Author : Hamad, Mohammad A.


Some insights of novel COVID 19 virus: structure, pathogenicity and immunity aspects

Ammar M. Al-Aalim; Mohammad A. Hamad; Ali A. AL-ledani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 287-293
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126898.1408

COVID- 19 is highly infectious disease where the first infected case reported in Wuhan city-China, then it was spread worldwide. The causative agent belongs to novel enveloped single linear positive-sense stranded RNA Coronavirus, which is also called SARS-CoV-2 and has an affinity to lung cells. The genetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that this novehtm hgn l strain may be developed from the animal. origin by recombination between a bat SARS-like CoV and a coronavirus of unknown origin. The ability of rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus from person to other is similar or even more than to other human viruses like influenza or plague leadding to be announced as a pandemic by WHO in 2020. The mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 increased day by day and this led the scientists to search ways to control the virus. Most of the deaths in aged patients may be due to immune response complications where 70% of patients showed lymphopenia. This review, provided some details about structure, pathogenicity and immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The facts in this review lead to suggest that in most cases the death in SARS-CoV-2 may occur via loss of systemic inflammatory response control which leading to lung injury followed by pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure, hence the death especially in old patients. In concluding the early effective control of both innate and adaptive immunity may be the critical. key factor in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

The inhibitory role of effective microorganisms on the growth of pathogenic bacteria

Mohammad A. Hamad; Saba A. Hussein; Ebtehal N. Mahmmoud; Ammar M. Al-AAlim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 153-158
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125653.1123

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Effective Microorganisms (EM1®) for inhibiting the growth of some pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were used in this study and isolated from pathological conditions. These bacteria were diagnosed in laboratory of microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. The colonies that taken from blood agar were 5-7 and cultured in the nutrient broth and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours. Bacterial growth was calibrated with the second tube of the McFarland tubes 0.5%. Several concentrations of EM product were prepared 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125%. Decimal dilutions were done for each concentration of EM product with bacterial suspension, except control group was done for bacterial suspension with nutrient broth. The bacterial count was done on nutrient agar, milk agar and EMB agar. The results of this study showed that the product of EM1® within concentrations 0.5-1% was highly efficient in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria under study. The bacterial count of both S. aureus and E. coli was 54x107 and 52x107 CFU/ ml respectively at 1% EM1®, and 67x107 and 86x107 CFU/ ml respectively at 0.5%, while the counting of the control group was 42x109 and 67x109 CFU/ ml respectively. This study concluded that EM1® at low concentrations have a clear role in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly S. aureus and E. coli.