Author : Mohammed, Naska Abdulkadir

Detection of the origin of animal species in kebab meat using mitochondrial DNA based -polymerase chain reaction (mtDNA-PCR)

Khulod Ibraheem Hassan; Bana Azad Mohamed Ali; Naska Abdulkadir Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 39-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125516.1038

Adulteration and incorrect labeling of meat products became a matter of great concerns of religious, economical, legal and medical aspects. Among meat products, kebab is considered one of the most favorable in Iraq, which makes it prone to adulteration. This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of kebab by detecting the origin of animal species meat in it; using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose kebab was prepared as per the standardized processing schedule using pure mutton and beef meat in ratio 80:20 and chicken meat in five ratios ;70:20:10, 65:20:15, 60:20:20,55:20:25 and 50:20:30, respectively. DNA was extracted successfully from pure species meat and from all mixed kebab above, then PCR was carried out using species-specific primers, to amplify mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The results revealed specific amplified fragments with 133, 300 and 585 bp for pure chicken, beef and sheep, respectively, and in the mixed grilled samples, the detection limit of chicken was 10%, indicating that the cooking (grinding) and addition of non-meat ingredients showed no effect on the detection of meat species. The results of this study proved mtDNA-PCR to be effective and reliable for detecting the origin of animal species meat . This method of detection could be applied in quality control laboratories for detect adulteration in different kinds of traditional grilled kebab in Iraqi restaurants.

Molecular diagnosis and genetic relationship of foot and mouth disease virus serotype Asia1/Basne/Sul/2015

Jeza Muhamad Abdul aziz; Salih Ahmed Hama; Hawre Kamel Faraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 67-73
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125519.1041

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is the most economically important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. From April to May of 2015, tongue epithelial tissue samples were collected from 36 cattle in six villages, which share the border with Iran. Samples were screened using RT-PCR to amplify a conserved region in the VP1 gene, and phylogenetic tree analysis was performed based on the VP1 nucleotide sequence results. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequence was converted to an amino acid sequence in order to detect similarities between the studied samples and those previously published in GenBank (NCBI). Epidemically, based on the amino acid residues, genetic similarity, and amino acid substitutions, the VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined to be close to a novel group, group VII, with 94% identity. The VP1 amino acid sequence analysis revealed a close relationship to the Asia/BAL/PAK/iso-2/2011 isolate (Accession no. JX435109), with 95.7% identity, which is not significantly different. Analysis of the studied samples revealed that the FMDV serotype Asia1 causing the outbreak in the Basne district belonged to group VII, which was introduced from the Balochistan province of Pakistan through illegal movement of animals from this region.