Keywords : Dogs

New surgical model to induce irreversible liver fibrosis by surgical closure of major duodenal orifice in dogs

Marwan H. Khalil; Ahmed Khalaf Ali; Osamah muwaffag aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 825-831
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132219.2071

This study was conducted to induce and evaluate irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs by surgical closure of the major duodenal orifice. The study was performed on six healthy local adult dogs. Irreversible hepatic fibrosis was surgically induced in all animals by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla using non-absorbable suture material for 60 days. Induced hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by clinical, ultrasonographical examination, laboratory and histopathological methods. The clinical manifestation of the jaundiced dogs showed reduced food intake, pale-yellowish mucus membrane, inflammatory signs of wound site and severe post-operative pain. Biochemically, there was significant increased values of the aspartate aminotransferase ,  alkaline phosphatase , alanine aminotransferase , indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin especially during first two days after surgery followed by a gradual decrease of these values until the end of the but still higher than normal values. Ultrasonographic examinations showed abnormal change in the liver tissue such as increase in both size and wall thickness of the gall bladder and mottled heterogeneous appearance of the liver during the first two weeks following the surgical induction of the hepatic fibrosis and lasted until the end of the study. Histopathological evaluation of liver samples revealed necrosis of hepatocytes and deposition of eosinophilic material, infiltration of inflammatory cells, recent thrombus in the hepatic vein, fatty change. In conclusion, surgical induction of irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs was feasible technique by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla and the results were confirmed by the clinical, ultrasonographical, laboratory and histopathological examination.

Effect of autologous peritoneum and platelet-rich fibrin graft on healing of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

Nebras M. Raffea; Asmaa H. Allawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 459-470
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130529.1840

In the present study, the effect of autogenous peritoneum graft (PG) with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) was evaluated on intestinal anastomosis healing in dogs. Eighteen local breed adult dogs were anesthetized then jejunal intestinal resection and anastomosis were created on all animals. Animals were divided into 3 equal groups (6 for each). In first group (control): An end-to-end intestinal anastomosis was performed using simple interrupted suture pattern only. In group PG: The anastomosis site was sutured as in control group and was wrapped with PG. Where as in PRF+PG group: The anastomosis site was sutured also as in first group and was wrapped with PRF and PG. Healing process was studied in all above mentioned groups clinically, grossly, histologically and radiographically at 15 and 30 days post operation. Results were revealed that the utilizing of PG caused a valuable influence on anastomosis site healing. This impact was manifested by faster re-epithelization of mucosa, increased collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, reduced adhesions, and decreased stenosis degree comparison with control group. Also there was less adhesions, less stenosis degree, increased in epithelization of the mucosa in the group treated with PRF+PG than the group treated with PG alone. In conclusion the current study has shown that autologous peritoneal graft application has a positive and beneficial effect on intestinal anastomosis healing. Also the results highlighted the promising effects of PRF in conjunction with PG on intestinal anastomosis healing. The application of PRF with PG at the intestinal anastomosis site is successful, safe, and highly efficient with no complications.

The effect of therankeron D6 on the healing of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Ibraheem A. Zedan; Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Muneer S. Al-Badrany; Ahmed Kh. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 261-265
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129975.1712

To investigate the effects of systemic administration of Theranekron (Tarantula cubensis) extract as homeopathic remedy on anastomosis healing after surgical intestinal resection. Eight healthy stray dogs (age 1-1.5 years, weight 15-20 kgs) were randomly divided into two groups; control (4 animals) and treatment group (4 animals). Intestinal resection and anastomosis were performed in all animals in both groups. Theranekron D6 (3 ml) was administered subcutaneously one week before surgery and at operation time in the treatment group whereas animals of the control group were injected 3 ml of normal saline at the same time points of treatment group. All animals were kept for 15 days following surgery and a segment of intestine was removed for histopathological and press pressure measurement. The results showed that no post-operative complications have been observed in both groups. The gross examination of the anastomosis site revealed sever adhesions with omentum and other intestinal segment of the all animals of the control group in comparison to the treatment group where lesser adhesions with omentum without any adhesion with the other intestinal segment have been noticed. There was slight difference between control and treatment group in relation to histopathological examination. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that Theranekron was able to improve the healing process of the resected and anastomosed intestinal segment

Haematological, oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis

Chigozie Ukwueze; Ekemini S Akpan; Romanus C Ezeokonkwo; Chika I Nwosuh; Boniface M Anene

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125582.1094

Haematological changes, oxidative stress markers and electrolyte alterations were evaluated in puppies infected with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) that were presented to veterinary hospitals and clinics in South Eastern, Nigeria. Fifty-one dogs were used for the study and they were assigned into three groups. Group I consist of 21 diarrhoeic dogs naturally infected with canine parvovirus, groups II, were 15 diarrhoeic dogs uninfected with canine parvovirus and group III, were 15 apparently healthy dogs which served as the control. Immunochromatographic (IC) test was used to screen the dogs for canine parvovirus type 2 infections. The mean red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were significantly lower in the diarrhoeic infected than diarrhoeic non-infected and the control groups. The mean catalase (CAT) of diarrhoeic non-infected group was significantly lower than diarrhoeic infected group and the control. The mean malondialdehyde (MDA) of both diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups were significantly higher than the control. The mean serum sodium (Na+) level of the diarrhoeic non infected group was significantly lower than the diarrhoeic infected group. The mean serum potassium (K+) level was significantly lower both in diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups compared to the control groups. It was therefore concluded that the levels of oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations may not be affected by the origin or aetiology of a disease (CPV-2), but on the severity of the infection.

Incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors of dogs from Baghdad city: Clinical, cytological and histopathological features

Inam J. Lafta; Huda H. Alabbody

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125624.1111

The present study was conducted to estimate the incidence, clinical findings, cytological and histopathological characteristics of spontaneously occurring skin neoplasms in dogs. A total of 40 grossly suspected cases of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors were gathered during the period from July 2016 to August 2018 from male and female dogs in Baghdad city. Dogs with skin neoplasia revealed various clinical signs, and their ages were older than 5 years to 15 years. German shepherd 30% followed by Terrier dogs 25% were more influenced than other breeds. Concerning tumor features, the majority of neoplasms had solitary lesion 70%, regular shapes 65% with black color 55%. The tumors frequently occurred on fore-limbs and abdomen, and 80% of them lasted for 1-6 months. Cytological examination was valuable for initial evaluation of benign and malignant tumors. Its results were confirmed by the histopathology, in which the majority of neoplasms sized more than 5 cm and grade I. Nine different types of skin neoplasms were recognized, while 65% of them were malignant, the others were benign. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas were the most common comprising 35% and 25%, respectively.

Clinical and ultrasonographic study of using autogenous venous graft and platelet-rich plasma for repairing Achilles tendon rupture in dogs

A.H. Allawi; layth mahmoud Alkattan; osama muwaffag aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 453-460
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163199

The present article was aimed to assess the healing process of experimental entire rupture of Achilles tendon treated with various methods. The study was conducted on twenty-four healthy mature local breed dogs, which were randomly allocated in equal four experimental groups (6 of each). All dogs underwent complete Achilles tendon rupture and reconstructed as following: Group1 (control), animals were treated with tendorrhaphy only; Group 2, tendorrhaphy with platelet-rich plasma; Group 3, tendorrhaphy with a vein graft; and Group 4, the ruptured tendon was repaired with tendorrhaphy and augmented with vein and platelet-rich plasma. Dogs were monitored clinically and sonographically to evaluate tendon healing at 15, 30 and 60 days following the surgery. By comparison with the control group, the utilizing of plasma, with or without vein graft, enhanced the healing process of the induced rapture. Clinically, animals showed a fastest weight bearing and ultrasound imaging revealed increased echogenicity of fibrotic tissue. Clinically, the vein- platelet-rich plasma treated animal’s demonstrated early weight bearing, while animal treated with plasma showed earlier improvement in fiber pattern echogenicity. Furthermore, the using of vein graft for injury repair increased the repair process and the healing was earlier than that in the control group. In conclusions, our results suggested that the using of platelet-rich plasma with or without vein graft could enhance tendon healing and improve its mechanical function, which might be attributed to the synergistic effect of platelet-rich plasma with the vein graft.

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA test using anti- T. canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs compared to PCR

Noor Jarad; A.K. Abbas; N.N. Aἀiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 367-370
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163081

Toxocara (T.) canis is a nematode parasite of canines; belong to the Ascarididae family, which accidentally infected humans. Puppies expel the eggs with the feces from the fourth week of the life cycle. This study is the first study in Iraq for detection seroprevalence in stray dogs and extended from January to September 2017. Our study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of T. canis infection in stray dogs from different areas in the Al-Diwaniya province, Iraqto detection of specific IgG antibodies to T. canis compared to Conventional PCR technique with the effect of the risk factor. One hundred of the blood sample and one hundred of a faecal sample of same dogs after shooting were studied usingindirect ELISA test and PCR. The result revealed that 71% of the dogs had a seropositive result for this parasite by ELISA test. Dog age is an important factor and affects seroprevalence, were shown that positive rate in adult dogs was more 83.05% than the young dogs 53.65%, while no significant between dogs according to sex. PCR technique showed 58% of dogs were positive forinternal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal RNA. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test was 79 and 40% respectively.

Bone fractures in dogs: A retrospective study of 129 dogs

Mustafa Abd El Raouf; S.A. Ezzeldein; E.F.M. Eisa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 401-405
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163086

The aim of the present study was to evaluate 129 dogs with different breed, age and sex admitted to the clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University over a 2-year period with different kinds of fractures. Thorough clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to all animals.The results revealed thatGerman shepherd dogs (74.41%), immature dogs below 1 year of age (80.62%) and male dogs (57.36%) were the most susceptible to fractures. The percentages of fractures of the hind limb (48.06%) were the most common location of the fractures on animals followed by forelimb fractures (28.68%) then pelvic fractures (20.16%) and fractures of the mandible (3.1%). Femur fractures (27.13%) were the most common long bone fractures followed by tibia/fibula (15.5%) then radius/ulna (11.63%) and humerus (10.08%). About 79.84% of animals were treated by gypsona (42.72%), cross pins (22.33%), plate and screws (18.45%), intramedullary pins (14.56%) and wiring (1.94%). Satisfactory results were reported in 86.40% of treated animals and post-operative complications were reported in 13.60% of animals. It was concluded that immature and male dogs were more susceptible to bone fractures. Most of fixation methods are successful when basic principles of fracture repair are followed.

Effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma on skin healing in dogs

S. M. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 275-283
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153864

This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of using platelet– rich plasma (PRP) on wound healing. The study performed on ten adult male dogs, aged 2-3 years and their weight were 18-25 kg. Under the effect of deep sedation and local subcutaneous anesthesia at the site of wound, four of (2x2) cm of full-thickness square cutaneous wounds were induced, two on each side of the lateral thoracic region of each animal. A pair of left wounds was treated by injection with 5 mL of autonomous PRP (treatment group), 2 mm lateral to the wound edges and in the wound center., immediately after wounding while, right wounds, were injected with a single dose of 5ml of sterile saline (control group) by using the same procedure as in treatment group. The clinical and histopathological evaluation of each group for five weeks, histological biopsies were taken in the days (3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35) of the experiment. The clinical evaluation of PRP treated wounds showed that the wound healing process (% contraction, % re-epithelization and % total wound healing) were significantly more (P<0.05) than the control wounds during the five weeks study. The histopathological results revealed that PRP treated wounds have enhanced cellularity, increased vascularity, with increased amount of granulation tissue accompanied by increase numbers of skin appendages suggesting enhanced cutaneous regeneration, than those in untreated wounds. Depending on the clinical and histopathological findings, this study confirms that local implantation of PRP leads to acceleration and improvement cutaneous wound healing.

Incidence rate of breast cancer, clinical and ultrasound approaches to diagnosing the same in dogs

V. Salautin; V. Gorinsky; A. Molchanov; G. Demkin; N. Pudovkin; S. Salautina

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 155-159
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153843

Mammary gland tumors in dogs rank second among all newly diagnosed tumors in this species. Research goalwas to study clinical/morphological characteristics of breast cancer in dogs with the use of ultrasound investigation. 34 dogs of different breeds and age groups with spontaneously emerging neoplasms of mammary glands were chosen for the study. To classify malignant tumors, the histological classification was applied. Complete examination of breast tumors was carried out with the help of clinical observation, ultrasound, radiologic, hematological and ultrasonographic methods applied. The largest percentage (23.5%) of animals with mammary gland neoplasms are mongrel female dogs. The breed predisposition was detected in dogs of the following breeds: Miniature Schnauzer - 11.9%, Standard Dachshund - 11.9%, American Bulldog, American Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle - 8% each. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 29 animals (85.3%), 100% of those cases in the nodular form with microcalcifications in the tumor parenchyma. The horizontal orientation of growth is more often typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs I and II at the initial stage of carcinogenesis, and is characterized by an inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure with sufficiently pronounced boundaries detected during the ultrasound investigation. The vertical orientation of growth is mainly typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs III, IV and V from the very beginning of the disease. The ultrasonography usually shows: inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure containing inclusions in the form of cords or foci of a higher acoustic solidity; also clearly defined lateral acoustic shadows and dorsal echo enhancement; as well as unevenness and indistinctness of borders. The performed histological study within the current research revealed a multifocal, infiltrating epithelial neoplasm with distinct edges, surrounded by a large amount of fibrous tissue. The tumor consisted of a number of acini with a tendency of forming a network structure. The shape of cells was detected from round to irregular, the cytoplasm was found scarce, often with uneven borders, with the large central core, with chromophilic substance and 1-2 nucleoli. The cells were characterized by the pronounced anisocytosis and anisocariosis, and a great number of mitotic figures. Lymphatic invasion was observed. Ultrasound investigation of the mammary gland allows for performing percutaneous minimally invasive interventions and differential diagnostics of cystic and solid lesions of the mammary gland (96-100% accuracy), mastopathy and carcinoma conditions.

Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of dogs in rural areas of the north east of Algeria

F. Matallah; W. Khelaifia; S. Lamari; S. Matallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153829

Canine faeces are an important source of pathogens for the pet population, for dog owners and for the community in general. A total of 100 faecal samples taken from dogs, were examined for helminth eggs. 80 % of dogs examined are parasitized. Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum were the most commonly observed parasites. T. canis was observed with a prevalence of 68 % in the El Kala region, while in the region of Guelma, A. caninum were predominant with a rate of 71%. Dipylidium caninum and Trichuris were present but with low proportions especially in the region of Guelma. The climatic conditions seem to play a role in the excretion of helminth eggs, while the age plays a primordial role in particular for T. canis as well as for A. caninum. The absence of conscience of the owners of dogs and the lack of participation of the veterinarian role increase the risk of the parasitism of these animals and consequently for the public health in particular our children in the Northeast of Algeria.

Femur fractures and treatment options in 20 dogs admitted to our clinic from January 2013 to December 2015

M. Abd El Raouf; N.H.M. Mekkawy; A.M. AbdEl-Aal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145608

The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment of 20 dogs with femur fractures. Twenty (20) dogs with different ages, breeds, and gender admitted to the clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology-Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Zagazig University from January 2013 to December 2015 with a complaint of hind limb lameness and were diagnosed as femur fractures through clinical and radiographic examination. German shepherd dogs (85%) and immature dogs (70%) were more susceptible to femur fractures. The most common site of the fracture was the femoral diaphysis (65%) followed by metaphysis (20%). Open reduction and internal fixation techniques were applied using intramedullary (IM) pins with or without cerclage wire (40%) and bone plate (15%) for treatment of diaphyseal fractures, and two cross pins (30%) for treatment of metaphyseal and distal physeal fractures. Pin migration after complete healing (1 case) and bone re-fracture due to jumping (1 case) was the postoperative complications. It was concluded that open reduction and internal fixation methods are the proper treatment for femur fractures if the proper surgical techniques were applied.