Keywords : Mycotoxin

Pathological study of genitourinary invasion by Aspergillus flavus in male rats

Sadeq O. Kadhim; Inam B. Faleh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 87-94
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131580.1974

Due to the widespread of A. flavus spores and the high risk of its mycotoxins in our environment, we investigated the pathological effects of A. flavus on genitourinary system in experimental rats using a whole sonicated antigen (WSA), and modified mycotoxin (mycotoxoid) in the immunization process. Fifty albino male rats were involved, subdivided into five group, each group of 10 male rats. Group one as a negative control received phosphate buffer saline, group two as a positive control received a challenge dose of 1×106 /0.5ml viable conidia/rat, while group three was immunized by a mixture of WSA and mycotoxoid, G4 was immunized by WSA alone, and G5 was immunized by mycotoxoid alone. The immunization was performed in two doses with 2 weeks interval. The results showed a high immune response (in group three G3) stimulated by the mixture (WSA and mycotoxoid), which revealed a significant increase in both IL-17 and IFN-γ. After experimental infection, the sero-analysis showed a significant increase in IL-17 and IFN-γ serum levels compared with the mixture-immunized group which showed no significant increases. In addition, the histopathologic sections illustrated severe chronic inflammation with a typical fungal granulomatous reaction in the prostate glands and kidneys compared with the WSA-immunized groups which showed mild histological reactions. Finally, we conclude that A. flavus is a serious opportunistic pathogen that can disseminate into genitourinary organs inducing severe pathologic lesions and even death. Moreover, we found that immunization by WSA and mycotoxoid can significantly reduce both immune and histopathological effects of A. flavus and its mycotoxins.

Using T cell lymphokines to enhance the immune response against Newcastle disease in vaccinated broiler chickens fed naturally contaminated diet with different mycotoxins

Basher H. Saud; Mushtaq T. AL-Zuhariy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 427-433
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125977.1204

The current study aimed to reduce the toxic effect of different mycotoxins and enhance the immunity against ND virus in broiler chickens by using lymphokines from hyperimmunized birds with Salmonella typhymurium. The study included three stages, the first stage included isolating Salmonella typhymurium. The second stage was immunized chicks with Salmonella typhymurium. The final stage of the study was accomplished by treating 250 broiler chicks (divided into 5 groups, 50 chicks /each) with the following treatments; G1: 0.5 ml lymphokines was injected I/P at day one old with live ND vaccine (la Sota strain) after 30 minutes in drinking water, the process repeated after 10 days; G2: the same as in G1 but inactivated killed vaccine was used s/c,no repetition was carried out at 10 days ; G3: a combination of G1 and G2 with revaccination of live La Sota vaccines only at 10 days; G4 : only vaccinated with live La Sota vaccine repeated at 10 days; G5: no treatments (negative control). All groups were challenge with local isolate of NDV (100ELD50 105) at 25 days, all groups except the fifth group were fed on contaminated diet withmycotoxin. The results of the present study showed a significant increase (P <0.05) in antibodies titre against ND in the third group, followed by the first and second groups Measured by ELISA and hemagglutination (HI) test, A significant decrease (P >0.05) in the oxidation status (H2O2, MDA and LPO) and significant increase in the antioxidant defense (GSH-PX) in the liver and spleen samples. We conclude from the current study that the Salmonella immune lymphokines (SIL) helps in enhancement the level of immunity against Newcastle disease and n reduction the side effects of which mycotoxin.