Keywords : Neurobehavioral Test

Therapeutic effect of taurine on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabsy; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 223-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129854.1692

The study aimed to investigate if taurine could help reduce sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in chicks. The chicks in this study were divided into four equal groups, each with eight chicks: the control group, sodium fluoride 20 mg/kg group, taurine 3 g/kg group, the fourth group was dosed with each of the sodium fluoride 20 mg/kg and taurine 3 g/kg groups all groups were dosed orally. The dosing was set at 5 days/week for 4 weeks. After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, the group treated with taurine alone or with sodium fluoride showed an improvement in neurobehavioral and motor activity, as evidenced by a reduction in the duration of chick immobility in the immobility test and an increase in the number of squares cross in the open field test compared to the group treated with sodium fluoride alone. The level of ALT enzyme and calcium in the group treated with sodium fluoride increased significantly compared to the control and taurine group alone, and with sodium fluoride, AST and creatinine levels increased significantly after 4 weeks of sodium fluoride treatment compared to the other groups. When it came to measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione, the sodium fluoride group alone showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde and significant decrease in glutathione after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment when compared to the control and the other groups. The histopathological examination confirmed the previous findings, with the histological sections of the liver, kidney, and brain showing a significant improvement in the group treated with sodium fluoride and taurine after four weeks of treatment. We conclude from this study that taurine has a clear therapeutic effect against oxidative stress, as evidenced by behavioral and motor behavioral effects, as well as levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde, and liver function enzymes, and serum creatinine, as well as histopathological examination of the brain, kidneys, and liver. 

Toxic effects of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats

Yamama Z. Alabdaly; Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany; Entisar R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 121-128
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126435.1322

This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity in rats of heated and un heatedbutylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Sunflower oil dissolved BHT, heated at 98±2ºC by a water bath. The animals were divided into five groups. The control group dosage orally with sunflower oil, the first group treated with 250 mg/kg BHT, the second group treated with 250 mg/kg heated, BHT the third group treated with 500 mg/kg BHT and the fourth group treated with 500 mg/kg heated BHT. All groups received oral treatment. The results showed a substantial reduction in motor activity relative to other groups at a dose of 250 mg/kg heated BHT. There was a substantial distinction in the negative geotaxis test in groups of 500 mg/kg heated and un-heated BHT, while a cliff avoidance test in the heat treated dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg was observed in the cliff avoidance test compared to other groups. A significant reduction occurred in all groups in the pocketing and dorsal tonic immobility test. The pathological changes of heated BHT groups were more severe than those of un-heated BHT groups especially the dose of 500 mg/kg heated BHT. It represented by coagulative necrosis, muscle atrophy in heart, interstitial pneumonia, serofibrinous exudate, pulmonary emphysema in lung and neuronal degeneration, microgliosis, myelin vacuolation and satellitosis in the brain. The study concluded that heated BHT at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg had toxic effects to motor and neurobehavioral activity, and histopathological changes in the brain, heart, and lung.