Keywords : Rats

Simultaneous determination of pethidine pharmacokinetics in rats: The impact of tramadol coadministration

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Zainab T. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 261-267
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133824.2307

The rats model has never thoroughly investigated the influence of tramadol on plasma pethidine concentration besides pethidine pharmacokinetics. Individually, analgesic ED50s for pethidine and tramadol are estimated as 3.55 and 24.21 mg/kg, i.p. Subsequently, their measures decreased to 1.65 and 11.27 mg/kg, i.p., when both were given in combination at 1:1 from ED50s. Tramadol and pethidine have a form of synergistic analgesic interaction, which is therefore classified as a pharmacodynamic interaction. Pethidine (7.1mg/kg, i.p.) reveals the plasma concentration of 369.00, 493.33, 373.33, 305.33, 306.33 and 247.67 µg/ml that was measured over distinctive times of 0.25,0.5,1,2,4, and 24 hours. At the same time, the concentration of plasma levels of tramadol and pethidine (48.42 and 7.1mg/kg, i.p., correspondingly) declined to 229.33, 268.33, 233.00, 198.33, 195.67 and 180.33 µg/ml by 38, 46, 38, 35, 36 and 27%, respectively. Tramadol affected the pethidine pharmacokinetics through an elevation in the area-under-curve (AUC0-∞) 49%, area-under-moment-curve (AUMC0-∞) 343%, mean-residence-time (MRT) 137%, half-life (t1/2β) 136%, and the distribution volume (Vss) 64%. Other estimated pharmacokinetic measures were reduced which included maximal concentration (Cmax) 47% and elimination rate constant (Kel) 60%. In general, the findings revealed a synergism as a mode of pharmacological interaction between pethidine and tramadol, in addition to a change in pethidine pharmacokinetics, which could improve pethidine effectiveness in the rat’s model.

The effects of ghee administration in comparison to sunflower seeds oil on liver tissue and some biochemical parameters in rats

Ehsan H. Aldabbagh; Liqaa K. Othman; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 241-248
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.136030.2558

Ghee is well known clarified butter of animal origin (namely derived from sheep milk), it has been used for decades in Iraq for preparing deserts, but nowadays, its nutritional value has been reviewed and is an area of controversy because of its high content of saturated fatty acids; however, the sunflower seeds oil available in the market may not be of that good quality. Comparing the effect of ghee to the effect of sunflower seeds oil may help better understand this controversy, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of using animal ghee and sunflower seed oil on the liver's histopathology and related to various biochemical alterations in rats. We used 36 animals divided into three groups to accomplish this goal. The first group, which received a typical conventional diet, was regarded as a control group. The second group was given a diet that included 5% animal ghee. And the final group had a diet that included 5% sunflower oil. Blood samples were taken at intervals of 0, 2, and 4 consecutive weeks. There are an increase in the weights of animals in the sunflower oil-fed group with an increase in cholesterol and liver function enzymes ALT and AST in the blood compared with the group treated with ghee, which showed no change in animal weights and low cholesterol with decreased liver function enzymes The histopathological changes of the rat's liver revealed mild to moderate lesions in the Ghee fed group representing by vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes and focal infiltration of inflammatory cells after four weeks of treatment. In the Sunflower seeds oil-fed group, the liver revealed more severe lesions than the rat treated in the ghee group, as severe vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes with fatty change, generalized congestion of blood vessels, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the portal area and hyperplasia of bile canaliculi. According to the study, animal ghee has advantages over sunflower seed oil regarding hepatic histological changes and concomitant biochemical changes in rats.

The effect of vitamin E on the histological structure of kidney in rats treated with cyclophosphamide

Ahmed A. Obaid; Maha I. Alsammak; Mustafa S. Salah Fadhil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 513-517
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130689.1865

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a cytotoxic alkylating drug that is commonly used to treat autoimmune disorders and cancer. CP causes nephrotoxicity by producing highly reactive radicals devoid of oxygen. A fat-soluble vitamin E that interacts as a free radical scavenger, inhibiting nitrosamine production and blocking lipid peroxidation from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this research was to see if vitamin E may help combating CP induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty-two adult albino female Westar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and received daily treatment for thirty days. Group A considered as control group, receiving normal saline IP at dose of 0.3 ml, group B given 15 mg/kg b.w. of cyclophosphamide IP, while group C received cyclophosphamide with vitamin E at dose 200 mg/kg, oral administration of vitamin E one hour before injection of cyclophosphamide, in group D they received vitamin E orally at dose of 200 mg kg body weight mixed with olive oil daily by oral gavage. In group B the cyclophosphamide causes highly significant reduction in body weight and histologically showed atrophy of most glomeruli, distention in bowman’s space, tubular degeneration and luminal hyaline cast material, while in group C showed most of the glomeruli normal except atrophy of few number of glomeruli and focal epithelial degeneration of renal tubules. Our study found that one of the primary mechanisms induced by cyclophosphamide may be nephrotoxicity due to oxidative stress, and pretreatment with vitamin E reduces cyclophosphamide-induced nephrotoxicity.

Effect of vitamin C treatment on some central nervous system functions in young rats whose mothers treated with hydrogen peroxide during the lactation period

Afrah Y. Jasim; Suha A. Rasheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 713-717
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127894.1544

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of vitamin on young rats whose mothers exposed to 1% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water during the lactation period on the function of the nervous system. The study consisted of three groups, Control group, hydrogen peroxide group, vitamin C with hydrogen peroxide group, showed that treatment with hydrogen peroxide for mothers led to significant decrease in the weights of young-rats-age21 days and significant increase in the righting reflex test, cliff avoidance and the olfactory discrimination test in young rats at age of week and also in the onset movement test and at the time of negative geotaxis test in-young-rats age21days. Treatment of mothers with hydrogen peroxide caused significant decrease in open-field activity and number of times standing on backlists during 3minutes and in the approach response, touch and sound of young rats at age 21 days. While, hydrogen peroxide treated group resulted in significant increase in time of negative geotaxis test and hydrogen peroxide had no effect on response of tail pinch as compared to other groups. When treating mothers with vitamin C significant increase in weights of youngsters age21days, as well as in onset of movement test and in number of squares cutoff within 3minutes in open-field activity and number of times standing on backlists during 3minutes in young-rats age 21 days. Also there was significant decrease in righting reflex test, olfactory distinction and negative geotaxis test compared to hydrogen peroxide treated group. It was concluded from the study that vitamin C plays an important role as an antioxidant by improving the nervous system function in young rats their mothers exposed to with hydrogen peroxide in drinking water.

Comparative study on the effect of cadmium and hydrocortisone treatment on the brain of rats experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

Karam H. Al-Mallah; Sura S. Aghwan; Qaes T. Alsarhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 771-775
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128436.1575

This study was dedicated to detecting the effects of cadmium chloride and of cortisone on experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii in rats through studying brain tissue. Twenty-four adult albino male rats were used, divided into four groups, comprising: untreated control as group 1, group 2: infected with intraperitoneal injection of Toxoplasma gondii 80 tissue cysts per animal, group 3: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride 1.5mg/kg once a week, group 4: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone in a dose 0.5 mg/kg once a week. After 30 days of treatment for all groups, the animals were sacrificed, and the gross and histopathological examinations were performed on the brains of the rats. The results revealed the presence of changes in the infected groups including appearance of toxoplasma tissue cysts in the grey matter, with mild to moderate perineuronal and periaxonal edema. There were further changes observed in infected groups which treated with cadmium chloride including perineuronal satelletosis, perineuronal edema and demyelination in neuronal axons, otherwise the infected groups treated with cortisone did not show any noticeable difference from the group of infection only. It is concluded that cadmium increase the intensity of occurrence of lesions induced by Toxoplasma gondii in the brain tissue of the rats, considering that all noticeable lesions ranged from mild to moderate in severity, and the differences between groups may be related to the nature of the pathogen used. 

Evaluation of the thermal effect of LTE 2600 MHz (4G) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure: Thermographic study on rats

Ali S. Al-Chalabi; Rana Asim; Hasliza Rahim; Mohamed F. Abdul Malek

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126787.1379

Exposure to LTE 2600 MHz microwaves is increasing very fast as new technologies and become accessible worldwide, and the smartphones being the main source of these waves. The aim of this study is to assess the thermal effect of 4G signals on rats. Forty adult Albino rats were used throughout the study, assigned as control and exposed groups, equally. Rats were kept in Plexiglas cages with intermittent exposure to LTE mobile-phone like signals at an average of 2h/day for up to 30 continuous days with SAR value of 0.982 W/kg. Infrared images were snapped immediately after the end of the exposure time, then one hour, two hours, and four hours later at a rate one collection/week during the study. IR images were analyzed by FLIR Tools software. The results exhibited variation in reflected skin temperatures in the exposed group compared to control images. Furthermore, the analysis of collected data revealed significant variations over the course of the study compared to the first week. The rise in skin temperature observed in response to exposure in the first week, which decreased gradually increased exposure and this drop in reflected skin temperature was significantly related to amount of exposure. The study concludes that the LTE 2600 MHz exposure under controlled laboratory conditions has a thermal effect on the rats.

Toxic effects of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats

Yamama Z. Alabdaly; Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany; Entisar R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 121-128
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126435.1322

This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity in rats of heated and un heatedbutylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Sunflower oil dissolved BHT, heated at 98±2ºC by a water bath. The animals were divided into five groups. The control group dosage orally with sunflower oil, the first group treated with 250 mg/kg BHT, the second group treated with 250 mg/kg heated, BHT the third group treated with 500 mg/kg BHT and the fourth group treated with 500 mg/kg heated BHT. All groups received oral treatment. The results showed a substantial reduction in motor activity relative to other groups at a dose of 250 mg/kg heated BHT. There was a substantial distinction in the negative geotaxis test in groups of 500 mg/kg heated and un-heated BHT, while a cliff avoidance test in the heat treated dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg was observed in the cliff avoidance test compared to other groups. A significant reduction occurred in all groups in the pocketing and dorsal tonic immobility test. The pathological changes of heated BHT groups were more severe than those of un-heated BHT groups especially the dose of 500 mg/kg heated BHT. It represented by coagulative necrosis, muscle atrophy in heart, interstitial pneumonia, serofibrinous exudate, pulmonary emphysema in lung and neuronal degeneration, microgliosis, myelin vacuolation and satellitosis in the brain. The study concluded that heated BHT at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg had toxic effects to motor and neurobehavioral activity, and histopathological changes in the brain, heart, and lung.

A histological study on the effect of imatinib on the rats' testis after early postnatal exposure

luma khalel; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 85-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126342.1303

The safety region of imatinib, and markedly its role in testicular toxicity has been studied in a controversial manner in current years. This study was designed to address the repercussion of administration of groups of pups with imatinib mesylate (at neonatal or infantile periods) using histological analysis of their testes in several end points and in adulthood. Intact pups (albino-male) exposed to 200 mg/kg of oral imatinib once daily at neonatal and early infantile period on PND 1 to PND10 (for ten days). All experiments performed with age and weight matched control which administered with Distilled water. Pups were into categorized into 4 subgroups, according to the ages of euthanasia: 15 days postpartum (PND); 40days postpartum; 70 days postpartum and 140 days postpartum. The histological analysis was conducted in blind fashion after staining with (Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Ten randomly selected testicular sections from each rat were analyzed qualitatively and quantitavely. In addition, Johnsen' scores were used to analyze the effect of drug on spermatogenesis. Data were recorded and value is considered as significant when it P

Effect of methotrexate and aspirin interaction and its relationship to oxidative stress in rats

yamama zuher Alabdaly; Mohammed Ghassan saeed; Hadeel mohammed Al-hashemi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 151-156
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126490.1335

This study aims to investigate the effect of aspirin in methotrexate toxicity (increase or decrease) relating to oxidative stress and histopathological changes of the liver and kidney in male rats. Twenty rats were divided into equal 4 groups, the first is considered control group, the second was treated with methotrexate in a dose of 10 mg/kg, the third was treated with methotrexate and aspirin in doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg respectively, the fourth was treated with aspirin alone with a dose of 30 mg/kg. All doses were given by daily oral dosage for 4 constitutive days. The result revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of both glutathione and albumin and a significant increase in the concentration of both malondialdehyde and ALT enzyme in the two groups treated with methotrexate alone or in combination with aspirin as compared to the control group. The histopathology revealed that the severity of lesions was in the group of methotrexate with aspirin, group of methotrexate only and a group of aspirin respectively, which are representing by coagulative necrosis and hypertrophy of hepatocytes in the liver while the lesions of kidney were atrophy of some glomeruli and renal cystic formation. The study concludes that aspirin increases the toxic effect of methotrexate at the level of oxidative stress concomitant with the occurrence of hepatic and renal toxicity.

The relationship between HSP70 and level of leptin and luteinizing hormones in female rats exposed to chronic and acute heat stress

Hiyam N. Matty; Ashwaq A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 37-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125565.1082

The current search experiments designed to study the effect of chronic and acute heat stress on the relationship between HSP70, leptin and luteinizing hormones level in female rats. 45 female pups were used in the age of weaning, were randomly divided into three equal groups. 1st group was a control group, 2nd group exposed to chronic heat stress at 38 ºC for 1hour a day since the age of weaning until onset of puberty and the 3rd group exposed to acute heat stress at 38 ºC for 4 hours per day for 5 consecutive days from 35 day age of rat and each group above were secondary divided into 3 age groups consisted of pre-puberty, at puberty and post-puberty. Results of study showed female rats exposed to chronic and acute stress led to significant increase in the level of luteinizing hormone at onset of the puberty. The result showed correlation coefficient between the level of HSP70 and leptin hormone significantly in the females acute stressed group at onset of puberty, as well as female exposed to chronic heat stress led to significant correlation coefficient between HSP70 and leptin hormone at post puberty. The result revealed significant correlation coefficient between HSP70 and luteinizing hormone in female control group at onset of puberty. It concluded from this study there is relationship between HSP70 and leptin hormone at onset puberty during acute heat stress and same relationship at post puberty during chronic heat stress.

Some anti-diabetic properties of Prosopis farcta extracts in alloxan induced diabetic in adult rats

Ismael H. Mohammed; Ismail S. Kakey; Mahdi M. Farimani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 109-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125557.1076

Prosopis farctais belonged to Mimosaceae family, commonly known as mesquite. It was chosen to investigate their effect on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (in-vitro), serum glucose and liver functions. Roots, fruits, and leaves of P. farcta, were extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. α-glucosidase inhibition was analyzed by using ELISA technique then half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 was found. The blood glucose levels were determined with a glucose analyzer model. The serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum total bilirubin (TB) were estimated by using the Cobas diagnostic kit with a fully automated chemical analyzer. Diabetes was done by a single dose of 120 mg alloxan/kg b.w with subcutaneously injection. Ethyl acetate extracts of P. farcta showed the higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and the best one was root extract. Treatments of the alloxan-induced diabetes rats were done by daily oral administration of different concentrations with P. farcta extracts of ethyl acetate for 28 days and the dose 200 mg/kg BW was the effective one. The root extract was the best one for reduction of serum glucose followed by leaves then fruits. Administration of root extract of P. farcta showed a decrease in the levels of ALP and TB in alloxan-induced diabetes rats. The fruit extract of P. farcta showed decreasing in the level of ALP in alloxan-induced diabetes rats. In conclusion, the P. farcta extracts for ethyl acetate have properties of hypoglycemic effect as well as improving some parameters related with diabetic complications of liver functions.

Protective effects of coenzyme Q10 against sodium fluoride-induced reproductive disorders in male rats

Sabreen M. Momammed Ali; Ahmed Jasim Nowfal; Bara Najim Abdillah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 143-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125534.1056

This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective role of (CoQ10) on reproductive dysfunction of male rats induced by sodium fluoride (NaF). thirty two rats were divided into four even groups and treated for 56 days as follows: the first group served as control (C) The second group (G1) received coenzyme Q10 at dose of 10 mg/Kg.B.W; while third group (G2) received 100ppmsodium fluoride in drinking water and fourth groups (G3) received NaF 100 ppm and CoQ10 10 mg/Kg.B.W for 56 days. The results showed that exposure of rats to NaF caused decrease in serum testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormones (LH) concentrations. Whereas Administration of CoQ10 caused an increase the concentrations of theses hormones in group G3 as compared with group G2. Testicular morphometric and histopathological alterations were observed in group G2 in the form of marked microvacuolation in the basal level of germinal cells, amyloid deposited within seminiferous tubules with disarrangement and depletion of germ cells. Whereas testicular histological alterations were improved in rats treated with CoQ10. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that use of Co Q10 can alleviating the deleterious effects on male reproductive function following exposure to NaF, may be via improvement the testicular functions or other related endocrine glands.

Effects of cadmium chloride on some endocrine glands (thyroid and adrenal) in male rats (Rattus norvegicus)

K. H. Al- Derawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 211-217
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153852

This study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on thyroid and adrenal gland of male rats (Rattus norvegicus). Thirty six male rats were used and randomly into three groups each of 12 rats, the first group(G1) kept as at control. The 2nd and 3rd groups (G2 and G3) were administrated orally cdcl2 at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg.B.W. respectively for 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed, then thyroid and adrenal glands were removed and processed for light microscope. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland with (15mg/kg.B.W.) showed increase in the size of follicles, some of these follicles appeared empty from any colloidal substance and heavily infiltrated by inflammatory cells, with depletion of parafollicular cells. Vaculated follicles may be clear in other sections, and showed congested blood vessels, vascularized stroma, hyperplasia of thyrocyte in rats treated with 20 mg/kg.B.w. Results also noted changes in different regions of adrenal gland related to rats exposure tocdcl2 with 15 mg/kg.B.W., these includes cellular debris, necrosis of cortical cells, amorphous material in the zona fasciculate and focal necrosis in zona granulosa with disruption of normal structure and replaced by necrotic cells and inflammatory cells, also obvious adipocytes infiltration which appeared clear in medulla. Most changes occurred within the adrenal cortex and appeared more severity than that in the medulla region. Hypereosinophilia, pyknotic nuclei, congested blood vessels, hemorrhage, degeneration and inflammation also seen in both regions (cortex and medulla) of adrenal gland from rat exposed to cdcl2 at 20 mg/kg.B.W.