Keywords : sheep


Molecular differentiation of Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species based on 18s rRNA gene in small ruminants

Monyer Aز Alfatlawi; Yahia Kh. Ismail; Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Israa N. Ibadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126407.1313

This study was conducted to investigate Anoplocephalidia Cestoda in sheep and goat and evaluate the 18s rRNA to genetically differentiate the genera of this family. Sixty sample tapeworms were collected from small intestines of 30 sheep and 30 goats from different slaughterhouses in Al-Najaf and Al-Qadisiyah provinces, during September, 2016 to February, 2017. Based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 18s rRNA gene partial sequencing (18sGPS) methods used, tapeworm infection of sheep and goat’s intestines was 32.9% and 31.4%, respectively. The partial gene sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene showed two closely related isolates of M. benedeni which are aligned distinctly to an NCBI isolate of the same species from China. For T. giardia, the outcomes of the phylogenetic analysis unveiled three distinct local isolates which were similar to an NCBI database isolate from China. The current data ensure the importance of the molecular techniques in differentiating between Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species that were identified for their presence in the small intestines of sheep and goats.

Change in acetylcholine activity and some blood parameters in adult sheep dipped in deltamethrin

Aydin S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126813.1385

The aim of this was to elucidate the effects of deltamethrin dipping on acetylcholine activity in serum and some blood parameters of sheep. The study was conducted on forty adult sheep dipped in deltamethrin in concentration of 1:1000L of water. Venous blood samples were collected from each animal before and after dipped. There was significant inhibition in the acetylcholine esterase in all subjected animals after dipping. Mean values of hematological investigations showed a significant rise in the number of total leucocytes (leukocytosis) with significant decline in hemoglobin concentration and Red cell indices in all dipped animals after dipping in deltamethrin when compared with mean values obtained from the same animals before dipping. Conclusion of our results revealed that poisoning with deltamethrin affects blood parameters through the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase.

Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Natural heavy infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep in Mosul city: A case report

Nadia S. Alhayali; Manal H. Hasan; Karam Y. Al-Mallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 373-376
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125994.1210

This study included recording the natural heavy infection with immature macrocysts (Sarcocysts) of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep. The sheep is one years old which is slaughtered at butcher shop at Mosul city in May 2018. This is the first case recorded of natural infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. in Mosul city. Many of small nodules were observed during slaughter, these nodules are seen within esophageal muscles in different sizes and shapes, they were distributed randomly throughout esophageal muscles. Most of the sarcosystis were small in size the mean of size between 20- 28×28-42 µm they were histological examination showed that presence of only metrocytes. This confirmed the diagnosis that the sarcocysts were immature macrocysts (sarcocysts) for the Sarcosystis spp. In our study, heavy infected case with Sarcocystis reveals the fact that large numbers of cats(final hosts) in contact with sheep in pastures is considered the main risk factor for infection and feed with raw meat from infected sheep, which is very important for carcass condemnation when the meat inspection when abnormalities are found which indicate that the part of carcass, is unfit for human consumption it is condemned, which means the economic loss for livestock.

Phylogenetic analysis of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in Iraqi Awassi sheep

Saad Al-Husseiny; Asaad Jassim; Khalefa A. Mansour; Qassim H. kshash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 351-355
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126172.1255

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection in sheep results in contagious ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The aim of this study was to detect the presence of JSRV in Iraqi Awassi sheep of Al-Qadisiyah Province using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Lung secretion samples from 50 adult sheep (1.5 to 2-year-old) during 2016-2018 that were suffering from chronic respiratory distress with suspected clinical OPA were collected. RT-PCR assay for detection of JSRV was conducted using primers specific for its 382 bp envelope protein gene. The results showed that 22 of the 50 (44%) lung secretion samples were positive for JSRV. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the JSRV sequence detected in the local Iraqi sheep population was closely related to NCBI BLAST locus isolates KT279066.1 and KT279065.1. The study found that the JSRV disease is prevalent in the Iraqi Awassi sheep flocks and that the local JSRV isolate is genetically divergent from most other global isolates. 

Molecular study to detect the Eimeria species in sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Noora M. Majeed; Noaman N. Aaiz; Ahmed J. Neama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 377-381
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126064.1225

Sheep eimriosis is one of the most important and common disease which infects sheep in all ages but it is more effective in lambs. The diarrhea with or without blood is the main signs of infection. Eimeria protozoan required single host to complete its life cycle which pass in different stages including schizogony, gametogony and sporogony. The study was designed for detection of sheep Eimeria species through the molecular method. This study was conducted in Al-Diwanyah province during the winter months of 2019. In which 200 sheep fecal samples were collected and examined traditionally to investigate the Eimeria oocytsts. Ninety-seven samples of highly intensity infection with Eimeria oocysts were selected to subject for DNA extraction process. The extracted DNAs were tested through amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene by conventional PCR, and then phylogenetic analysis was made to diagnose the sheep Eimeria species. All samples that examined microscopically were showed positive results of infections with Eimeria protozoan. Out of 97 molecularly examined samples, forty-five (46.39%) were given positive result in conventional PCR technique, where Eimeria spp. detected through succeeded amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene. Then phylogenetic analysis referred to that there are five species of Eimeria confirmed in sheep in Al-Diwanyah province including 6 (33.33%) samples diagnosed as E. ahsata, 4 (22.22%) samples E. weybridgensis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. ovinoidalis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. bovis and 2 (11.11%) samples E. auburnensis. So, the Eimeria protozoan appears as an endemic parasite and can infect sheep with different species in study area. The sheep can infect with both specific and nonspecific species.

Pathological study of some esophageal lesions of slaughtered sheep in Mosul abattoir

Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 145-151
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125649.1121

This study includes collection of 120 samples of sheep esophagus from slaughtered sheep in Mosul abattoir from December 2013 to March 2014 for detection of lesions and their incidence. Total 85 esophagus samples showed lesions from the total collected samples. The revealed lesions included disturbance of cell metabolism manifested by coagulative necrosis, sloughing of epithelial lining the esophagus and vacuolar degeneration at incidence rate 67.7, 23.5 and 17.6% respectively, circulatory disturbances like petechial, diffuse hemorrhage and edema were noticed at incidence rate 7.05, 4.7 and 3.5% respectively. Also results showed epithelial hyperplasia, fibroplasia and hyperkeratosis at 47, 24.7 and 31.7% of the total collected samples respectively, whereas eosinophilic inflammation of esophagus appeared at 3.5% of collected samples. Jaundice represent the disturbance in pigmentation reported at ratio of 16.4%, also additionally there was parasitic infestation represented by sarcocystosis and worm infestation which impeded in muscularis layer of esophagus at percentage ratio 50.5% and 3.5% respectively and a single case of esophageal diverticulosis was recorded at percentage ratio of 1.17%. Section that stained which Masson trichrome stain showed fibroplasia with proliferation of fibroblasts that take a bluish green color between muscle fibers.

Epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic study for mange in sheep of Anbar province- Iraq

Soad Sh. Shahatha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163587

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of mange in sheep in Anbar province by examining 462 heads of sheep. The disease was diagnosed by examining the skin scraping taken from the infected animals in the laboratory. The results showed that sheep were infected with Sarcoptes scabiei parasite, and the total infection rate was 34.6%, and no significant difference was recorded between males 34% and females 35.2%, the highest rate was recorded in the month of January %56 and the lowest in the month of August 13.1%, and the highest rate of infection was 49% in sheep at the age of 6 months - 2 years and significant differences for the rest of the ages. Head and neck lesions recorded the highest infection rate of 28.7 and 34.3% respectively. The study also included the effect of the crude watery extract of Onobrychis ptolemaica on the parasite, concentrations of 2.5-10 mg/ml have significantly affected parasites, it was noted the greater the concentration, the greater the effect during the different treatment periods. The highest concentration of 10 mg /ml resulted in the disappearance of all scabies parasites on day 14 of the treatment. Results showed sheep infection in Anbar province with mange in both sexes, high incidence of infection in young ages, high rate of infection in the winter months, and head lesions recorded the highest percentage of infection, the results showed the effect of concentrations of the crude watery extract of Onobrychis ptolemaica plant largely on the parasite.

Prevalence, morphological and biochemical study of larval stage Coenurus cerebralis of Taenia multiceps in sheep

Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 159-163
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125660.1124

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Coenurus cerebralis of Tenia multiceps in sheep of Nineveh governorate. One handed and thirty-six sheep heads were examined for the presence of coenurus cysts 31 (22.8%) were infected. The younger were more affected than the adults. There were no significant differences between the number of infected males and females. The clinical signs varied from one animal to another which consisted of neurological disorders manifested by depression, bending of the head to one side, walking in a circular movement and paralysis in the hind limbs, while some animals did not give the clinical symptoms despite the existence of cyst. The number of cysts were ranged from 1 to 4 cysts/animal. The size of these cyst was ranged from 0.5 to 4 cm, and the volume of fluid in these cysts were ranged from 1 to 6 ml while the number of protoscolices in the cyst were ranged from 60 - 360 protoscolex, the mean length of large and small hooks was 179.95 µm respectively. The study also considered the identification of some chemical constituents of fluid of coenurus cyst such as glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, sodium, potassium, urea and pH.

Nad1 gene analysis of Echinococcus granulosus from sheep in Aqrah city, Iraq

R.N. Hamoo; nashaat Ghalib Mustafa; S.A. Abdulraheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 341-345
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162965

Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a dog tapeworm cestoda; it is larval stage responsible to cystic echinococcosis, one of the most common and dangerous worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease. The aim of this study was the molecular identification of the local strain of E. granulosus isolated from sheep liver slaughtered in the principal abattoir of Aqrah city, Northern of Iraq during Jun-Nov. 2017. In this study, 37 sheep liver infected by E. granulosus, 12 of high DNA purity fertile (have protoscolices) cyst of them were considered. A molecular study conducted on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) gene. Results demonstrated that E. granulosus isolates were sheep strain (G1) genotype, with fascinating highly corresponding 95% and 96% to global isolates, particularly to north African and Mediterranean countries, by employing phylogenetic tree analysis. So, the isolates of our project were deposited in Genbank (accession No. MG792129). This study findings provide that the local isolates of E. granulosus from sheep liver in Aqrah city, Northern of Iraq are loyally equivalent to global strains and isolates, in addition, nad1 gene considers a perfect biomarker in a molecular identification and phylogenetic study of this parasite.

Measurements and evaluation of some electrolytes concentrations in spleens of imported sheep to Sulaimani province

Elham Husain; K.A. Muhammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 415-418
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163168

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between some biometrical measurements (length and width) and some electrolytic concentration (Na +, K+ and Cl-) in sheep spleen. This study was conducted on 19 spleens of male sheep, they were imported from Syria to Sulaimani province, aged between less than 1 year to 1.5 year. The results showed that the mean values of weight were 108 gm and mean values of length and width of the spleens were 13.72 cm and 9.05 cm, respectively. Also, the mean values of Cl-, Na+ and K+ concentration were 14.17 mmol/L, 6.58 mmol/L, 32.89 mmol/L, respectively. The correlation coefficient between weight and width was (r = 0.661, P=0.002) was a higher correlation with  R2 = 0.437. Also It was (r= 0.932, P≤0.0001) between Na+ and K+ which was a high correlation, with the higher value of R2 =0.869. The results showed the negative correlation between weight and Na+, weight and K+ with (r= -0.161, P=0.509) and (r= -0.214, P=0.379), respectively. However, it showed the positive correlation between other parameters; weight, length, width , Na+, K+ and Cl-, the correlation coefficient (r= 0.421, P= 0.072) between width and Cl- was the highest correlation, and the value R2 = 0.177. In conclusion, our study shows the positive correlation between some parameters (weight, length and width) and some electrolytes concentration (Na+, K+ and Cl-) and the highest correlation between width and Cl-, however there was a negative correlation between weight and Na+ and between weight and K+ in sheep spleen.