Author : Al-Badrany, Muneer S. Taha
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences,
2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 25-36
The aim of this study was to evaluate the different methods of performing a Laparoscopic castration in dogs and to determine the efficiency and disadvantages of each of these methods. The study was conducted on 20 locally healthy dogs aged between 10-20 months and weights between 17-33 kg. The animals were randomly divided into four groups each group consisted of 5 dogs. In the first group, the castration was done by closed the ducts deferens with titanium clips, 4 clips were used, the average time for complete this surgery is (11.06± 1.19 Minute). The disadvantages of this method the possibility of failure to apply the clips. In the second group, laparoscopic castration was done by using Monopolar electrocautery, time requires for doing this operation is (34.85 ± 10.15 min.) the disadvantages of this technique bleeding may occur during cutting the spermatic cord, and the smoke of Monopolar electrocautery which impedes the vision of the surgeon. In the third group, extracorporeal ligation technique was used. This method proved highly efficient and prevented any bleeding because we did not need to cut the blood vessels, as well as the low material cost of this method compared to the other three groups. However, the time required to perform this procedure in this way was rather long compared to the remaining three groups where the time required to conduct the surgery is (36.82 ± 7.18) minutes and the disadvantages of this method is the tightening and twisting the blood vessels during pushing the knot to put her in the place as well as the length of the surgery time. While in the fourth group the laparoscopic castration was done by thermal cautery in which the clotting and cutting of blood vessels in the spermatic cord were done in the same tool, the time required to complete this surgery is (11.91±3.73 min). All the operations were performed under general anesthesia using Ketamine HCl 5% in dose 15mg/kg B.w and Xylazine 2% and 5 mg/kg B.W) as bolus i.m injection. Blood was collected from each animal before the surgery and 14, 30 days after the surgery to measure the level of testosterone hormone in the serum. The results showed there is no significant decrease before and after the surgery in the testosterone serum level. The testis was removed one month after the surgery to observe changes in testicular tissue and epididymis, there were hemorrhagic areas, necrotic regions, glomerulosclerosis and adhesions between the tunica vaginalis and the tunica albuginea. As well as the spermatozoa was stopped. Absences of the sperm in the epididymis (spermatogenia), also there are degenerative and necrotic changes in the epithelium of the epididymis and absence of the cavities of these nuclei in the sperm. We conclude from this study that laparoscopic castration in dogs can be performed in all methods which are mentions above, however, the thermal cautery method was the best method in terms of time, safety and economic cost.
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences,
2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 55-65
Aim of this study was to evaluate some chemical agents to produce castration in bucks and compare with the traditional method of castration in goat by using the tool (Burdizzo), in order to find a way less harm to the animal. 25 bucks of the local breed were used weighting between 24-40 kg, the animals were divided randomly into five groups each group of five animals each, the 1st group (control) were injected with 3 ml of distilled water within the parenchyma of each testis as control group, the 2nd Group was castrated by using the tool (Burdizzo), the 3rd group was injected with a mixture of tannic acid 750 mg, and 600 mg Caffeine in 3 ml of each testicle, 4th Group was injected with 750 mg tannic acid each testicle, The 5th group injected with 500 mg of tannic acid in each testicle, Gauge 18 Needle was used with aseptic precautions of the injection site and tools. The animal were kept under observation for 1 month for studying the clinical and behavioral changes, the changes in size of the testes was calculated weekly by measurement of testicular circumference using a measuring tape additionally ultrasound was used for detection of pathological changes in testicular tissue, for estimation the level of testosterone and haptoglobin, a blood samples was collected from the animal before the castration as a control and weekly for 4 weeks while collected in 3 and 7 days after for estimation of haptoglobin level, the gross pathology of the testes was suited at one month after castration the testes was collected by several methods including scrotal ablation, closed surgical with a legation of spermatic cord. Closed surgical with using the thermo cauttery as well as after the slaughter of animals then a biopsy was obtained from the collected testes for histopathological study. The results showed of the 3rd group signs of pain and discomfort and increased measure the circumference of the testis, the changes were the presence of foci necrotic in the ultrasound examination and the macroscopic changes was clear and with histopathological changes showed loss of normal structure to the testicular tissue and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the results of measuring haptoglobine of this group significant rise after a week from the injection, while the 2nd group (Burdizzo) has shown signs of discomfort and pain during palpation with the lack of sexual desire or attempt to jump and showed a significant increase in the circumference of the testis, the changes were clear during the examination with ultrasound, the level of haptoglobine significantly increased compared with the control group as well as changes macroscopic and histological which was degeneration of the whole testicular tissues (uniform degeneration), and the two groups of tannic acid, 500 mg and 750 mg showed signs of pain and discomfort did not appear significant increase circumference measure of the testis with the disappearance of sexual behavior of most animals, and changes were presence of necrotic foci with ultrasound examination and the changes were macroscopic and was histopathological changes showed loss of normal structure of the testicular tissue with infiltration of a mononuclear inflammatory cells, while haptoglobine measure showing normal level. The examination of testosterone hormone showed differences in the measurements and these differences were evident in the group (Burdizoo) as a significant decrease in the level of the hormone. We conclude from this study the possibility of using chemical castration in bucks, using tannin acid 750 mg or 500 mg with an expected failure rate. الاستماع