Keywords : Ticks

Genotypic analysis of ticks species infesting cattle in Al-Diwaniyah abattoir

Mansoor J. Ali; Wisam R. Raheem Atiyah; Monyer A. Abdulameir Al-Fatlawi; Saba F. Khlaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 673-677
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127772.1525

Different vectors are considered critical for disease transmission between animals; however, ticks play a significant role in the dissemination of various infectious illnesses of animals and human importance. The current work was carried out to categorize ticks genetically of those isolated from cattle that entered Al-Diwaniyah abattoir. In the present study, 50 tick samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination and genetic-based methods of polymerase chain reaction and partial gene sequencing, both utilized the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1) gene as a genotyping element. The findings of the microscopic examination showed that the ticks were from Hyalomma spp. Further analysis, the polymerase chain reaction revealed the genus of Hyalomma of the ticks, but when the PGS was performed, one sample of H. detritum, three samples of H. excavatum, and two samples of H. marginatum were identified. When the phylogenetic analyses were conducted, H. detritum showed close genetic similarity to an isolate from Spain EU827695.1. H. excavatum revealed similarity with isolates from India MK863382.1 and Turkey MT230050.1. In contrast, H. marginatum displayed close identity to an isolate from Iran (MG557555.1). In conclusion, these findings may indicate evolutionary links of the locally identified isolates to different world isolates, probably due to the trade-moving of animals.

Investigation of the principal vectors of abortive diseases in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius)

El Aid Kaaboub; Nassim Ouchene; Nadjet A. Ouchene; Ali Dahmani; Imene Ouchtati; Asma Haif; Djamel Khelef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 411-415
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126914.1415

One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) are important source of meat, milk and leather production for humans in southern Algeria. Camel livestock farming is confronted with several obstacles, including abortive diseases which can be transmitted mainly by ticks. The study was carried out in Ouargla region, South Algeria, between January and December 2017. The objective of this study was to identify ticks in camels and to study the relationship between camel abortion rate and the presence of different species of ticks. A total of 350 camels (including 171 males and 179 females) was used in this study. Ticks were searched on the entire camel body (head, neck, hump, abdomen, forelegs, back legs, and tail area). Results showed that 215/350 (61.4%) camels were infested by ticks including 137/171 (80.1%) and 78/179 (43.6%) males and females, respectively. A total of 46/179 (25.7%) camel females had aborted and all these were revealed infested by ticks. A total of 298 ticks was collected including the following species Hyalomma dromedarii (90.9%), Hyalomma impeltatum (5.37%) and for the first time in Algeria, Amblyomma variegatum (2.35%) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.34%). H. dromedarii was the most frequent (p<0.001). The study showed that the dromedary was highly infested by ticks. The presence of ticks in all aborted female camels certainly indicates their important role in one-humped camel abortions in Algeria. The identification of tick-borne abortive agents in camels is important in order to establish an effective abortion control plan.

Evaluation the efficiency of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae as biocontrol agent for adults of hard ticks Hyalomma anatolicum

S.Sh. Shahatha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 57-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163088

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae  as a vital agent for the control of the Hyalomma anatolicum, which is infested on buffalo fields in some villages of Anbar province, Iraq. The results showed that different concentrations of the fungus 4.2*110, 4.2*310, 4.2*510 pg/ml were capable of killing the tick eggs, and the kill rate was proportional to the higher concentrations used. After 3 days of treatment, moreover causing a high proportion of phenotyping deformation in male and female ticks.

Seroprevalence of piroplasmosis with tick distribution in northern Iraq

L.T. Omer; M.A. Kadir; J.S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 105-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168746

The current study was carried out on blood samples of 299 local breed female cattle in Erbil, Duhok and Suleimania, Northern Iraq, for the period from beginning of January till end of December 2006 for detection of piroplasmosis.  By direct blood smear examination, the rate of Theileria annulata alone was 45.1% while in mixed infections with Babesia was 11.7%. The total rate of Theileria infection was 56.9%. The haematological parameters of cattle infected with Theileria alone were PCV=27%, RBC= 5.6 million/ cm3 and Hb 9.5 g/liter did not vary from non infected ones. While in mixed infections (Theileria +Babesia) the blood picture values were decreased dramatically and were PCV=18%, RBC=4.08 million / cm3 and Hb 5.7 g/l. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA), the seropositivity of Theileria was 77.9%, while Babesia was 12.4%. The overall rate of seropositivity by ELISA was 90.3% for piroplasms while by blood smears examination the rate of infected animals was 56.9%. From 5804 ticks collected from animal body, the constituencies of the ticks were 81.7% H. anatolicum anatolicum, 15.3% H. marginatum marginatum, 2.82% Rhipecephalus appendiculatus and 10 ticks (0.2%) were not identified. The highest rate of ticks was found attached to udder and under tail (77%), followed by ears (20%) and hind limbs and around eyes (3%). The distribution of ticks was highest in spring 96.0%, followed by summer 4.0%. No ticks were detected in winter and autumn. The greatest number of ticks was in March (37.9%) followed by May (32.23%), April (25.85%), June (2.17%), July (1.68%) and August (0.17%).