Keywords : Raw Milk


Detection of Shigella in raw bovine milk by polymerase chain reaction

Noor Soulieman; Aemaan Al-Mariri; Faizah Al-Atrash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125758.1146

Shigella is an intracellular bacterium can infect both human and animal. Its species especially Shigella dysenteriae cause shigellosis worldwide, with 165 million cases of severe bloody diarrhea and mucoid feces. The aim of this study was to find a rapid, sensitive and specific method for screening Shigella in raw bovine contaminated milk. For this goal, 70 samples of milk collected in sterile containers for isolating of Shigella and culturing it on selective media to identify and characterize its morphology, biochemical and molecular characteristics. This study was compared between three different DNA extraction techniques for polymerase chain reaction (direct DNA extraction using a kit, alkaline DNA extraction, and filtrated milk). Our results showed that PCR was able to detect Shigella in 15 out of 15 cases after the milk samples filtered. In other words, the filter technique can be used to detect Shigella in contaminated milk.

Impacts of processing heat treatments on deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk and raw milk from different animals

S.A. Abd Al-Zahra; A.J. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153790

A total of 163 milk samples (200 ml) human breast milk and (500 ml each) of cows, ewes, goats, buffaloes and camels were collected randomly at weekly intervals (10 samples/week) from Baghdad governorate. Among the total milk samples (138) milk samples were examined during two climatic periods from the beginning of September 2016 to the end of the February 2017 were tested for the occurrence of DMT residues by using the HPLC technique. Besides that, some of the selected positive samples were subjected to one of the commercial heat treatments such as 63°C/30 min, 80°C/5 min and 100°C/5 min to evaluate the efficiency of heat exposure on the degradation of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in milk. The results pointed out that milk samples containing the higher fat percentage exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest concentration of deltamethrin and bifenthrin in summer highest than in winter, increased the fat percentages of milk was being associated with an increased level of deltamethrin residues due to the lipophilic nature of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin pesticide. The current results revealed that milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes and cows recorded the highest deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season where their mean levels that exceeded the accepted MRLs of 0.05 ppm to milk samples of goats, camels and breast milk the lowest mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues. There was a seasonal variation of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin concentrations in milk samples for each animal species where all the milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes, cows, goats, camels and breast milk had higher mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season than in winter season. Data illustrated revealed that there was a seasonal variation in the mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk samples for each district village where all the milk samples that were collected from AL-Sader and AL-Karada districts had highest mean levels values in summer than in winter season.