Keywords : Buffalo

Transabdominal ultrasonographic determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in buffalo cows

Dhafer M. Aziz; Barra D. Al-Watar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 233-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129858.1694

The study was conducted to evaluate the application of transabdominal ultrasonography for the determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in Iraqi buffaloes. Thirty-two buffaloes at different periods of gestation were included. The buffaloes were palpated transrectally and transabdominal ultrasonography was applied to determine the pregnancy and fetal viability status. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the positive and negative predictive value of transrectal palpation were 93.7, 100, 83.3, 90.9, and 100%, and for transrectal palpation were 78.1, 100, 58.8, 68.2, and 100%, respectively. The values of accuracy and specificity in the first trimester obtained by transabdominal ultrasonography were lower than those obtained by rectal palpation (66.6 vs. 94.4% and 62.5 vs. 90.9%), whereas the same values of accuracy and specificity were at second and third trimesters. Notwithstanding the values of the transrectal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography sensitivity were 100% in the three trimesters of buffalo’s gestation. At the first trimester of gestation, transabdominal ultrasonography required more time in comparison to transrectal palpation to get the final decision. Conversely, transrectal palpation required more time than transabdominal ultrasonography to diagnose the pregnant buffalos which were at the second and third trimesters of gestation. The transabdominal ultrasonography pregnancy diagnosis in the third trimester was faster than at the second and first trimester, a highly significant (P<0.001) negative correlation was reported between the time required for pregnancy diagnosis and the gestation age. It can be concluded that the transabdominal is a practical approach of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and determination of fetal viability in buffalo cows especially at the second and third trimesters of gestation. 

Evaluation of bacterial contaminants and heavy metals in cow and buffalo raw milk sold in Baghdad governorate

Aseel M. Al-Rudha; Nuha K. Khalil; Noor A. Altaai

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 101-105
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131744.1999

The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial contamination and heavy metal concentrations in 80 samples of raw milk (cow:40 and buffalo:40) gathered from local markets in Baghdad, Iraq. The culture results were classified into ten categories: E. coli was 100% in each cows and buffaloes, Enterobacter Spp 23.75% (25% cow, 22.5% buffalo), Pseudomonas Spp 13.75% (15% cow,12.5% buffalo), Klebsiella Spp 15% (17.5% cow, 12.5% buffalo), Staphylococcus aureus 12.5% (15% cow, 10% buffalo), Staph. epidermidis 5% (for each cow and buffalo), Proteus spp. 10% (12.5% cows, 7.5% buffaloes), E. coli O157 15% (25% cow, 5% buffalo), Yersinia enterocolitica 3.75% (5% cow, 2.5% buffalo) and Salmonella 13.75% (25% cow 2.5% buffalo). The averages of heavy metals concentrations in cow milk samples were (0.62±0.25), (0.25±0.22), (0.31±0.20) and (21±2) mg/kg and in buffalo milk samples were (0.60±0.3), (0.33±0.15), (0.27±0.11) and (18±2.5) mg/kg for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) respectively. The high concentrations of pathogenic bacteria and metals found in the milk products is a sign of inadequate hygiene and sanitation during milking and post-milking operations, as well as excessive levels of heavy metal pollution in the environment which will affect meat and milk produced by these animals.

Molecular and serological typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes currently circulating in Egypt

Maryam M. ِbd El-Rhman; Sayed A. Salem; Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid; Diea J. Abo El-Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 581-588
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127327.1495

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease affects all cloven- hoofed animals. The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiological situation of FMD in Egypt during 2017 and 2018, based on antigenic and genetic characterizations of FMD virus (FMDV). Thirty oral epithelia were collected from vaccinated animals (14 native cattle and 16 water buffaloes) showed clinical signs of FMD in four Egyptian governorates having outbreaks. In all collected samples the antigen detection was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the genetic characterization was done by using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were constructed for genetic characterization. The obtained results of FMDV antigen detection ELISA indicated that 50% of the examined samples were positive for FMDV and serotyped as serotype O 40%, serotype SAT2 33% and serotype A 27% respectively. RT-PCR confirmed the results of FMDV antigen detection by ELISA. Six amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for viral protein 1 (VP1) of FMD. Results demonstrated that genotype O was related to East Africa-3 (EA-3) topotype with 12.7% difference from vaccine strain O-IRN-8-2005-Pan-Asia-2. Furthermore, genotype A clustered into Asia topotype with 6% difference from vaccine strain A-IRN-1-2005. Meanwhile genotype SAT2 in 2018 was related to VII topotype but it was in close relation with strains isolated from Libya in 2012 with 94.3% amino acid identity that differ from the previously circulated SAT2 since 2012 and recorded recently in Egypt. The presented results confirmed the circulation of a new topotype of serotype SAT2.

Study on the post-partum disorders and their relationship with the reproductive performance in Iraqi cow-buffaloes

Mohammed Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 313-317
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126771.1387

This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of various postpartum disorders on subsequent reproductive performance in Iraqi cow buffaloes. The data were collected from 172 buffaloes within private dairy buffaloes herd. In this study, the diagnosis and treatment of the affected cases with postpartum disorders (Retained placenta, puerperal metritis, uterine prolapse and vaginal prolapse) contributed in the data collection based on the parity, calving time and reproductive parameters (days to first estrus, open days, service per conception, intervals between estrus and calving interval). Cow buffaloes were divided according to their postpartum disorders into 5 groups: first group (healthy), second group (retained placenta), third group (puerperal metritis), forth group (uterine prolapse) and fifth (vaginal prolapse). The results of this study showed that a total of 74.42% of the cow buffaloes had normal post-partum and open days 121.9 days with resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 77.41 days, increased incidence of G2, G3, G4 and G5 were 9.88, 6.97, 6.97, 5.23 and 3.48%, respectively. Open days were significantly longer in buffaloes in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 compared to healthy group. In conclusions, early postpartum disorders manifested by increased days to first estrus, calving interval, days open and service per conception were longer than healthy cases in the Iraqi cow- buffaloes.

Molecular characterization of heat shock protein 70 gene in Iraqi buffalo

Hassan N. Habib

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 139-143
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125633.1116

The heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) has important roles in protecting cells and keeping them alive when exposed to different stress conditions. The polymorphism of the hsp 70 gene could be linked with the ability of stress tolerance. This study aimed to determine the polymorphism of the hsp 70 gene in Iraqi buffaloes and study bits effects on the resistance to stress. This study was conducted during from November 2018 to February 2019. The number of buffalo females used was 35 at the age of 4 - 6 years, which belonged to the local farmers from Basra city, Iraq. The DNA was extraction from the blood samples then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed. The DNA sequences were analyzed by using bioinformatics analysis. The results of the molecular analysis showed that there were two groups of the hsp 70 gene as a compare with the same genes in GenBank due to silent and missense mutations. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the Iraqi buffaloes have adapted to the surrounding environmental conditions as a result of the action of HSP 70 proliferation. The hsp 70 gene was a useful biomarker of stress tolerance in buffaloes.

Microscopic identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq

Rashaa Ateaa; Mansour Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 251-258
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162882

Babesia is one of hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by arthropod vectors which responsible for causing of Babesiosis disease in bovine worldwide. The present study was designed for microscopic identification, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq. The study performed in three months of summer season (August into September 2017) and animals ages and sex were included in this study. The direct microscopic prevalence results were show highest prevalence of haemoprotozoa prevalence at Babesia sp. 45.74%. The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to animal sex, were show in male 43.48% and female was 52%, with non-significant differences. The Prevalence of Babesia sp. related to age were show 12.50%, 92.86% and 30% in young, adult and old age respectively with significant differences (P<0.05). The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to month of study were show. 28.57%, 62.50% and 42.86 in August, September and October respectively and with non-significant differences. Molecular study results were based on PCR and DNA sequencing method by phylogenetic tree analysis (MEGA 6.0) and NCBI-BLAST Homology Sequence Identity to differentiation Babesia species typing. The Babesia species prevalence results were show identified two Babesia species, high prevalence of Babesia bovis (38.30%) were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bovis (HQ264126.1) with homology sequence identity 97-100% and Babesia bigemina 7.45% were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bigemina (KU206291.1) with homology sequence identity 95-99%, then 43 Babesia species includes (B. bovis and B. bigemina) were submitted into NCBI-Genbank and provided accession numbers (MH503811-MH503853). In conclusion, this study concluded that Phylogenetic tree and homology sequences identity was show accurate in differentiation of Babesia species, and these species can be isolated at from local water buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city, of Iraq.

Comparative study of the auricle and external acoustic meatus of the cattle and buffalo

S. Al-Sadi; A. A. Hasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67456

The present work was design to study the anatomical features and radiographic appearance of auricle and external acoustic meatus of cattle and buffalo, collected from (12) sample of heads were used in this study, there were equally divided into three groups: first group to study the shape, position and relation of cartilage, muscles and ligament of auricle in both animals, second group to study the measurements of external acoustic meatus, and the third group study morphological and radiographical of external acoustic meatus in both animal, the study revealed that the auricle is a flapy flashy appendage attached to the side of the skull by muscles and ligaments, the auricle is funnel shape, distally is wide open, but more proximally, it is rolled up to form a tube that bend medially to be connected to the external acoustic meatus, the auricle in both animals is composed of three cartilage: the part auricular, scutiform and annular cartilage also auricular muscle and ligament which support the external ear. The result of this study shows that intrinsic auricular muscles is more developed in buffalo, while the greater parts of the extrinsic auricular muscles are developed in both animals. The present work shows that the frontoauricular muscles are distinguish into two parts in buffalo and cattle on the other hand the interscutularis muscle thin fibers and attached with scutuloauricularis prefunds muscle in buffalo, also the parotidauriculares narrower and thicker in cattle, but a ribbon -like muscle thin and wide in buffalo. The external acoustic meatus begins where the rolled up part of the annular cartilage narrows and ends, the meatus has cartilaginous and osseous parts it is lined with skin the study provided that acoustic meatus about 5.667±0.0816 cm of length in cattle and 6.500± 0.126 cm in buffalo, the aim of present work is to report more detailed information about the auricle and meatus in both animal for value importment can easily examined by the speculum the shortness of the meatus should be courses of the risk of injuring of the tympanic membrane and to be able to pass the otoscope tube through the external meatus and to recognize the eardrum when it is seen, to know the surgical anatomy of auricle and acoustic meatus and to know the relationship of vessels and nerve that must be avoid during surgery and to be able to recognize all parts of the temporal bone on radiographs.

Biometry of genital organs in Iraqi female buffalo

Dhyea J. Khammas; Hnee E. Al-Saffar; Ali F. Alwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37421

Ninety-three of grossly normal buffalo genital tracts were under taken in this study. The mean length, width, thickness, and weight of the ovary devoicing functional Corpus Luteum (CL) were 2.39±0.77 cm, 1.55±0.46 cm, 1.19±0.31 cm and 3.12±2.11 gm, respectively, and 2.139±0.65 cm, 1.23±0.3 cm and 3.14±1.86 gm, for the left one respectively. The mean length, width, thickness and weight of right ovary containing functional CL were 2.61±0.52 cm, 1.59±0.45 cm, 1.53±0.24 cm and 4.79±1.59 gm respectively, and 2.88±0.60 cm, 2.34±0.38 cm, 1.48±0.15 cm and 5.54±1.23 gm for the left one respectively. The mean diameter of the largest six follicles located on the right ovary was 1.42±0.19 cm, and 1.41±0.1 cm of six follicles on left ovary. The mean length of prominent part of the 15 functional CL found on the right ovary was 0.57±0.17 cm and it was 0.57±0.21 cm on the left one, while the mean length and weight of those 15 functional CL of the right ovary were 1.151±0.18 cm and 1.31±0.52 gm, and on the left ovary they were 1.73±0.93 cm and 1.7±0.57 gm. The mean length, diameter and number of caruncles of the right uterine horns were 23.76±8.14 cm, 2.12±0.6 cm and 84.63±13.62 respectively, and they were 23.34±7.96 cm, 2.10±0.58 cm and 84.12±13.27 of the left horns respectively. The mean length and numbers of uterine body caruncles were 1.37±0.75 cm and 6.27±1.92 the mean length, diameter and number of annular rings of cervix were 5.33±0.96 cm, 2.58±0.64 cm and 4.7±0.61, respectively.