Author : Al-Mahmood, Saevan Saad

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the veterinary teaching hospital

Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Layth M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that the total number of the excised tumours was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. The tumours were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leucosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and transmissible venereal tumour 2.78%. We concluded from the current study occurrence a different type of tumours which was malignant or benign in different species of animals.

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

Improving light microscopic detection of collagen by trichrome stain modification

Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 273-281
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126176.1256

In present study we aimed to introduce modifications in classical protocol applied to stain collagen fibers by Masson's trichrome stain, in order to decrease time and concentration of different steps and chemical in this traditional protocol. The experiment design contains a series of successive amendment steps based on previously successful steps, in which every step where be modified to get the best result, then the next step of staining protocol will be modified in the classical Masson's trichrome staining protocol in a samples of tissue from liver, heart and intestines of sheep diagnosed with chronic fasciolosis. The result showed that the new modified protocol gives the same staining efficiency to collagen fiber when we used Harris hematoxylin as a nuclear strainer or even excluded this stain from staining protocol. In conclusion this new modified staining protocol give a perfect staining reaction to collagen fibers in pathological samples which is similar to that obtained by Masson's trichrome stain, also this new modified procedure is less time consuming and less toxic effect on human and environment than other trichrome stains, and can be easily conducted either by the technician or the pathologists.

Fasciolosis: grading the histopathological lesions in naturally infected bovine liver in Mosul city

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hadil Basim Al-Sabaawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 379-387
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125546.1066

Fasciolosis cause economic losses in cattle that breed in Iraq and the world. About 4% of bovine liver’s samples included in the current study exhibited classical pathological lesions of fasciolosis. Samples of cattle livers infected with fasciolosis were taken for histopathology. Eighteen grading criteria with four scoring level have been chosen to grading the microscopic lesions caused by Fasciola hepatica into a mild infection (grade I), moderate infection (grade II) and severe infection (grade III). The type of hepatic degeneration or necrosis, cloudy cell swelling, coagulative necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, with patterns of infiltration, also type of infiltrated cells, fibrosis between hepatic cells or in portal area, affection to hepatic cords arrangement, hepatic sinusoids, extensions of hemorrhage, pigment deposition, hyperplasia of bile duct, thickness of hepatic capsule and presence of liver fluke were the main grading levels. In grade, I the microscopic lesions were characterized by simple or mild in their nature with very good reversible prognosis, while grade II characterized by moderate severity of the lesions with a good reversible prognosis, while grade III characterized by hostile severity with bad irreversible prognosis as a result of architecture changes in liver histology. In conclusion, we believed that this grading system could be used as a guide when examining histopathological liver's samples infected with F. hepatica to identify the stage of infection and proposed an accurate prognosis.

Mixed thymic tumor in a rooster: gross and histological features

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Ahmed Al-Qadhi; Radhwan Al-Ajeli; layth Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 201-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125536.1058

A 2-year-old rooster local breed suffered from anorexia, emaciation with abnormal large mass in lateral side in cervical region was attended to Veterinary Teaching Hospital belong to College of Veterinary Medicine, Mosul University. After physical examination a movable and friable mass were recognized in cervical region. The case sends for surgical intervention. Gross examination of removed mass showed a friable, pale, will capsulated with hemorrhagic areas. Microscopically, the mass included three types of tumors. Squamous cell thymic carcinoma characterized by presence of keratin pearl. Lymphoma that characterized by atypical polymorphic lymphocytes, vesicular nucleus, and pyknotic nucleoli, while cytoplasm appears eosinophilic to granular with ill- define borders. Lipoma which appear as irregular shape of adipocytes that lack their nucleus, with scattered infiltration of pyknotic lymphocytes. This is the first pathological report of mixed tumor of thymus gland in rooster that composed from squamous cell thymic carcinoma, lymphoma and lipoma.

Pathological study of subchronic oral toxicity induced by Di (2- ethyl hexyl) phthalate in Japanese quails

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Saeed Majed Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145567

In present study, we aimed to investigate the pathological changes induced by subchronic oral toxicity induced by sub lethal dose of Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. Forty male quails at one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group (treated group) was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP (557.41 mg/kg of body weight) for 42 days, while second group (control group) left without treatment throughout experiment period. The results of current study showed that there is congestion of kidney, microscopically they showed presence of hyaline degeneration in renal tubules, glomerulosclerosis, wide spread of degenerative and necrotic lesions in renal tubules, hemorrhage, infiltration of inflammatory cell especially macrophages and lymphocytes in interstitial tissue of kidney. While grossing of liver showed hepatomegaly with hemorrhage, microscopically the sections showed wide distributing of vacuolar degeneration (fatty change) in different size and shape of vacuoles in cytoplasm of affected hepatocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly macrophages and lymphocytes. In conclusion, the oral administration of DEHP at dose 557.41 mg/kg of body weight for 42 days induced degenerative and necrotic irreversible changes in both kidney and liver of Japanese quail that affect their health and production.

Pathological Study of Acute Oral Toxicity Induced by Plasticizer Di (2- ethyl hexyl) Phthalate in Japanese Common Quails Coturnix coturnix japanies

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; S.M. Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126714

The current study aimed to identified the pathological changes of oral toxicity induced by Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. To a chief this aim a pilot study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of DEHP. Forty male quails one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP daily for fourteen days, while second group was considered as control group and left without treatment all over the experimental time. The result of pilot study showed that the LD50 of DEHP in quails is 5574,1 mg/kg of body weight and the dose used in experiment to induced the acute oral toxicity was 557.4 mg/kg of quail's body weight. The result of gross pathological appearance of euthanized quails at fourteen days of experiment revealed presence of sever congestion in kidney lobules as well as congestion of liver with hemorrhagic ecchymotic patches while at other case the liver appear pale in color. The histopathology of kidney revealed presence of degenerative changes represented by cloudy swelling of the cell lining renal tubules lead to narrowing the lumen of affected tubules as well as interstitial edema with coagulative necrosis associated by infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as interstitial hemorrhage. The liver sections revealed presence of fatty change in hepatocytes in which the liver cell contained vacuoles of different size and shape also hepatocytes suffered from coagulative necrosis with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells as macrophages with presence of hemorrhage. We conducted from current study that the oral administration of plasticizer DEHP in fourteen days at dose of 557.4 mg/kg of quail body weight induced degenerative and coagulative necrosis in both kidney and liver tissue in Japanese common quail.

Pathological study of liver lesions in cattle slaughtered at Kirkuk province abattoir

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; A.M. Farhan; Z.S. Daoud; O.S. Hamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 7-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126713

Current study aimed to identify the gross and microscopic lesions and their percentage in liver of cattle slaughtered in Kirkuk province abattoir. A total of 6211 liver sample were examined during period from 01/08/2016 until 01/12/2016 with total cattle liver that showed gross lesions 738 cases. A gross examination was applied to affected liver and tissue sample were taken from lesions for histopathological examination. The result of current study showed that the total liver lesions in cattle is about 11.88% (738/6211) which distributed as liver fluke infestation 3.34% (213/6211), hydatid cyst 3.12% (194/6211), liver abscess 2.29% (142/6211), cholangiohepatitis 2.01% (125/6211), and hepatic hemorrhage with congestion 1.03% (64/6211). The results of gross and microscopic examination of liver infested with liver fluke showed presence of thickening in bile ducts with adult fluke as well as liver atrophy with hyperplasia of epithelial cell in affected bile ducts with dystrophic calcification. While in case of hydatid cyst the lesions composed from presence of larval stage in form of white cyst in different size and their walls composed from hyperplasia of fibrocytes and fibrin strands. In case of hepatic hemorrhage and congestion the result showed sever congestion with staining of liver tissue by blood color, with presence of red blood cells in association with inflammatory cells between hepatocytes. While in case of hepatic abscess we noticed presence of white to yellow solid lesions that randomly distributed in different shape and size composed from necrotic center with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and hyperplasia of fibrocytes. While in case of cholangiohepatitis the affected area showed paleness with accumulation of bile material inside bile ducts, as well as hyperplasia of affected ducts and fibrosis in portal areas with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in liver tissue with dystrophic calcification in bile ducts. We concluded from current study that wide spread of hepatic lesions in liver of cattle in Kirkuk province and this result should be taken in more serious action which can result in economic losses as well as possibility of zoonosis of these pathogens to human, also the gross lesions described by current study were identically similar to microscopic lesions.

Pathological study of intrauterine infection to embryos by Encephalitozoon cuniculi spores in pregnant mice

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; H.I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121383

This study aimed to investigate pathology of oral E. cuniculi infection during pregnancy in pregnant mice and embryos. A total of 40 pregnant mice at first day of gestation were divided into two groups, first group were infected orally by E. cuniculi sores of 107 spores/ mice, second group left without any treatment. At 18th days of gestation all pregnant mice were euthanized. Gross pathology finding in pregnant mice of infected group included congestion of liver and lung, the embryos lesions consisted from enlargement of head and abdomen. Histological lesions in pregnant mice of infected group consisted of hepatic non-suppurative granulomatous lesions with E. cuniculi spores aggregation with lymphocytic infiltration, the lungs lesions consisted of infiltration of lymphocytes with E. cuniculi spores, kidney lesions composed from degenerative and necrotic changes in renal tubules, brain lesions consisted from lymphocytic infiltration with increase in number of glial cells, while intestine tissue sections showed hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue with present of parasitic vacuoles at tips of villi, the placenta exhibited E. cuniculi spores with hyperplasia of trophoblast in chorionic villi, while histological lesions in embryos showed lymphocytic infiltration around alveoli with hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue around bronchioles with absent the normal architecture of hepatic cords and vacuolation of hepatocytes with hyperplasia of lymphocytes in white pulp of spleen. This study provides insight into the pathology of E. cuniculi infection in pregnant mice and their embryos, also supports the hypothesis of intrauterine transmission of E. cuniculi infection to embryos during pregnancy period.

The first unequivocal report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116859

The aim of present study was to report spontaneous Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) infection in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (E. intestinalis) infection in cattle in Mosul city - Iraq. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 142 rabbits and 115 cattle during the period from June, 2012 to June, 2013. Thin smears were prepared from the fecal samples and stained with different fecal stains, as well as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. Infected rabbits were necropsied and pathology of the infection was described. The result showed that microsporidiosis was detected in 41 (26.9%) rabbits and in 12 (10.4%) cattle. E. cuniculi spores were identified in 31 out of the 41 rabbits (73.2%) and E. intestinalis in 7 out of the 12 cattle (58.3%). Infected rabbits showed vasculitis, granulomatous encephalitis, chronic interstitial nephritis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholangitis, vasculitis and non – suppurative pneumonia, infiltration of mononuclear cells in most layers of the intestines, and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues. E. cuniculi spores were seen in the liver, kidneys and lungs. This study considered the first one that report microsporidiosis (E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis) in Mosul city - Iraq.

Experimental histopathological study of chicks infected with Cryptosporidium baileyi isolated from wild pigeons in Mosul

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2011, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5704

The aim of this study was to investigate naturally occurring cryptosporidiosis in pigeons in Mosul city as well as the pathology of experimental C. baileyi infection in chicks. Prevalence of the naturally occurring cryptosporidiosis in the pigeons was 30% according to morphological features of the isolated oocysts and distribution of the lesions of the experimental infection in chicks, the cryptosporidium was diagnosed as C. baileyi. Using a dose of 1000 oocysts, the infection was induced in chikens. Oocysts shedding was noted in the infected chickens at the 7th post – infection (p.i.) day and increased till the 15th p.i. day. Infected chicks showed dullness and anorexia. Microscopically p.i. day 7, there were necrosis of the tips of some of the intestinal villi, mucinous degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, and the presence of large numbers of the parasite in the tips of the intestinal villi. On p.i. day 10, necrosis of the tips of the villi was more extensive and the necrotic cells were sloughed into the lumen and accumulated as debris. Inflammatory mononuclear cells were seen infiltrating the various layers of the intestine. Similar but more extensive lesions were seen on p.i. day 15.

Effect of pollutants in Tigris river in Mosul on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in tissues of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

A. H. Al-Hamadani; M. S. Kalo; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 81-88
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5601

This research was conducted for evaluation of the effect of pollutants of Tigris on some parameters of oxidative stress in common carp. In addition to detection of Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, vitamins E and C and the results were compared with control group. The results revealed that the presence of congestion on blood vessels in kidney with vacuolar degeneration in hepatic cells with infiltration of inflammatory cells and swelling and fatty change in the epithelial cells lining the renal tubules in addition to coagulative necrosis with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue of kidney. Furthermore fatty change in cardiac muscles with infiltration of inflammatory cells and congestion of blood vessels in heart were observed. The statistical analysis referred to a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in glutathione and increase in the malondialdehyde concentrations levels for the most tissues but there was no difference in E and C vitamins except that of the kidney which show a decrease in C vitamin level. It is concluded from the present study that there is a worse effect of pollutants in river of Tigris on the levels of lipid peroxidation indicators for carp fish tissues naturally exposed to those pollutants which may affects the nutritional and hygienic values of these fishes.