Keywords : Heavy metals

Evaluation of bacterial contaminants and heavy metals in cow and buffalo raw milk sold in Baghdad governorate

Aseel M. Al-Rudha; Nuha K. Khalil; Noor A. Altaai

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 101-105
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131744.1999

The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial contamination and heavy metal concentrations in 80 samples of raw milk (cow:40 and buffalo:40) gathered from local markets in Baghdad, Iraq. The culture results were classified into ten categories: E. coli was 100% in each cows and buffaloes, Enterobacter Spp 23.75% (25% cow, 22.5% buffalo), Pseudomonas Spp 13.75% (15% cow,12.5% buffalo), Klebsiella Spp 15% (17.5% cow, 12.5% buffalo), Staphylococcus aureus 12.5% (15% cow, 10% buffalo), Staph. epidermidis 5% (for each cow and buffalo), Proteus spp. 10% (12.5% cows, 7.5% buffaloes), E. coli O157 15% (25% cow, 5% buffalo), Yersinia enterocolitica 3.75% (5% cow, 2.5% buffalo) and Salmonella 13.75% (25% cow 2.5% buffalo). The averages of heavy metals concentrations in cow milk samples were (0.62±0.25), (0.25±0.22), (0.31±0.20) and (21±2) mg/kg and in buffalo milk samples were (0.60±0.3), (0.33±0.15), (0.27±0.11) and (18±2.5) mg/kg for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) respectively. The high concentrations of pathogenic bacteria and metals found in the milk products is a sign of inadequate hygiene and sanitation during milking and post-milking operations, as well as excessive levels of heavy metal pollution in the environment which will affect meat and milk produced by these animals.

Evaluation of the heavy metal content in the muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in groundwater in Basrah province, Iraq

Arafat Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 157-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126491.1336

The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Cd) in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in groundwater in Khor Al-Zubair, Basrah province (in the south of Iraq) were assessed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. XRF is a powerful technique for element analysis in different environmental samples with many advantages compared with conventional laboratory methods. The mean concentration of the studied metals in the edible parts of the fish (Cr= 11.42, Ni= 2.75, Hg=1.53, Pb= 1.93, and Cd=4.42 mg/ kg dry weight) exceeded the recommended maximum acceptable levels proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), The commission of the European Communities (EC), and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The results suggest that the tested fish muscle tissue was not safe for human consumption and that the groundwater in the Khor al-Zubair area is possibly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly owing to industrial activity.

Bioremediation of lead and cadmium and the strive role of Pediococcus pentosaceus probiotic

Raghad Jaafar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 51-57
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125581.1092

Consumption of food and water contaminated with heavy metals poses a huge threat to the life. Both of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are heavy metals and important environmental pollutants. Away from traditional treatments, the current study aims to adopt probiotic bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceu to treat heavy metal pollution. Present results indicated a good probiotic property of P. pentosaceus, where they were able to survive pH range from 3-9, during incubation periods 3 and 24 hours, and bile salt range 0.15-0.5% for the same period. The number of bacteria in gastric (pH 3) and intestinal juices (pH 8) after 24 hours of incubation was 390 and 205, respectively. Bacteria showed an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella sp. The antibiotic susceptibility test revealed them resistant to clindamycin, intermediate resistant against benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, and their sensitivity to the rest tested antibiotics. Isolated bacteria identified based on their morphology, biochemical characteristic in addition to the use of automated instrument for bacterial identification (Vitek II), and depending on the results bacteria were identified as P. pentosaceus. In bioremediation study, the lowest inhibitory concentration of lead and cadmium and (MIC) was done, followed by assay the removal capacity by P. pentosaceus, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) analysis. Bacteria show high MIC (1800 and 150 ppm) for Pb and Cd respectively. With removal efficiency for Pb 62.10-68.39% in the concentrations 25 and 50 ppm, respectively, and for Cd 52.71-11.25% in the same concentrations. Depending on the present finding probiotic bacteria (P. pentosaceus) can apply in the bioremediation of heavy metals in the fish ponds when contamination occurs, in addition to their tradition used as safety additive to prevent fish disease and an enhancement agent .Finally the isolation of these bacteria from fish ponds can be considered as a good indicator for a healthy state of fish ponds in the studied area.