Keywords : cattle


Morphological and Molecular diagnosis of Hypoderma spp. in Mosul city, Iraq

Duaa G. Alhamdany; Nadia S. alhayali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 255-259
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129942.1704

Hypodermosis is a distinctive ectoparasitic disease infesting cattle; Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum are the most common causes of this myasis. In this study 78 larvae were collected from infected cattle by extraction in the Educational Veterinary Hospital, from Kokjali and Bazwaya flocks and from the skin of slaughtered in Mosul abattoirs for the period from October 2020 to March 2021. Morphological identification by using stereomicroscope depending on patterns of spinulation of the 10th abdominal segment and peritremes structure of L3 classified as H. bovis and H. lineatum. Molecular technique by traditional PCR applied on 16 L3 of the genus Hypoderma revealed that the reaction product was 500 bp by amplification of mt CO1 gene while the results of PCR-RFLP using restriction TaqI enzyme for differentiation between the two species indicated reaction products 300bp for H. bovis and 200bp for H. lineatum respectively. The results of molecular analysis by PCR and PCR-RFLP proved the existence of these two species of Hypoderma in Mosul. 

RAPD-PCR and phylogenetic analysis of E. coli isolated from human and cattle urinary tract infections

Dunya A. Mraidi; Inam J. Lafta

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 59-66
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131100.1918

This study aimed at isolating uropathogenic Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections (UTIs) of human and cattle to examine the molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationship of the isolates. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from UTIs of human and cattle. The isolates identification was done using routine diagnostic methods and confirmed by Vitek2. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 10 antimicrobials. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to identify the genetic diversity among E. coli isolates from human and animal origin by using five different octamer primers. The gelJ software for the phylogenetic analysis created Dendrograms. Out of 50 human urine samples, E. coli was isolated from 12 (24%) samples, and was positive in 5 out of 50 (10%) of cattle urine samples. Concerning the antimicrobial susceptibility test, both human and animal isolates revealed rather approximate results when tested mainly against Imipenem, Cefotaxime, and Ciprofloxacin. These antimicrobial data might indicate presence of a degree of similarity between the human and animal isolates. Using RAPD-PCR, three of the primers produced polymorphic bands; therefore, they were used for further analysis of the results. Either of P1, P3 or P4 primers showed presence of similarity between human and cow isolates. To conclude,RAPD-PCR and gelJ software might be of attractive use to identify and analyze the occurrence of genetic relationships, as this could assist in controlling the routes and sources of infection transmission between human and animal in order to prevent zoonotic infections. 

A cross sectional study on the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Al-Najaf province in Iraq

Khaleel Z. Al-Alo; Ahmed J. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 617-620
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127143.1471

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in many countries of the middle east including Iraq, despite the high attempts to control the disease in animals using vaccination programs. The study was conducted from January - March 2012, to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the Al-Najaf province in Iraq, which represent risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle. Blood samples were collected from 172 cows and 15 bulls of 20 dual-purpose cattle herds. Serological examinations are the most useful and widely used tool for the diagnosis of brucellosis in man and animals. All animal serum samples were tested by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBT), and the positive cases were confirmed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The overall prevalence of brucellosis was 5.81% divided between 5.81% in females and 0% in males, and 40% as herd numbers level. Females showed a higher seropositive reaction to the disease than males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of the disease and detected the seropositive reactions in animal samples in different farms of the province, with a difference in infection rate regarding the risk factor. Sanitary measures must be taken to avoid the occurrence and spread of the disease in humans and animals.

Molecular and serological typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes currently circulating in Egypt

Maryam M. ِbd El-Rhman; Sayed A. Salem; Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid; Diea J. Abo El-Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 581-588
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127327.1495

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease affects all cloven- hoofed animals. The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiological situation of FMD in Egypt during 2017 and 2018, based on antigenic and genetic characterizations of FMD virus (FMDV). Thirty oral epithelia were collected from vaccinated animals (14 native cattle and 16 water buffaloes) showed clinical signs of FMD in four Egyptian governorates having outbreaks. In all collected samples the antigen detection was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the genetic characterization was done by using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were constructed for genetic characterization. The obtained results of FMDV antigen detection ELISA indicated that 50% of the examined samples were positive for FMDV and serotyped as serotype O 40%, serotype SAT2 33% and serotype A 27% respectively. RT-PCR confirmed the results of FMDV antigen detection by ELISA. Six amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for viral protein 1 (VP1) of FMD. Results demonstrated that genotype O was related to East Africa-3 (EA-3) topotype with 12.7% difference from vaccine strain O-IRN-8-2005-Pan-Asia-2. Furthermore, genotype A clustered into Asia topotype with 6% difference from vaccine strain A-IRN-1-2005. Meanwhile genotype SAT2 in 2018 was related to VII topotype but it was in close relation with strains isolated from Libya in 2012 with 94.3% amino acid identity that differ from the previously circulated SAT2 since 2012 and recorded recently in Egypt. The presented results confirmed the circulation of a new topotype of serotype SAT2.

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infections in cattle in Kirkuk province

Mohammed Y. Nooraldin; Shaheen A. Jaafar; Abdulmuniem I. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 331-334
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126832.1394

Neospora caninum was identified as a coccidian parasite as in 1988, before that date it was misclassified as Toxoplasma gondii based on structural similarities. The aim of this study was to determine theseroprevalence of N. caninum in cattle in Kirkuk Province. A total of 185 cattle serum samples were collected randomly. Data about ages, gender and abortion history of females were recorded. Serum samples were examined by using ELISA as a screening test for the detection of anti- N. caninum IgG antibodies of past infection. Results showed that 53 (28.6%) cattle were seropositive infected, with significantly higher seropositive infection of age group >2 years in comparison to other age groups 94.3%. The distribution of N. caninum of total infected cattle showed that the seropositive infection in females were 47(88.7%), which was more than males 6 (11.3%) with a highly significant difference. There were 22(48.8%) aborted cattle out of 47 infected cattle with N. caninum with no significant difference in comparison with the healthy group.

Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in Baghdad province, Iraq

H.H. Alseady; M.H. Kawan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 389-394
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163084

The objective of this study was to record the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium and to determine the Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in different parts of Baghdad province. A total number of 100 fecal samples from different age groups were collected. Conventional method using modified Ziehl-Neelsen for staining fecal smears and molecular techniques for detection the prevalence and determines the species of Cryptosporidium that cause infection. The overall prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium was 21% (21/100) by conventional method; nested PCR was done that targeting 18S rRNA gene on the same samples in which Cryptosporidium DNA identified in 38 samples (38%). Four species of Cryptosporidium in cattle were detected for the first time in Baghdad province: C. parvum (6/10), C. andersoni (2/10), C. bovis (1/10) and C. ryanae (1/10). The determination and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle was very important to avoid the infection to other animals and handlers and for applying control programs.

Phylogenetic tree analysis study of bovine papillomaviruses type 1 based on L1 gene in Al-Qadisiyah governorate, Iraq

Khalefa Ali Mansour; Hassan Hachim Naser; Muthanna Hadi Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 151-155
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125535.1057

Bovine fibropapilloma and papilloma occur in different parts of the skin of animals. Bovine Papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus making benign tumor lesion of together mucosal and cutaneous tissue in cattle. In order to confirm the clinical diagnosis; the study planned to make the molecular detection of BPV (DNA) using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) from skin lesions and the phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-eight samples of skin lesions were collected from cattle clinically suspected to be infected with bovine papilloma virus from herds in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate in 2016, the primary clinical diagnosis depended on the morphological appearance and features of the lesion. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) was extracted from skin lesions; the DNA was examined by PCR technique using specific primer to BPV-1 /L gene-1. Twenty-two samples out of 38 (57,9%), which were collected from different regions in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, were positive. The sequences of four positive samples of DNA product amplification of (BPV) type-1, L1 gene confirmed the PCR results. These samples had the DNA presented in four accession numbers KY662042-1, KY662043-1, KY662040-1 and KY662041-1. This study proofed that cutaneous bovine papillomatosis related with BPV-1 infection in the cattle herds has affinity to solid skin rather than other epithelial and mucosal tissue.

Characterizing physiological status in three breeds of bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region

L.V. Osadchuk; M.A. Kleschev; O.I. Sebezhko; O.S. Korotkevich; N.I. Shishin; T.V. Konovalova; K.N. Narozhnykh; V.L. Petukhov

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 35-42
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126708

Ecological and climatic factors have an impact on the health, productivity and reproduction of the cattle. The goal of this work is the study of physiological status of servicing bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region, by defining the differences between Red-Steppe, Simmental and Black-and-White breeds in spermatogenic, hormonal, biochemical and hematological parameters. Samples of peripheral blood and ejaculates were taken from 48 grown-up servicing bulls (average age 5.6±0.3 years) in autumn period. It was established that Red-Steppe bulls have higher concentrations of nonorganic phosphorus, leucocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in comparison with animals of Simmental breed, and the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit are also higher in comparison with Black-and-White breed. It was noted that bulls of Black-and-White breed have a higher level of cortisol in comparison with the other breeds. The lowest level of serum urea and total protein and increased serum activity of creatine kinase and γ-glutamyl transferase, as well as the heaviest body weight were observed in Simmental breed bulls. The differences between breeds in a wide spectrum of physiological measures reflect not only genetically determined peculiarities of homeostatic mechanism, but also may reflect different ability to adapt to local ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region. Spermatogenic, biochemical and hematological measures in bull sires reared in the Altai region were similar to those in bulls bred in other Russian regions and some other countries. The measures reported could serve as reference values and therefore represent ‘normal’ values of physiological status for these bull sires reared in this ecological and climatic zone, but could be utilized in further studies for comprehensive monitoring of cattle breeding stock in other ecological and climatic zones of the Siberian region of Russia.

The first unequivocal report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116859

The aim of present study was to report spontaneous Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) infection in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (E. intestinalis) infection in cattle in Mosul city - Iraq. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 142 rabbits and 115 cattle during the period from June, 2012 to June, 2013. Thin smears were prepared from the fecal samples and stained with different fecal stains, as well as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. Infected rabbits were necropsied and pathology of the infection was described. The result showed that microsporidiosis was detected in 41 (26.9%) rabbits and in 12 (10.4%) cattle. E. cuniculi spores were identified in 31 out of the 41 rabbits (73.2%) and E. intestinalis in 7 out of the 12 cattle (58.3%). Infected rabbits showed vasculitis, granulomatous encephalitis, chronic interstitial nephritis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholangitis, vasculitis and non – suppurative pneumonia, infiltration of mononuclear cells in most layers of the intestines, and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues. E. cuniculi spores were seen in the liver, kidneys and lungs. This study considered the first one that report microsporidiosis (E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis) in Mosul city - Iraq.

Clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic studies on bovine tropical theileriosis in Faisalabad, Pakistan

M.I. Saleem; A. Tariq; A. Shazad; S.A. Mahfooz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.116957

While screening of selected herds of cattle (each having minimum 15 animals), 28 animals were found positive for tropical
theileriosis (Theileria annulata) from a total of 260. The overall bi-monthly incidence rate was 10.8% from April-July, 2011 in
Faisalabad. 89.3% and 10.71% in females and males respectively. To check breed wise prevalence, 4 out of all 28 positive
animals were of Red Sindhi and Dhanni showing 14.2% prevalence, and rests of all were crossbred with 85.71% prevalence.
The bi-monthly incidence during April-May was 28.57% while in June-July this was 71.42%. The suspected cattle were
subjected to analysis by making thin blood and lymph smears. After confirmation, 28 animals were divided into two equal
groups. The animals of group A were treated with extracts of Peganum harmala harmala at the dose rate of 7 mg/kg b.w
intramuscularly while those of group B were treated with buparvaqoune at-the dose rate of 2.5mg/kg b.w intramuscularly
(According to manufactured Comp.). Twelve animals were recovered after treatment with P. harmala (85.71%) and 2 could
not be cured and died (14.28%) while in case of animals treated with buparvaquone, 13 cattle recovered (92.85%) and one
animal died (7.14%). The obtained data were then subjected to Chi-Square Test for analysis of variance.

Comparative study of the auricle and external acoustic meatus of the cattle and buffalo

S. Al-Sadi; A. A. Hasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67456

The present work was design to study the anatomical features and radiographic appearance of auricle and external acoustic meatus of cattle and buffalo, collected from (12) sample of heads were used in this study, there were equally divided into three groups: first group to study the shape, position and relation of cartilage, muscles and ligament of auricle in both animals, second group to study the measurements of external acoustic meatus, and the third group study morphological and radiographical of external acoustic meatus in both animal, the study revealed that the auricle is a flapy flashy appendage attached to the side of the skull by muscles and ligaments, the auricle is funnel shape, distally is wide open, but more proximally, it is rolled up to form a tube that bend medially to be connected to the external acoustic meatus, the auricle in both animals is composed of three cartilage: the part auricular, scutiform and annular cartilage also auricular muscle and ligament which support the external ear. The result of this study shows that intrinsic auricular muscles is more developed in buffalo, while the greater parts of the extrinsic auricular muscles are developed in both animals. The present work shows that the frontoauricular muscles are distinguish into two parts in buffalo and cattle on the other hand the interscutularis muscle thin fibers and attached with scutuloauricularis prefunds muscle in buffalo, also the parotidauriculares narrower and thicker in cattle, but a ribbon -like muscle thin and wide in buffalo. The external acoustic meatus begins where the rolled up part of the annular cartilage narrows and ends, the meatus has cartilaginous and osseous parts it is lined with skin the study provided that acoustic meatus about 5.667±0.0816 cm of length in cattle and 6.500± 0.126 cm in buffalo, the aim of present work is to report more detailed information about the auricle and meatus in both animal for value importment can easily examined by the speculum the shortness of the meatus should be courses of the risk of injuring of the tympanic membrane and to be able to pass the otoscope tube through the external meatus and to recognize the eardrum when it is seen, to know the surgical anatomy of auricle and acoustic meatus and to know the relationship of vessels and nerve that must be avoid during surgery and to be able to recognize all parts of the temporal bone on radiographs.