ticks were searched on the entire camel body (head, neck, hump, abdomen, forelegs, back legs, and tail area). Results showed that 215/350 (61.4%) camels were infested by ticks including 137/171 (80.1%) and 78/179 (43.6%) males and females, respectively. A total of 46/179 (25.7%) camel females had aborted and all these were revealed infested by ticks. A total of 298 ticks was collected including the following species Hyalomma dromedarii (90.9%), Hyalomma impeltatum (5.37%) and for the first time in Algeria, Amblyomma variegatum (2.35%) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.34%). H. dromedarii was the most frequent (p<0.001). The study showed that the dromedary was highly infested by ticks. The presence of ticks in all aborted female camels certainly indicates their important role in one-humped camel abortions in Algeria. The identification of tick-borne abortive agents in camels is important in order to establish an effective abortion control plan.

Review of diagnostic procedures and control of some viral diseases causing abortion and infertility in small ruminants in Egypt

Mohamed A. Mahmoud; Alaa A. Ghazy; Raafat M. Shaapan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 513-521
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127114.1461

Sheep and goats represent an essential source of meat, milk and wool production. Infectious viral diseases of small ruminants hinder the expected benefits from these animals. The aim of the present review was to shed light on diagnostic procedures and monitoring of some important infectious viral diseases that affect small ruminants. Border disease (BDV) is caused by Pestiviruses. The affected herds are usually expressed high rates of infertility and production of underweighted-lambs. Affected lambs usually die within days after lambing. A commercial killed whole virus vaccine was produced for BDV. Louping ill (LI) is caused by the Louping ill virus, which is transmitted by Ixods ricinus ticks. The LI virus typically causes fever, anorexia and encephalomyelitis. Death could occur 1-3 days after the beginning of signs. The available Louping ill vaccine is composed of inactivated killed virus. Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) is a tick-born infectious disease caused by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, characterized clinically by fever, abortion hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and high mortality. Inactivated killed oil adjuvant virus vaccines are available for the control of Nairobi sheep disease. Akabane disease (AKAV) is a Culicoides borne viral disease belongs to orthobunyavirus that has a teratogenic effect on the fetus of cattle and small ruminants. A live attenuated virus vaccine and inactivated virus are commonly used. This review concluded that the modern diagnostic tools are urgently needed not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring viral disease control and control programs.