Author : Nadia S. Alhayali

Morphometric and molecular characterization of Moniezia species in sheep in Mosul city, Iraq

Eman G. Suleiman; Nadia S. Alhayali; Ahlam F. AL-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 833-837
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132278.2077

The current study examined 100 small intestines collected randomly from sheep slaughtered in the abattoir and butcher’s shops from different Mosul city / Iraq areas of both sexes (55 females, 45 males) and different ages. Moniezia expansa was diagnosed in 9 samples of intestines by studying the morphometric characteristics of these tapeworms, especially the mature segments, in which both the ovaries and vitelline glands appeared in the ring shape on either side of the body segments and the rosette-like shape of the interproglotidial glands. No significant difference was noticed between males and females of sheep in our study, and the infection rate was 10% in sheep less than a year old and older than two years, with no significant difference between the age groups. The results of the molecular analysis by using conventional polymerase chain reaction technique confirmed the diagnosis of these worms, which belong to the genus Moniezia, with a product reaction of 700 base pairs. The sequencing result shows two strains of Moniezia expanza, which isolated from Iraq (Moniezia expansa-Iraqi one and Moniezia expansa-Iraqi 2) were similar to each other had a significant distance to other strains. The study also showed that Moniezia expansa is different from the same species in other countries.

Sero-prevalence of hypodermosis in cattle in Mosul city, Iraq

Duaa G. Alhamdany; Nadia S. alhayali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 407-412
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130397.1816

Bovine hypodermosis has been known as a veterinary disease that mainly caused by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum. This study aimed to determine sero-prevalence of cattle grubs in Mosul, Iraq utilizing indirect ELISA as well as effect of some risk factors on prevalence of hypodermosis. A total of two hundred blood specimens were collected from healthy and infested cattle through direct palpation. All samples were collected from cattle at Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Mosul abattoir, Kokjali and Bazwaya region during October 2020 to March 2021. Outcomes of iELISA showed 40.5% as an infestation rate of hypodermosis. Notably, infestation intensity has distributed as light, moderate and sever 11, 18.5 and 70.3% respectively. Interestingly, highest seroprevalence of hypodermosis was recorded in October 67.7%, and the lowest was recorded in February and March 22.2%, 25% respectively. Observations of current study also recorded the infection rate in age was 54.7% in animals less than 3 years old, and the lowest was 16% in animals more than 3 years old. Moreover, breed showed a significant risk factor 53.8% for imported cattle and 14.7% for local breed. Importantly, risk factor concerning area recorded the highest rate in Kokjali 52.2%. In contrast, the lowest rate recorded in Teaching Veterinary Hospital 14.8%. The present study is the first investigation to identify cattle hypodermosis by iELISA in Mosul, Iraq. iELISA has been approved as the best diagnostic tool for early detection of hypodermosis during the migrating phase. Interestingly, age, breed and months of study were significant risk factors. 

Morphological and Molecular diagnosis of Hypoderma spp. in Mosul city, Iraq

Duaa G. Alhamdany; Nadia S. alhayali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 255-259
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129942.1704

Hypodermosis is a distinctive ectoparasitic disease infesting cattle; Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum are the most common causes of this myasis. In this study 78 larvae were collected from infected cattle by extraction in the Educational Veterinary Hospital, from Kokjali and Bazwaya flocks and from the skin of slaughtered in Mosul abattoirs for the period from October 2020 to March 2021. Morphological identification by using stereomicroscope depending on patterns of spinulation of the 10th abdominal segment and peritremes structure of L3 classified as H. bovis and H. lineatum. Molecular technique by traditional PCR applied on 16 L3 of the genus Hypoderma revealed that the reaction product was 500 bp by amplification of mt CO1 gene while the results of PCR-RFLP using restriction TaqI enzyme for differentiation between the two species indicated reaction products 300bp for H. bovis and 200bp for H. lineatum respectively. The results of molecular analysis by PCR and PCR-RFLP proved the existence of these two species of Hypoderma in Mosul. 

Morphological and phylogenetic characterization of Oestrus ovis larvae in sheep: Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq

Nadia S. Alhayali; Mohenned A. Alsaadawi; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 133-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129529.1656

The fly larvae infect the nasal cavities and sinuses (frontal and maxillary) of sheep, goats, and a range of wild ruminants, forming a disease called oestrosis (Nasal myiasis or nasal bot). The disease is one of the significantly diseases for the Iraqi small ruminant industry that causes detrimental economic losses. The current work was carried out to morphologically- and molecularly-characterize O. ovis larvae collected from sheep in a slaughterhouse in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. The study depended on collecting 20 larvae (at different stages) from 20 sheep from 15 October till 17 December 2020. The morphological examination was done using a stereomicroscope and relying on larval characteristic features, including the posterior end, spiracles, and cephalopharyngeal skeleton. The molecular characterization was performed utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial gene sequencing (PGS) methods of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene at 700-bp and 300-bp regions. Morphologically, the first-stage larvae (L1) showed characteristic mouth hooks, while the second-stage larvae (L2) revealed clear terminal stigmas. For the third-stage larvae (L3), the color of body segments and their spines' were the most important features for this larval stage. The PCR showed amplification at both regions 700bp and 300bp, in 8 and 7 isolates, respectively. The PGS revealed 15 different local isolates in genetic level aligned with isolates from Kyrgyzstan, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. This study shows the important strain differences of O. ovis that infect the local sheep in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq.

Pathological and molecular study of ovine diaphragms naturally infected by Sarcosystis spp.

Enas S. Mostafa; Nadia S. Alhayali; Eman G. Suleiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 749-755
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128327.1570

 Sarcosystis spp., has a close relationship with muscles due to its unique localization within skeletal muscle in humans and the animals it infects, as the chronic condition of the disease causes significant economic losses, especially in terms of meat production as a result of the formation of cysts, whether macroscopic or microscopic, in their muscle fibers. Sarcosystis tenella and Sarcosystis arieticanis are the most important pathogenic cysts forming in sheep. In this study, 50 samples of diaphragm muscles of sheep slaughtered in the butchers' shops and the Mosul abattoir were examined grossly, histologically, and using PCR technique as a diagnostic tool to identify or diagnose the causative and responsible species of these changes. The diaphragm samples appeared white and pale on the macroscopic examination, while the tissue lesions were characterized by the presence of Sarcosystis in different numbers and sizes among the muscle fibers, which led to the occurrence of zinker necrosis and intense infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophil, monocyte, macrophage and giant cells, and also oedema and proliferation of fibroblast. With the formation of fibrous tissue whose intensity was inferred (mild, medium and intense) by using the masson’s trichrome stain. The results of the molecular analysis using the nested PCR technique indicated that these diagnosed microscopic cysts belong to Sarcosystis tenella with a reaction product of 800bp and 500bp.

A study of the incidence of Lucilia sericata fly in ovine in Mosul city

Nadia S. Alhayali; Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 739-743
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128276.1566

The objective of the current study is to examine the incidence of Lucilia sericata larvae in the sheep in Mosul city, Iraq. From a total of 670 sheep examined, 92 sheep of them 13.7% were infested with Lucilia sericata larvae. For the 516 larvae found in the sheep, 146 (28.3%) was detected to be of the first instars larva, 120 (23.3%) was second in stars larva and 250 (48.4) as third instars larva. As the average number of larvae in the infested animals was 5.6. The infestation percentage in males was higher 26.3% compared to the females 4.2%, where there is no significant difference reported concerning with the age. The prevalence of Lucilia sericata larvae was 8.4% in spring, 38.9 % in summer, 2.4% in autumn and 1.5% in winter. The difference in terms of seasons were statistically significant. Sheep in the rural areas had higher infestation rate in comparison to the sheep in urban area. Most lesions occurred in the breech region, flank, leg and inter digital space of a foot. The percentage of adult flies that merged was 73.3% and the pupariation period was 12 to 20 hours, while the incubation and moulting periods were 7 to 10 days. All flies were similar in the external appearance and belonging to Lucilia sericata causing strike disease in sheep.

Natural heavy infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep in Mosul city: A case report

Nadia S. Alhayali; Manal H. Hasan; Karam Y. Al-Mallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 373-376
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125994.1210

This study included recording the natural heavy infection with immature macrocysts (Sarcocysts) of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep. The sheep is one years old which is slaughtered at butcher shop at Mosul city in May 2018. This is the first case recorded of natural infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. in Mosul city. Many of small nodules were observed during slaughter, these nodules are seen within esophageal muscles in different sizes and shapes, they were distributed randomly throughout esophageal muscles. Most of the sarcosystis were small in size the mean of size between 20- 28×28-42 µm they were histological examination showed that presence of only metrocytes. This confirmed the diagnosis that the sarcocysts were immature macrocysts (sarcocysts) for the Sarcosystis spp. In our study, heavy infected case with Sarcocystis reveals the fact that large numbers of cats(final hosts) in contact with sheep in pastures is considered the main risk factor for infection and feed with raw meat from infected sheep, which is very important for carcass condemnation when the meat inspection when abnormalities are found which indicate that the part of carcass, is unfit for human consumption it is condemned, which means the economic loss for livestock.