Keywords : Toxoplasma gondii

Comparison the efficiency of different techniques for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered ewes

Sura S. Aghwan; Haitham S. Al-Bakri; Sadam M. Albaqqal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127058.1452

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of human and other warm-blooded animals causes toxoplasmosis. In the present study a total of 50 uterus samples collected from slaughtered ewes were investigated for detection of T. gondii. Several techniques have been used to diagnose the infection with this parasite. Firstly, the impression smears staining methods used for the all samples using giemsa stain. Secondly, uses of direct fluorescence technique by acridine orange method for staining the impression smears of the uteri. As well as the histological section technique was used to determine the developmental growth stages of the parasite of all uterus samples and finally the serological method by latex agglutination test was used for the detection of antibodies of parasite. The results showed that detection of T. gondii using these four methods was 100, 80, 80 and 50%, respectively. It was concluded that the impression smears of the uterus staining with Giemsa stain was more readily, effectively and efficiently, followed by the direct immunofluorescence technique and histological section stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain technique, and finally the serological method.

Comparative study on the effect of cadmium and hydrocortisone treatment on the brain of rats experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

Karam H. Al-Mallah; Sura S. Aghwan; Qaes T. Alsarhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 771-775
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128436.1575

This study was dedicated to detecting the effects of cadmium chloride and of cortisone on experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii in rats through studying brain tissue. Twenty-four adult albino male rats were used, divided into four groups, comprising: untreated control as group 1, group 2: infected with intraperitoneal injection of Toxoplasma gondii 80 tissue cysts per animal, group 3: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride 1.5mg/kg once a week, group 4: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone in a dose 0.5 mg/kg once a week. After 30 days of treatment for all groups, the animals were sacrificed, and the gross and histopathological examinations were performed on the brains of the rats. The results revealed the presence of changes in the infected groups including appearance of toxoplasma tissue cysts in the grey matter, with mild to moderate perineuronal and periaxonal edema. There were further changes observed in infected groups which treated with cadmium chloride including perineuronal satelletosis, perineuronal edema and demyelination in neuronal axons, otherwise the infected groups treated with cortisone did not show any noticeable difference from the group of infection only. It is concluded that cadmium increase the intensity of occurrence of lesions induced by Toxoplasma gondii in the brain tissue of the rats, considering that all noticeable lesions ranged from mild to moderate in severity, and the differences between groups may be related to the nature of the pathogen used. 

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies in meat juice of beef

Raafat Shaapan; Nagwa I. Toaleb; Eman H. Abdel-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 319-324
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126829.1390

Toxoplasmosis is an important worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. Infected cattle meats is considered a serous cause of human toxoplasmosis. Here, this study assesses the infection with Toxoplasma gonddi (T. gondii) in cattle using meat juice samples from diaphragmatic muscles collected at the slaughter. An in house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) followed by immunoblotting were developed on the meat juice (fluids) using tachyzoites of locally isolated T. gondii strain. The comparative analysis of the results of the tested juice samples showed an excellent agreement between the in-house indirect ELISA and LAT test in the positive and negative of meat juice. Relative sensitivity was higher for ELISA on diaphragms fluids random samples 80.39%, for the LAT test was 68.6%. Immune-reactive bands of T. gondii local strain Ag with naturally infected meat juice were 116, 83, 65, 30 and 23 KDa. The obtained results concluded that the development of an effective ELISA test to be used in for detection of toxoplasmosis infection of slaughtered cattle in large-scale would be exactly valuable, since the important role that beef plays in epidemiology of T. gondii, in particular the hazard of transmission to human and food safety.

Using species-specific PCR technique to detect Toxoplasma gondii in broiler chickens

R.A. Al-Sanjary; T.H. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 53-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67452

Two groups of broiler chickens were used in this study. One was reared under typical conditions at the animal house of Veterinary Medicine College/Mosul University- Iraq, while the other group was reared under common commercial farm conditions. Fifty and 80 birds from the two respective groups were sacrificed at 49 days of age for detecting Toxoplasma gondii by using Species-specific PCR technique. Results of Latex agglutination test indicated, principally, that 29.3% and 49.2% of the serum samples were positive for the birds of both groups, respectively. Titer figures ranged between 1:20 to 1:320 where the highest value was 1:160 (39.3%) and the lowest was 1:20 (5.8%). Confirmation of 38 and 64 serum samples, using Latex agglutination test was performed by PCR technique, from the two respective groups of chickens. Of those, 8 samples from the college birds and 35 from the commercial farm birds were confirmed positive by giving band of 133 bp, according to specific primers designated on gene B1.Based on these results, pursuing the PCR technique is considered, so far, a most sensitive method for Toxoplasma gondii detection. Also, positive PCR results are counted on as an early marker for reactivation and useful means in monitoring therapies.

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses in Mosul, Iraq

Mohammad N. Alshahery; Reem S. Mansour

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 39-41
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168677

This study was aimed to verify the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in equine sera in Mosul city, Iraq. Seventy nine samples of sera were examined (70 female and 9 male) by latex agglutination test (LAT) and 2–Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Results showed that anti-bodies to T. gondii using LAT were detected in 72.2% (71.4% female and 77.8% male) whereas 57% (57.1% female and 55.6% male) of infected horses were detected by 2-ME.