Keywords : Adrenal gland

Comparative morphological and morphometrically study of the adrenal gland in adult males' squirrel (Sciurus anomalous) and hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

ِAbdulrazzaq B. Kadhim; Iman M. Khaleel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 725-730
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131618.1983

Given the physiological significance and the need for further physiological and morphological knowledge of the adrenal glands, the objectives of the current study were to compare morphometric data between the right and left adrenals of male squirrels and hamsters. The study was conducted on five squirrel males and five hamster males. The glands in both animals were removed and fixed in neutral formalin solution. It was found that the squirrel contains two brown-colored right and left adrenal glands connected anteriorly and medially to each cranial pole of the kidney, and the right adrenal gland had a longitudinal shape, while the left gland had an oval shape. Hamsters had two pairs of brown adrenal glands located anteriorly attached to each kidney's cranial pole. The right adrenal gland was round in shape, while the left was oval. The statistical results showed a significant difference between the left and right suitable adrenal glands in both animals, as well as a significant difference between the squirrel gland and the hamster gland, where it was found that the right and left squirrel glands are larger more significant, heavier, longer and thicker than the adrenal gland in hamsters after the following measures were adopted: weight, length, thickness, width, and size. 

Effects of cadmium chloride on some endocrine glands (thyroid and adrenal) in male rats (Rattus norvegicus)

K. H. Al- Derawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 211-217
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153852

This study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on thyroid and adrenal gland of male rats (Rattus norvegicus). Thirty six male rats were used and randomly into three groups each of 12 rats, the first group(G1) kept as at control. The 2nd and 3rd groups (G2 and G3) were administrated orally cdcl2 at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg.B.W. respectively for 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed, then thyroid and adrenal glands were removed and processed for light microscope. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland with (15mg/kg.B.W.) showed increase in the size of follicles, some of these follicles appeared empty from any colloidal substance and heavily infiltrated by inflammatory cells, with depletion of parafollicular cells. Vaculated follicles may be clear in other sections, and showed congested blood vessels, vascularized stroma, hyperplasia of thyrocyte in rats treated with 20 mg/kg.B.w. Results also noted changes in different regions of adrenal gland related to rats exposure tocdcl2 with 15 mg/kg.B.W., these includes cellular debris, necrosis of cortical cells, amorphous material in the zona fasciculate and focal necrosis in zona granulosa with disruption of normal structure and replaced by necrotic cells and inflammatory cells, also obvious adipocytes infiltration which appeared clear in medulla. Most changes occurred within the adrenal cortex and appeared more severity than that in the medulla region. Hypereosinophilia, pyknotic nuclei, congested blood vessels, hemorrhage, degeneration and inflammation also seen in both regions (cortex and medulla) of adrenal gland from rat exposed to cdcl2 at 20 mg/kg.B.W.