Keywords : Deltamethrin


Synergizing the deltamethrin larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus larvae using cinnamaldehyde in Diwaniyah, Iraq

Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Dhafer R. Al-Fetly; Monyer A. Alfatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 317-320
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126026.1212

The current work on mosquito larvae was performed to evaluate the resistance status of larvae to deltamethrin (DM) and to detect if the larvicidal activity (LA) of this chemical could be synergized after exposing the larvae to cinnamaldehyde (CD). Here, 200 Aedes albopictus larvae were employed for the experiment and were divided randomly into 2 groups (100/each group and placed in petri-dishes (PD), 10 larvae/PD), and they are the DM group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l in 99ml of distilled water (DW) was placed to each PD) and the DM+CD group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l and 1ml of 0.9mg/l respectively were placed with 98ml DW in each PD). The experiment was lasted for 24hrs. Larvae were detected to have resistance against DM as 45% to 60% of the larvae were killed by the DM, 40% to 55% resistance rate. However, when evaluating DM activity with the use of CD, the LA was synergized showing mortality in 87% to 92% of the larvae in which a significant increase in the mortality in DM+CD group was noticed more than that in the DM group. Furthermore, RT-qPCR was run to identify the expression status of the P540 monooxygenase gene, Cyp6p15, and found that the gene expression was significantly inhibited in the DM+CD group when comparing that in the DM group that showed overexpression of this gene. This work results provide viable information about the potential activity of the cinnamaldehyde in synergizing the larvicidal activity of deltamethrin.

Impacts of processing heat treatments on deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk and raw milk from different animals

S.A. Abd Al-Zahra; A.J. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153790

A total of 163 milk samples (200 ml) human breast milk and (500 ml each) of cows, ewes, goats, buffaloes and camels were collected randomly at weekly intervals (10 samples/week) from Baghdad governorate. Among the total milk samples (138) milk samples were examined during two climatic periods from the beginning of September 2016 to the end of the February 2017 were tested for the occurrence of DMT residues by using the HPLC technique. Besides that, some of the selected positive samples were subjected to one of the commercial heat treatments such as 63°C/30 min, 80°C/5 min and 100°C/5 min to evaluate the efficiency of heat exposure on the degradation of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in milk. The results pointed out that milk samples containing the higher fat percentage exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest concentration of deltamethrin and bifenthrin in summer highest than in winter, increased the fat percentages of milk was being associated with an increased level of deltamethrin residues due to the lipophilic nature of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin pesticide. The current results revealed that milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes and cows recorded the highest deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season where their mean levels that exceeded the accepted MRLs of 0.05 ppm to milk samples of goats, camels and breast milk the lowest mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues. There was a seasonal variation of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin concentrations in milk samples for each animal species where all the milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes, cows, goats, camels and breast milk had higher mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season than in winter season. Data illustrated revealed that there was a seasonal variation in the mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk samples for each district village where all the milk samples that were collected from AL-Sader and AL-Karada districts had highest mean levels values in summer than in winter season.

Mini Review: Current tick control strategies in Pakistan are possible environmental risks

A. Iqbal; M. Usman; M. Abubakar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 81-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145601

Ticks infestation is the major problem of cattle and buffalo of Pakistan. Tick acts as vectors of many viral, protozoal and bacterial diseases and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is one of the most lethal in that list. During the last sixteen years, many sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in Pakistan has been reported with 24 percent case fatalities. In Punjab and Sind provinces mass tick control campaigns have been started to control the tick’s population and spread of zoonotic diseases through tick’s. In these tick control campaigns deltamethrin and ivermectin are used extensively. We highlighted that how extensive use of deltamethrin and ivermectin can adversely affect the environment and possible alternative methods for tick control. Extensive use of deltamethrin can damage the kidneys of insect eating birds and disturb the life cycle of many aquatic organisms if deltamethrin solution is mixed with water of streams. Widespread ivermectin use in domestic animals poses some serious threats to dung beetles and other coprophagic insects as almost 60-80 percent of total dose comes in feces without any metabolism in the body of animal. Decrease in dung beetles can result in decreased dung degradation.