This study was conducted for diagnosis and description of the pathological changes of AIV-H5 as the causative pathogen in Iraqi broiler farms. The current study was carried out on 84 broiler farms. Infected birds were tested for detection of the AIV infection from the tracheal swabs by rapid chromatographic AIV type A and H5 test kits. In RRT-PCR 8 samples (8 farms) of Trachea were selected to be tested by this assay. Samples of trachea, lung, and spleen from the dead birds with natural AIV-H5 infection were submitted for histopathological examination. seventy-two out of 84 farms tested for AIV-Type A gave positive results, and 58 out of 72 positives for type A-AIV gave a positive result for H5 antigen in a rapid chromatographic strip. The main gross lesions in the trachea of infected birds were severe congestion and hemorrhage. In the RRT-PCR assay, 8 out of 8 samples gave a distinct positive result for this test. The microscopic histopathological examination of infected tracheas showed obvious desquamation of lining epithelium with complete loss of cilia associated with congestion of blood vessels in lamina properia. Infected lungs revealed diffuse alveolar damage and severe multifocal vascular congestion. There was deposition of fibrinous material in the splenic tissue associated with the disappearance of the germinal centers. Thus, we concluded that AIV-H5 infection causes severe pathological and histopathological changes as a result of systemic infection. The RRT-PCR assay was highly sensitive and specific for the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes.
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) has become a global public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence rates of MRSA infection amongst broiler chickens and broilers farm workers. The total samples used in this study were 306. Cloacal swab samples from 231 broilers and nasal swab samples from 75 broilers farm workers were collected from five farms in Duhok city, Iraq. Isolation and identification of MRSA isolates were carried out and the antibiotic susceptibility were screened. Molecular characterization of all isolates was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the mec
A gene.S. aureus
was detected among 84% (63/75) of the farms workers samples and among 84.8% (196/231) of the broiler's samples. The S. aureus
isolated from farm workers and broilers appeared resistant to oxacillin 28.6% (18/63), and 32.1% (63/196), respectively. MRSA colonization in farm workers and broilers was 24% (18/75) and 27.3% (63/231) respectively. The S. aureus
isolates showed the most resistant to chloramphenicol and the least resistant to vancomycin. The results of the PCR assays revealed that 85.7% (12/14) of S. aureus
isolates from farm workers and 44.4% (16/36) of S. aureus
isolates from broilers were positive for the mecA
gene. The direct handling of broilers by farm workers plays the important role for transport the MRSA isolates from broilers to broilers farm workers.
The aim of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin in mice separately and to study their toxic and neurobehavioral effects. Median Lethal Doses (LD50
) of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were determined depending on up and down method. The oral LD50
of chlorpyrifos was 193.05 mg/kg and of deltamethrin was 15.71 mg/kg in mice. The oral administration of chlorpyrifos 155 mg/kg and deltamethrin 12.56 mg/kg represent 80% of LD50
resulted in acute signs of poisoning that manifested by dyspnea, salivation and lacrimation at 100%, piloerection, straub tail, tremors, convulsions and death at 70% for chlorpyrifos and 60% for deltamethrin and writhing reflex at 20% for chlorpyrifos. Oral administration of chlorpyrifos 310 mg/kg and deltamethrin 24 mg/kg increased severity of toxicosis signs as a percentage of piloerection, straub tail, tremors, seizures and death 100%. As well as decrease the onset of tremors, convulsions and death, writhing reflex which appears at 20% for chlorpyrifos and 10% for deltamethrin. After three hours of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin oral administration at doses represent 20% and 10% of LD50
there are significantly hypoactivation in open-field activity, significantly increased in the duration of negative geotaxis performance, significantly decreased in head pocking and swimming scores compared to control group. In conclusion we found that deltamethrin was more toxic than chlorpyrifos this is based on the LD50
value. However, the signs of toxicosis and neurobehavioral effects produced by both toxicants were not differential and could not be associated with the toxic level.
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of garlic juice supplementation with broiler drinking water on performance, immune response, lipid profile, blood picture and activity of liver enzymes under heat stress. For this purpose 100 four days aged broiler checks (Ross) were allocated into control (C) and three treatment groups (25 each). All group checks were housed at 5 ºC above normal ambient temperature during the experiment. Treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3) checks were supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/L, respectively, with garlic juice in drinking water (6 hrs a day). Food and water were supplemented ad libitum. Body weights were monitored every five days and blood samples were obtained at 25 days for assessment of blood picture and antibody titers after vaccination, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and activity levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated. At 30 days age, T3 group broiler checks reported higher body weights than other groups. Total number of white and red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit levels and ratio of heterocytes to lymphocytes increased significantly in treated groups, whereas significant decline of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations as well as ALT and AST levels were shown in T3 group broiler checks. Significant increase was shown in the levels of antibody titers against both Newcastle (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines. In conclusion, treatment of broiler checks early with garlic juice increase broiler performance and immune response against vaccination program and may be protect the broilers from heat stress.