Keywords : histopathology


Histopathological changes on the pregnant rat's lung induced by sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 419-424
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130464.1824

Food additives and preservatives are widely used globally, which, despite their many benefits, have great harm if they are used without health restrictions or control, as they cause many health problems and tissue lesions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the histopathological effects on the lung of pregnant rats of two types of these substances: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and Sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Twenty-four pregnant rats used for this study, and they were divided into four groups equally. The control group was dosed with distilled water from the sixth day to the fifteenth day of pregnancy. The second was dosed with MSG at a 12g /kg concentration for the same period in the first group. The third injected with a concentration of 120 mg/kg of NaNO2 for the same period. The fourth was dosed with MSG and NaNO2 together, with the same concentrations and the above period. The results showed that the second group''s lungs showed many histopathological changes, including strong infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, necrosis of bronchioles and alveolar septa, and emphysema of some alveoli. In the third group, changes included hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, hemorrhage in the alveoli, desquamation and necrosis in bronchioles, peri-bronchial fibrosis, blood vessel congestion. The fourth group showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, necrosis in multiple lung areas, emphysema, fibrosis in some alveoli, and hypoplasia of the muscle fibers around the blood vessels. The study concluded that MSG and NaNO2 caused much tissue damage in the lungs of pregnant rats.

Efficacy of Urtiea dicica extract for amelioration of brain lesions induced by ethylene glycol in male rabbits

Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya; Hana Kh. Ismail; Enas S. Mostafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 485-488
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130563.1848

The nervous system is the most delicate organ to neurotoxic substances that affects the development of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters, and organization of ion channels. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is one of the medicinal plants, which has been increasingly highlighted used for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative components. This study aimed to evaluate the improvement effects of Urtica dioica extract on the histopathological lesions of nervous system in rabbit model. Fifteen male rabbits of 700-800 grams separated into three groups, the first group is the control, and the second group were treated with 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) in water for 30 days, group three were combination treated group with both EG and Urtica dioica at 100 mg/kg for 10 days. Microscopic histological examination discovered generalized congestion of blood vessels at the cerebrum and cerebellum, degeneration and necrosis of the neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex which characterized by swelling of the degenerative cells, while necrotic cells characterized by shrunken and pyknosis of the cells in the cerebellum cortex presents of inflammatory cells in the meninges. In conclusion, the histopathological examination of brain sections of rabbits treated with ethylene glycol in addition to Urtica dioica extract showed slight improvement in the histological pictures of the cerebellum and cerebrum.

Protective effect of quercetin against corneal toxicities induced by cisplatin in male mice

Semaa A. Baker; Mahdi A. Ali Abdullah; Ali A. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 321-326
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130145.1741

The Aim of study was conducted to evaluate the potential protective role of quercetin against the corneal toxicity which caused by administration of cisplatin in male mice. Thirty-six adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups; Group I control, Group II cisplatin mice injected as single dose I.P of cisplatin 10 mg/kg, and Group III mice received Q 75 mg/ kg with cisplatin 10 mg/ kg. The treatment continues for eight days then the tissues were collected for histopathological study. The histopathological changes in the cornea of eye were demonstrated in groups of mice received cisplatin. The changes represented by damages of superficial epithelial layer, vacuolar degeneration, hyperplasia, separation of stromal layer and sever damage of the stromal hemorrhage, and perforation of sclera, edema and inflammatory cells infiltration as well as separation of descement membrane from stroma layer. While these changes were diminished when the mice are treated with Q in the combination of cisplatin in comparison to treated cisplatin alone mice. Cisplatin induced structural and histopathological changes in the cornea of adult albino rat that could be ameliorated by concomitant treatment with quercetin.

Toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride on some selected vital organs of pregnant mice Mus musculus

Baidaa A. Mohammed; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 239-243
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129864.1695

The current study intends to look at the impact of the fluoxetine hydrochloride on specific tissues lung and pancreas of mature pregnant mice. The two doses used during the study were 45,75mg/kg b.w. from the 7th to the 17th day of pregnancy. Experimental animals received fluoxetine orally at a dosage of 45mg/kg b.w. The findings indicate variable pathologic changes in the lungs. At the dose of 75 mg/kg b.w. hyperplasia of pneumocytes occurred. In the pancreas, there were no detectible lesions at the dose of 45mg/kg b.w. while at the dose of 75 mg/kg b.w. the severity of tissue lesions was seen. In conclusion, antidepressants may stimulate oxidative injury throughout the body's internal organs, particularly if taken at high doses during pregnancy. Consequently, these lesions have a great impact on the heath of both fetus and pregnant mice since the most common lesions were observed in fetus which cause abortion which effect on the health of pregnant mice.

Evaluation the role of Apsa-mos® as immunomodulator on the level of antibody titers in broiler chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus.

Thanoon Y. AL-hbiti; Zahra A. Al-Noaimy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 53-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128983.1615

The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of Apsa-mos® as immunostimulant on the level of antibodies in broiler chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease live attenuated vaccine (β1 and lasota strain) at 10, 24-day old respectively. Forty, one-day-old chicks were reared in this experiment. They were divide into four groups and treated as follows: Chicks in the 1st group were treated as control one (G1); Chicks in the group 2 (G2), were vaccinated with live attenuated β1 NDV vaccine at 10 days followed by attenuated lasota NDV strain vaccine at 24 days of age, chicks in the group three (G3) were vaccinated as in group 2 but amended with Apsa-mos® at a rate of 1 mg / kg of feed; Chicks in the 4th treatment was given Apsa-mos® only at a rate of 1 mg / kg of feed. Antibody titers after administration of NDV vaccines were estimated using ELISA technique. The results showed a significant difference in the titers between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated birds with higher values when Apsa- mose® was added, in comparison with groups 1 and 4. No significant changes were noticed between granulocytes differential counts and in the values of stress factor of heterophiles/lymphocytes (H/L ratio) in all treated groups. Amending Apsa-mos® to the feeds of the treated birds G3 and G4 has no negative effect on the treated and play a positive role by restoring the normal architecture of lymphoid tissues of bursa of Fabrecious and caecal tonsils. we concluded that the giving of Apsa-mos improve the immune state of the chicks in both types humeral and cellular immunity especially in G3 and decreased the influence of the vaccine in this group and increase the immunity in G4 also Apsa-mos decrease the effect of the vaccine in G3 seen in histological changes in bursa of fabricious and cecal tonsils.

Standard techniques for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue: A Pathologist’s perspective

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Asseel M. Rahawi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 127-135
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131918.2023

Histopathology considered as an essential keystone to understanding diseases on a cellular level, without examining affected tissues and cells; will lack the accurate diagnosis. The most common protocol that used worldwide for histopathology is termed as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded techniques; this protocol is the oldest protocol and still used, this technique not invented once, but it is started with a simple process of tissue fixation then undergo several successful steps as it's known today. This protocol depends on formalin to induce tissue fixation and preservation simultaneously, followed by a series of steps to facilitate infiltration of hot paraffin wax in the cells to adjust the density of tissue similar to that of paraffin wax to support tissue during sectioning process at few micrometers of thickness. Many protocols have been invented and modified subsequently to increase the accuracy of tissue processing and facilitate their study under light microscopy. Additionally, the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples can be considered the most durable process till now. In this review, we are trying to view all fundamental aspects of classical tissue processing that was depended since 1850s, starting from tissue examination, sampling, accessory, labelling, fixation, dehydration, clearance, infiltration, and embedding with hot paraffin wax. Additionally, explain the routine sectioning and staining with classical Hari’s hematoxylin and alcoholic eosin staining protocol. 

Pathological study of genitourinary invasion by Aspergillus flavus in male rats

Sadeq O. Kadhim; Inam B. Faleh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 87-94
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131580.1974

Due to the widespread of A. flavus spores and the high risk of its mycotoxins in our environment, we investigated the pathological effects of A. flavus on genitourinary system in experimental rats using a whole sonicated antigen (WSA), and modified mycotoxin (mycotoxoid) in the immunization process. Fifty albino male rats were involved, subdivided into five group, each group of 10 male rats. Group one as a negative control received phosphate buffer saline, group two as a positive control received a challenge dose of 1×106 /0.5ml viable conidia/rat, while group three was immunized by a mixture of WSA and mycotoxoid, G4 was immunized by WSA alone, and G5 was immunized by mycotoxoid alone. The immunization was performed in two doses with 2 weeks interval. The results showed a high immune response (in group three G3) stimulated by the mixture (WSA and mycotoxoid), which revealed a significant increase in both IL-17 and IFN-γ. After experimental infection, the sero-analysis showed a significant increase in IL-17 and IFN-γ serum levels compared with the mixture-immunized group which showed no significant increases. In addition, the histopathologic sections illustrated severe chronic inflammation with a typical fungal granulomatous reaction in the prostate glands and kidneys compared with the WSA-immunized groups which showed mild histological reactions. Finally, we conclude that A. flavus is a serious opportunistic pathogen that can disseminate into genitourinary organs inducing severe pathologic lesions and even death. Moreover, we found that immunization by WSA and mycotoxoid can significantly reduce both immune and histopathological effects of A. flavus and its mycotoxins.

Histological effects of chronic sodium fluoride toxicity on some reproductive organs of male and female adult albino rats

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Bushra I. Al-Kaisie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 705-711
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127896.1540

The current study aimed to determine the pathological effects of chronic poisoning with sodium fluoride on some reproductive organs like ovary, and testis of adult’s male and female albino rats. Thirty-six male and female adult’s albino rats were divided into six groups. The first and second group of male and female rats are control groups was given tap drinking water, the third and fourth groups of male and female rats was given 150 ppm of NaF, the fifth and sixth group of male and female rats was given 300 ppm of NaF respectively for 90 days. The weights of male and female genital were recorded. Histological exam of control groups of female rats showed the typical histological structure of the ovary, while the NaF treated groups showed a decrease in growing follicles, in addition to thickening in tunica albuginea and deposition of eosinophilic material. In male control groups, the sections showed the typical histological structures of the testis, while the treated groups showed multinucleated spermatids in addition to the deposition of amorphous eosinophilic material in the interstitial tissue, coagulative necrosis, in addition to apoptotic and sloughed spermatogonia in the lumen of seminiferous tubule. These results indicate that sodium fluoride with 300 ppm has toxic effects on organ body weights and on the histology of the gonads of adult’s male and female albino rats.

Effect of boron on some organs of pregnant BALB/c mice

Baidaa A. Salah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 633-642
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127549.1509

Current research had been conducted to assess the impact of boric acid (boron) on the different tissues of the fetal and maternal bodies of pregnant mice Mus musculus and its influence on the maternal plasma biochemistry, hematology, in addition to the fetal and maternal bodies weight, moreover the weight of a certain motherly tissues included liver, kidney, lung, brain and spleen. The pregnant mice were administered orally with boric acid at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg during pregnancy. The observations at a concentration of 50 mg / kg demonstrated several histopathological patterns in different mothers and fetal body parts. The lesions were increased at the dose of 100 mg / kg. Moreover, boron caused weight decrease in the maternal body weight, fetuses, and liver, but it caused an increase in weight of the kidney at the concentration 100 mg/ kg. The biochemical assessment of the maternal serum showed a high rise in the level of liver enzymes, blood urea, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL at the concentration 100mg mg/kg. Furthermore, there was a meaningful change in the blood hematology at the concentration 100mg/kg. In conclusion, the exposure of pregnant mice to high concentrations of boric acid can alter the structure, the function of maternal and embryos organs by inducing oxidative stress, which in turn resulting in the accumulation of toxins in the blood that cause different effects during the exposure period. 

Pathological and biological effects of treatments with lambda-cyhalothrin in rabbits

Assia BOUMEZRAG; Houari HEMIDA; Fadhela Amina BOUMEZRAG; Fadh SMAIL; Sekhou CISSE

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 443-450
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126977.1425

Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide, which is widely used to control a large variety of agricultural pests throughout the world as well as in Algeria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LCT exposure on body weight, hematological and blood biochemical parameters and to evaluate histopathological changes in some organs. Twelve (12) healthy local rabbits with a mean body weight of 1.8 kg were divided into three groups of four each: First group was kept as control (CTRL), second group (LCT 10) and third group (LCT 20) were given oral LCT at 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w, respectively three times a week for 25 days. The results showed no significant difference in mean body weight between groups. Blood analysis revealed no significant variation in hemogram between LCT-treated groups and control group. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P˂0.05) in total cholesterol content and glucose in LCT10 and LCT20, respectively. Total protein increased significantly (P˂0.0001) in LCT 20 group. While a very high increase (P˂0.0001) in the activity of asparatate aminotranferase (AST) was recorded in both treated groups, no change was observed in the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). LCT treatment exhibited severe histopathological changes in liver, kidney, lung and brain. It is concluded from the study that LCT produced serious toxic pathological alterations and metabolic dysfunctions in rabbits.

Necropsy findings and histopathological analysis of a terminal stage ewe from a herd with sudden deaths in Mosul

Karam H. Yahya; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Thanoon Y. Al-Hubeity

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 599-604
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127015.1435

A three-year-old ewe was received as a terminal stage animal for necropsy in the Teaching Veterinary Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, the University of Mosul, on 18/12/2018. The animal was carried alive from the Al-Fthilya region in the eastern north of Mosul and expired before hospitalization. Statement of the owner prevailed sudden deaths of healthy animals or a concise course of illness followed by respiratory distress and nervous manifestations and death at 14 mature animals within mortality rate reached 15.5% in the herd. Necropsy findings and histopathological analysis showed that encephalitis included hyperemic cortical blood vessels, severe perineuronal edema, microglial proliferation. The lungs revealed severe pulmonary edema and signs of peracute pneumonia. Liver sections demonstrated congested portal and central veins and lobular sinusoids with centrilobular coagulative degeneration. At the kidneys, we detected both glomerular and interstitial nephritis with severe tubular cell necrosis. We concluded a state of bacterial septic shock, suggesting Pasteurellosis as a probable etiologic factor from the symptoms and pathological examination. The case was reported, and laboratory tests were requested.

Histopathological assessment of nano n-acetyl cysteine effect on postoperative adhesion in rats

shadman shahzamani; Alireza Jahandideh; Gholamreza Abedi; Abolfazl Akbarzadeh; saeeid hesaraki; pouya parsaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 589-597
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126857.1400

Abdominal adhesion is one of the main and important post-surgical problems and, according to available literature, the probability of their occurrence after surgery is higher than 50%. The present study intended to estimate the effect of Nano n-acetylcysteine on macroscopic and microscopic features post-surgical adhesions in an animal model. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats, 200-220 gr, were randomly divided into five equal groups and underwent intramuscular anesthesia by injection of ketamine 10% at 50 mg/kg and injection of xylazine 2% at 5 mg/ kg. The treatments included three Nano-NAC groups at different dosages 50, 75 and 150 mg/kg, an NAC group, and a control group. On days 14 and 28 post-surgery, the abdomens of all rats were re-opened for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of adhesions. Based on the results of macroscopic evaluation, the group receiving Nano-NAC 50 mg/kg had the lowest and the control group the highest mean adhesion scores on days14 and 28 post-operations. Histopathological evaluation also revealed that the group treated with Nano-NAC 50 mg/kg had the lowest level of inflammation and fibrosis score among the five groups on days 14 and 28 post-operation. Considering the results obtained in our experimental model and the increasing use of nanotechnology in the manufacture of biomedical drugs, it seems that use of Nano-NAC at low doses 50 and 75mg/kg after laparotomy can significantly reduce adhesions.

Does Baclofen induce changes in testicular histology and seminal fluid analysis in rat?

Luma I. Al-Allaf; Omar N. Sultan; Basma S. Saad-Allah; Wahda M. Al-Nuaimy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 387-396
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126894.1411

Baclofen has a central acting effect, so clinicians have been utilized it chiefly for treating the spasticity of spinal origin. Nowadays, off-labeling use of baclofen with high doses is frequently increased. Despite of the extensive research studies on the effectiveness of baclofen, the reports on its histological effects on testes and on sperm parameters we insufficient. This work aims to assess the histological influences of baclofen on rats' testes and on several sperm characteristics after administration for 8 weeks. Twenty-two male rats at age of peripuberty (8weks) that were categorized into two groups. Group I (control group) includes 10 rats which were gavaged with 1 ml/day of distilled water daily. Group II (baclofen's group) includes 12 rats which were received baclofen 14.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks via gavage. At the end of the designed work, euthenization was done and the testes were excised from each rat, the epididymis samples were obtained and prepared for examination under light microscope. This study revealed that rats that were administered with 14.5mg/kg/day of baclofen for 8 weeks showed changes in the sperms parameters with several testicular histological alterations in their sections in comparison with those of controls. The percentage of the live sperms of rats (baclofen's group was lower than that of control group). Features of sloughing inside seminiferous tubules' lumen are frequently seen among these sections with mild decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules. Evidence of decreased Johnsen's scores (spermatogenic index -SI) was noticed in some sections, and decreasing of the frequency of seminiferous tubules that possess spermatozoa was obviously noticed. Moreover, disorganization of seminiferous tubules is shown in these sections. In addition, sections of rats of baclofen group revealed features of necrosis of seminiferous tubules, presence of degenerated spermatogenic layer, features of apoptosis, and presence of gaps in the seminiferous epithelium of degenerated tubules. Different alterations of sertoli cells as vacuolation, and detachment sertoli cells are noticed in sections of rats that were administered with baclofen. The chronic administration of rats with 14.5 mg/kg with baclofen induced effects on sperm parameters and testicular histology. however, the testicular histological alterations were more obvious. Further works are needed to clarify mechanism that stands behind these effects.

Histopathological effects of experimental exposure to lead on nervous system in albino female rats

Asrar Al-khafaf; Hana Kh. Ismail; Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 45-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126248.1273

Lead toxicity is a common health issue. Lead (Pb) is harmful to vital organs of body particularly the nervous system. This study aimed to estimate the effects of lead on the cerebellum, cerebrum and spinal cord in rat model, focusing on histopathological changes. 24 female mature albino rats of 200-300g randomly divided into 2 groups, the first is the control, and the second group were treated with lead acetate at dose 30mg/kg B.W. for 30 days. Microscopic examination revealed degeneration and necrosis of Purkinje cells and molecular cells and decrease in the number of granular cells and molecular cells also observed. Some Purkinje cells lost axons and shrunken and some areas showed depletion of Purkinje cells. Congestion of blood vessels with perivascular cuffing of mononuclear inflammatory cells, hemorrhage, neurophagia, glial nodules were observed in the brain parenchyma. Demyelination reported in white matter, with microglial proliferation around vertebral canal of spinal cord. This study referred to the increased risk of central nervous system damage due to the exposure to lead.

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the veterinary teaching hospital

Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Layth M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that the total number of the excised tumours was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. The tumours were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leucosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and transmissible venereal tumour 2.78%. We concluded from the current study occurrence a different type of tumours which was malignant or benign in different species of animals.

A histological study on the effect of imatinib on the rats' testis after early postnatal exposure

luma khalel; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 85-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126342.1303

The safety region of imatinib, and markedly its role in testicular toxicity has been studied in a controversial manner in current years. This study was designed to address the repercussion of administration of groups of pups with imatinib mesylate (at neonatal or infantile periods) using histological analysis of their testes in several end points and in adulthood. Intact pups (albino-male) exposed to 200 mg/kg of oral imatinib once daily at neonatal and early infantile period on PND 1 to PND10 (for ten days). All experiments performed with age and weight matched control which administered with Distilled water. Pups were into categorized into 4 subgroups, according to the ages of euthanasia: 15 days postpartum (PND); 40days postpartum; 70 days postpartum and 140 days postpartum. The histological analysis was conducted in blind fashion after staining with (Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Ten randomly selected testicular sections from each rat were analyzed qualitatively and quantitavely. In addition, Johnsen' scores were used to analyze the effect of drug on spermatogenesis. Data were recorded and value is considered as significant when it P

Improving light microscopic detection of collagen by trichrome stain modification

Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 273-281
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126176.1256

In present study we aimed to introduce modifications in classical protocol applied to stain collagen fibers by Masson's trichrome stain, in order to decrease time and concentration of different steps and chemical in this traditional protocol. The experiment design contains a series of successive amendment steps based on previously successful steps, in which every step where be modified to get the best result, then the next step of staining protocol will be modified in the classical Masson's trichrome staining protocol in a samples of tissue from liver, heart and intestines of sheep diagnosed with chronic fasciolosis. The result showed that the new modified protocol gives the same staining efficiency to collagen fiber when we used Harris hematoxylin as a nuclear strainer or even excluded this stain from staining protocol. In conclusion this new modified staining protocol give a perfect staining reaction to collagen fibers in pathological samples which is similar to that obtained by Masson's trichrome stain, also this new modified procedure is less time consuming and less toxic effect on human and environment than other trichrome stains, and can be easily conducted either by the technician or the pathologists.

Incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors of dogs from Baghdad city: Clinical, cytological and histopathological features

Inam J. Lafta; Huda H. Alabbody

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125624.1111

The present study was conducted to estimate the incidence, clinical findings, cytological and histopathological characteristics of spontaneously occurring skin neoplasms in dogs. A total of 40 grossly suspected cases of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors were gathered during the period from July 2016 to August 2018 from male and female dogs in Baghdad city. Dogs with skin neoplasia revealed various clinical signs, and their ages were older than 5 years to 15 years. German shepherd 30% followed by Terrier dogs 25% were more influenced than other breeds. Concerning tumor features, the majority of neoplasms had solitary lesion 70%, regular shapes 65% with black color 55%. The tumors frequently occurred on fore-limbs and abdomen, and 80% of them lasted for 1-6 months. Cytological examination was valuable for initial evaluation of benign and malignant tumors. Its results were confirmed by the histopathology, in which the majority of neoplasms sized more than 5 cm and grade I. Nine different types of skin neoplasms were recognized, while 65% of them were malignant, the others were benign. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas were the most common comprising 35% and 25%, respectively.

Diagnosis and histopathological study of avian influenza virus-H5 (AIV-H5) in broiler farms

Fanar A. Isihak; Hana Kh. Ismail; Abed Alwaheed A. Wahid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 101-107
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125646.1120

This study was conducted for diagnosis and description of the pathological changes of AIV-H5 as the causative pathogen in Iraqi broiler farms. The current study was carried out on 84 broiler farms. Infected birds were tested for detection of the AIV infection from the tracheal swabs by rapid chromatographic AIV type A and H5 test kits. In RRT-PCR 8 samples (8 farms) of Trachea were selected to be tested by this assay. Samples of trachea, lung, and spleen from the dead birds with natural AIV-H5 infection were submitted for histopathological examination. seventy-two out of 84 farms tested for AIV-Type A gave positive results, and 58 out of 72 positives for type A-AIV gave a positive result for H5 antigen in a rapid chromatographic strip. The main gross lesions in the trachea of infected birds were severe congestion and hemorrhage. In the RRT-PCR assay, 8 out of 8 samples gave a distinct positive result for this test. The microscopic histopathological examination of infected tracheas showed obvious desquamation of lining epithelium with complete loss of cilia associated with congestion of blood vessels in lamina properia. Infected lungs revealed diffuse alveolar damage and severe multifocal vascular congestion. There was deposition of fibrinous material in the splenic tissue associated with the disappearance of the germinal centers. Thus, we concluded that AIV-H5 infection causes severe pathological and histopathological changes as a result of systemic infection. The RRT-PCR assay was highly sensitive and specific for the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes.

Toxicological and neurobehavioral effects of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin insecticides in mice

Khaerea A. Mustafa; Banan Kh. Al-Baggou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125738.1144

The aim of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin in mice separately and to study their toxic and neurobehavioral effects. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were determined depending on up and down method. The oral LD50 of chlorpyrifos was 193.05 mg/kg and of deltamethrin was 15.71 mg/kg in mice. The oral administration of chlorpyrifos 155 mg/kg and deltamethrin 12.56 mg/kg represent 80% of LD50 resulted in acute signs of poisoning that manifested by dyspnea, salivation and lacrimation at 100%, piloerection, straub tail, tremors, convulsions and death at 70% for chlorpyrifos and 60% for deltamethrin and writhing reflex at 20% for chlorpyrifos. Oral administration of chlorpyrifos 310 mg/kg and deltamethrin 24 mg/kg increased severity of toxicosis signs as a percentage of piloerection, straub tail, tremors, seizures and death 100%. As well as decrease the onset of tremors, convulsions and death, writhing reflex which appears at 20% for chlorpyrifos and 10% for deltamethrin. After three hours of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin oral administration at doses represent 20% and 10% of LD50 there are significantly hypoactivation in open-field activity, significantly increased in the duration of negative geotaxis performance, significantly decreased in head pocking and swimming scores compared to control group. In conclusion we found that deltamethrin was more toxic than chlorpyrifos this is based on the LD50 value. However, the signs of toxicosis and neurobehavioral effects produced by both toxicants were not differential and could not be associated with the toxic level.

Histopathological effect of fluoxetine drug on the brain of pregnant mice and their embryos

Baidaa Barwarei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 71-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125467.1006

The present study was designed to identify the histopathological effect of fluoxetine (fluoxetine hydrochloride) on the pregnant mice brain and their fetuses as well as recording weight changes at doses of 60 and 80 mg/kg of body weight which were administrated to the pregnant mice from the 7th up to the 18th day of pregnancy and once a day. The results showed histopathological lesions in the adult pregnant mice brain at the dose of 60 mg/kg. induced massive necrotic area of neurons in the cerebral cortex, necrosis of the molecular layer cells while the dose of 80 mg/kg the changes include vasogenic edema in the sub cortical area, severe degeneration and necrosis of the cortex. The lesions in cerebellum were more severe than recorded in the cerebrum. The results also showed the presence of many lesions in the fetus brain at the dose 60 mg/kg and they were degeneration, necrosis of many neurons in the cerebrum while at the dose of 80 mg/kg. There were increase of degeneration and necrosis in the cortical area of fetus brain. In conclusion, the use of fluoxetine in pregnant mice caused decrease in body weight and Histopathological changes in the brain of both of the mothers and their embryos, thus the use of antidepressant by pregnant woman can be harmful for the mothers and the fetus.

Study of histopathological and biochemical effect of Punica granatum L. extract on streptozotocin -induced diabetes in rabbits

E.R. Sarhat; S. A. Wadi; B.I. Sedeeq; Th. R. Sarhat; N.A. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125523.1045

This study was undertaken to determine the antidiabetic effects of oral administration of Punica granatum L. extract on serum and tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rabbits at 100 mg/kg. The present study was carried out at the Faculty of veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University, from February to August 2017 for 10 weeks. For this purpose, 30 rabbits were randomly separated into three groups, each containing 10 animals: Group 1, healthy control rabbits; Group 2, diabetic rabbits received streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg); Group 3, diabetic rabbits treated with PS extract (the 100 mg PS+1 ml DW) for 21 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken for measuring serum biochemical parameters. For histopathological evaluation, sections of kidneys were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and 5micron thick sections with H&E stain were prepared using routine histopathological techniques. The treatment revealed that PSE extract significant decreased serum glucose throm-bospondin-1, nitric oxide, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein in diabetic treated rabbits as compared to diabetic rabbits. Histopathology of kidney showed lesions similar to human glomeruloscleroses, glomerular membrane thickening, arteriolar hyalinization and tubular necrosis. From the above one can conclude that PSE extract possess nephroprotective effect in experimentally induced diabetic rabbits.

Physiological and histological effects of broccoli on lead acetate Induced hepatotoxicity in young Male albino rats

Sulaf Mustafa Mohammed; Majida Noori Ibrahim; Mahmood Othman Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 21-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125528.1050

The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Broccoli against lead acetate (PbA) hepatotoxicity by some physiological and histological indicators. The results showed that intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection by 12 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate once a week for 8 weeks led to an increase in the activity of Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Acid phosphatase (ACP), Total serum protein (TP) and Total serum bilirubin (TSB). Liver's histological sections of lead acetate injected rats showed infiltration of inflammatory cells with sinusoid dilation, necrosis, and apoptosis of Kupffer cells. Broccoli has an ameliorative effect, that the physiological parameters and histological examination have been showed an improvement. In conclusion, lead acetate produces hepatic disorder and the potential use of Broccoli as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals protects against lead acetate hepatic toxicity.