Keywords : ELISA

Detection of Maedi-visna virus in sheep in Nineveh province

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi; Dhiyaa A. Mossa; Mozahim Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129075.1622

This is a primary study in detecting a specific antibody of the Maedi-visna virus (MVV) in blood samples and viral antigen in nasal swabs from sheep. Two hundred and forty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from sheep of different ages and health statuses in Nineveh province, Iraq. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay was used to detect specific antibodies against MVV specific proteins gp135 and p25, Whereas Agar gel immune diffusion (AGID) was used to detect antigens from nasal swabs using specific antibodies against gp135 proteins of MVV. Serological results using ELISA showed the total prevalence of MMV 22.9% and the highest prevalence of infection in sheep less than one-year-old 36.5% when compared with older animals 8.4%. Animals that suffering from respiratory problems had a higher prevalence of infection 25.7% compared with healthy animals 6.9%. AGID showed an identical reaction between Maedi-visna viruses and specific rabbit antisera with a total infection rate of 12.9%. The highest prevalence of infection was 22.4% recorded in animals less than one-year-old, the lowest percentage of infection in animals more than two years of age was 1.4%. Animals suffering from respiratory signs also showed high prevalence of infection 13.8%, while the lowest percentage of infection were recorded in healthy animals 4.6%. It has been concluded that the high prevalence of infection rate in sheep less than one-year-old and the animals which suffered from respiratory problems had higher prevalence according to ELISA and AGID testes.

Diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats raw milk by fast and reliable techniques

Dhary A. Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 663-668
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127697.1523

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goats’ raw milk samples by detecting anti-Brucella antibodies and Brucella species at Erbil governorate. A total of 320 raw milk samples (150 sheep milk and 170 goats milk) were irregularly collected from dairy females. The overall occurrence of Brucella antibodies in samples of sheep and goats raw milk was 11.6% and 9.7% according to MRT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Isolation of Brucella (B.) species from samples of raw milk was 7.8%. The isolated species of Brucella were B. melitensis and B. abortus. A noticeable increase in frequency during September to November was observed. In conclusion, brucellosis is still a considerable public health threat in the Erbil. Based on the tests performance, the study recommends MRT in standard observing of brucellosis in milk aggregate farms, centers, and dairy manufactories. Customers are also recommended to adequately pasteurize the milk in order to damage this milk-borne pathogen before ingestion or saleable handling.

Comparison study between the efficacy of immune complex and conventionally live vaccine against Gumboro disease in broilers

Fanar A. Isihak; Hana Kh. Ismail; Abdulwahid A. Wahid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 627-632
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127366.1499

This study aimed to evaluate the immune response and histological changes of two Gumboro disease vaccines. Two hundred, days old broilers were divided into 4 groups: group A was vaccinated with live attenuated infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine at 7 and 21 days of age, group B was vaccinated with Immune-Complex vaccine (Icx) at 1 day old, then all broilers of the groups A, B and C were vaccinated with ND vaccine at 10 and 24 days, while the group D was negative control. The blood was collected at 1, 7,14,21,28 and 35 days of age to obtain serum for ELISA. Samples of bursa from broilers of all groups at 14 and 28 days of age were submitted for histological examination. As a result of vaccination in group A the antibody titers are elevated after the 1st and 2nd dose of vaccination at 7 and 21 days. In group B this titer is increased from 21 day of age and reaches to peak at 35 day 7810±858 with significant difference, while in unvaccinated groups C and D the titer decreased gradually. The histological examination of bursal sections in group A and B varied at 14 and 28 days post vaccination and showed degeneration and necrosis of follicular lymphocytes compared with group and D. Thus we conclude that (Icx) vaccine improves the immune response after IBD and ND vaccination in comparison with live IBD vaccine. 

Molecular and serological typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes currently circulating in Egypt

Maryam M. ِbd El-Rhman; Sayed A. Salem; Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid; Diea J. Abo El-Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 581-588
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127327.1495

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease affects all cloven- hoofed animals. The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiological situation of FMD in Egypt during 2017 and 2018, based on antigenic and genetic characterizations of FMD virus (FMDV). Thirty oral epithelia were collected from vaccinated animals (14 native cattle and 16 water buffaloes) showed clinical signs of FMD in four Egyptian governorates having outbreaks. In all collected samples the antigen detection was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the genetic characterization was done by using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were constructed for genetic characterization. The obtained results of FMDV antigen detection ELISA indicated that 50% of the examined samples were positive for FMDV and serotyped as serotype O 40%, serotype SAT2 33% and serotype A 27% respectively. RT-PCR confirmed the results of FMDV antigen detection by ELISA. Six amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for viral protein 1 (VP1) of FMD. Results demonstrated that genotype O was related to East Africa-3 (EA-3) topotype with 12.7% difference from vaccine strain O-IRN-8-2005-Pan-Asia-2. Furthermore, genotype A clustered into Asia topotype with 6% difference from vaccine strain A-IRN-1-2005. Meanwhile genotype SAT2 in 2018 was related to VII topotype but it was in close relation with strains isolated from Libya in 2012 with 94.3% amino acid identity that differ from the previously circulated SAT2 since 2012 and recorded recently in Egypt. The presented results confirmed the circulation of a new topotype of serotype SAT2.

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infections in cattle in Kirkuk province

Mohammed Y. Nooraldin; Shaheen A. Jaafar; Abdulmuniem I. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 331-334
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126832.1394

Neospora caninum was identified as a coccidian parasite as in 1988, before that date it was misclassified as Toxoplasma gondii based on structural similarities. The aim of this study was to determine theseroprevalence of N. caninum in cattle in Kirkuk Province. A total of 185 cattle serum samples were collected randomly. Data about ages, gender and abortion history of females were recorded. Serum samples were examined by using ELISA as a screening test for the detection of anti- N. caninum IgG antibodies of past infection. Results showed that 53 (28.6%) cattle were seropositive infected, with significantly higher seropositive infection of age group >2 years in comparison to other age groups 94.3%. The distribution of N. caninum of total infected cattle showed that the seropositive infection in females were 47(88.7%), which was more than males 6 (11.3%) with a highly significant difference. There were 22(48.8%) aborted cattle out of 47 infected cattle with N. caninum with no significant difference in comparison with the healthy group.

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies in meat juice of beef

Raafat Shaapan; Nagwa I. Toaleb; Eman H. Abdel-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 319-324
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126829.1390

Toxoplasmosis is an important worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. Infected cattle meats is considered a serous cause of human toxoplasmosis. Here, this study assesses the infection with Toxoplasma gonddi (T. gondii) in cattle using meat juice samples from diaphragmatic muscles collected at the slaughter. An in house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) followed by immunoblotting were developed on the meat juice (fluids) using tachyzoites of locally isolated T. gondii strain. The comparative analysis of the results of the tested juice samples showed an excellent agreement between the in-house indirect ELISA and LAT test in the positive and negative of meat juice. Relative sensitivity was higher for ELISA on diaphragms fluids random samples 80.39%, for the LAT test was 68.6%. Immune-reactive bands of T. gondii local strain Ag with naturally infected meat juice were 116, 83, 65, 30 and 23 KDa. The obtained results concluded that the development of an effective ELISA test to be used in for detection of toxoplasmosis infection of slaughtered cattle in large-scale would be exactly valuable, since the important role that beef plays in epidemiology of T. gondii, in particular the hazard of transmission to human and food safety.

Detection of multiple presence of antibiotic residues in slaughtered sheep at Duhok abattoir, Iraq

Shireen A. Yousif; Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126259.1276

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and/or multi-presence of tetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and gentamicin residues in slaughtered sheep carcasses at Duhok abattoir using ELISA technique. Eighty-eight samples were collected from different sites of twenty-two sheep carcasses. These samples included Longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney. The samples were prepared, homogenized, extracted and assayed according to ELISA kit instructions. The results revealed that all 22 carcasses were contained at least one type of tested antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic residues were found in 17(77.27%) of examined carcasses. The study indicated that local ovine meat sold in Duhok province generally contained residues of antibiotics. Animals slaughtered might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.

Molecular detection and seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province, Iraq

Farhad B. Mikaeel; Adel T. Al-Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 247-252
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125885.1173

Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease of mammals and birds; human infection occurs through consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Little was known about the infection rate of T. gondii among free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the infection rate in Duhok province by using ELISA (IgG) and conventional PCR. A total of 368 blood samples were collected from free range local chickens distributed in five different areas of Duhok province during the period from November 2016 to March 2017. The collected blood samples were from different sexes (hens and cocks) and from different age groups (less than 6 months and older than 6 months). The data found that the total infection rate was (84 / 368) 22.8% by ELSIA. The presence of the infection was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. In this study, there were differences from area to area in the infection rates, the highest rate was reported in Semel district at 33.7% which was significantly (p

Clinical, serological and antigenic study of feline panleukopenia virus in cats in Baghdad, Iraq

Mohammad M. Zenad; Amanee M. Radhy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 435-439
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125960.1201

 (FPL) is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. This study was performed in the Baghdad capital city of Iraq from January 2018 -to- February 2019. Fecal and blood samples were collected from both diarrheic and non-diarrheic 180 cats, of both sexes. Hundred pet and eighty stray cats were divided into 2 groups according to their ages: > 1-year and < 1-year. Fecal samples were checked for presence of FPL virus antigens by rapid antigen test kit (immunochromatography assay) and blood samples were tested for presence of FPL virus specific antibodies by ELISA test as well as the study of blood parameters of cats. Forty cats 22.2% were infected with FPL virus by ICG assay, while a high percentage of total seropositive rate 65 (36.1%) was founded by ELISA test. Significant higher infection 27.5% and seropositive 36.7% rates were observed in cats less than one-year age. Clinically the infected cats showed multi-systemic signs and the vomiting was the more frequent sign 87.5%, hematological changes showed significant decrease in hemogram values and prolonged clotting time, the total leukocytic count was lowered in infected cats and this owing to significant decrease in absolute numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils. In conclusion FPL virus was widely spread in Baghdad and higher infection rate was recorded in a stray cat.

Follow up the antibodies titer against Newcastle disease virus in broiler breeders using ELISA test

Fanar A. Isihak; Salah M. Hassan; Balqees Z. Shaker; Yasir A. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 295-299
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125931.1189

The study period carried out from 25 April 2018 till 21 May 2019 through the rearing and production period including totally of 24000 birds (20800 females, 3200 males). The number of tested blood samples was 452 divided to 255 samples at the rearing period, 143 samples at the production period and 54 samples of offspring. The results of antibodies titer in the sera of non-vaccinated broiler breeders obtained by ELISA showed the maternal derived antibodies titer for 28 samples at 0-5 week/day of age was 5716±612.7, this titer decreased gradually at 3-1 week/day age till to 1075±234) Then the titer was elevated increasingly after vaccination with both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines and reach to peak 37512±2049.4 at 20-1 week/day age. Whereas the bimodal graduation of antibodies titer showed at production period till to end of study. The mean of maternally antibodies titer in the tested sera of the offspring chicks 0-1 week/day that hatched from parent flocks at 32, 39 and 48 weeks of age was 9012±872.4, 6591±368.1 and 4831±982.7 respectively. Thus, we concluded the repetitive vaccination of broiler breeders flock with live vaccine as well as inactivated vaccine is very necessary in endemic areas and ELISA is a good serological test for following, checking and monitoring of immune status of poultry flocks periodically.

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA test using anti- T. canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs compared to PCR

Noor Jarad; A.K. Abbas; N.N. Aἀiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 367-370
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163081

Toxocara (T.) canis is a nematode parasite of canines; belong to the Ascarididae family, which accidentally infected humans. Puppies expel the eggs with the feces from the fourth week of the life cycle. This study is the first study in Iraq for detection seroprevalence in stray dogs and extended from January to September 2017. Our study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of T. canis infection in stray dogs from different areas in the Al-Diwaniya province, Iraqto detection of specific IgG antibodies to T. canis compared to Conventional PCR technique with the effect of the risk factor. One hundred of the blood sample and one hundred of a faecal sample of same dogs after shooting were studied usingindirect ELISA test and PCR. The result revealed that 71% of the dogs had a seropositive result for this parasite by ELISA test. Dog age is an important factor and affects seroprevalence, were shown that positive rate in adult dogs was more 83.05% than the young dogs 53.65%, while no significant between dogs according to sex. PCR technique showed 58% of dogs were positive forinternal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal RNA. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test was 79 and 40% respectively.

The serological diagnosis of canine Leishmaniasis by using ELISA in Nineveh province

Wasan Amjad Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163194

This study was to investigate the specific antibodies of Leishmania using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to detect the specific antibodies of the Leishmania donovani complex (L.infatum, L.chagasi, L. donovani) in 80 dogs of both types (domestic and stray dogs) of different ages and both sexes in the Nineveh Province for the period from May 2018 to October 2018. Some animals suffered from the appearance of skin ulcers in the face and quarters and diarrhea, vomiting, Paw pad fissures, the other animals did not show any clinical finding. The results showed that the total infection rate was 55%, the highest percentage of dogs with skin lesions 80.9% with significant differences with other groups, the stray dog's groups recorded high infective rate when compared with domestic dog group 62.96 and 38.4% respectively with significant differences.

Seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale in domestic animals in Erbil, Iraq

K.A.H. Ameen; B.A. Abdullah; R.A. Abdul-Razaq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 109-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168747

Seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale in cattle, sheep, goats and wild goats was studied in Erbil district, between January to December 2010. A total of 184 blood samples were collected from 44 cattle, 59 sheep , 70 goats and 11 wild goats for the preparation of blood smears and serum samples which tested against B. bigemina and A. marginale using the SVANOVIR®^ B. bigemina-Abs and A. marginale-Abs ELISA Kit. The overall prevalence of B. bigemina infection was 12 (27.27%), 4 (6.77%), 5 (7.14%) and 1 (9.09%) in cattle, sheep, goats and wild goats and for A. marginale 4 (9.09%), 2 (3.38%), 3 (4.28%) and 1 (9.09%) respectively. The co-infections between B. bigemina and A. marginale were 25% in cattle, 33.33% in sheep, 37.50% in goats and 50% in wild goats.The seasonal prevalence of B.bigemina , A. marginale and co-infection between them peaked in both spring and summer as revealed by blood smear examination and ELISA.