Detection of anti brucella antibodies in lambs and goat kids using rose bengal test and indirect ELISA in Gugjeli - Ninavah province, Iraq

Kh. J. Hassain; S. D. Hassan; B. A. Mohmmed; S. A. Esmaeel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5566

The object of the study was to detection of anti-brucella antibodies in lambs and goat kids by using Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests. Sera samples were collected from four flocks, including 135 samples (95 from lambs and 40 from goat kids). The sera examined by rose Bengal test showed negative result in all of flocks, in percentage was zero %. While the percentage of anti-brucella antibodies using indirect ELISA test in female and male lambs was (29.34 %, 10 %) respectively, with total percentage 25.3% and in female and male kids was (55 %, 0.0 %) respectively, with total percentage 27. 5%. The results showed incompatibility between rose Bengal test and indirect ELISA test with kappa value. The study concluded that indirect ELISA test can be considerable as a screening and diagnostic test instead of rose Bengal test for detection of anti-brucella antibodies in lambs and kids.

Extensor and flexor digit synovial sheath, sac and synovial capsule in the distal part of the limbs in buffalos and camels and its relation of surgical interference

A. AL-Omari; G. Alosh; S. AL-sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 35-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5567

Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal) to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter) between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal) to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter) between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.

Reproductive efficiency of rats whose mothers treated with lead acetate during lactation: role of vitamin E

S. T. Abdullah; W. H. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 27-34
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5568

Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W) and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg) during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control). The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W), while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W) with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt). Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05) in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail), prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P<0.05) in seminiferous tubules diameter. On the other hand, lead acetate treatment caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the duration of vaginal opening with no significant changes (P>0.05) in ovary and uterus weights. Lead acetate with vit. E cause significant decrease (P<0.05) in body, testes, epididymal (head, body) weights, number of epididymal sperm count, percentage of live/dead and sperm abnormalities. Concerning young female rats treated with lead acetate and vit E showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in body, uterus weights with a significant increase (P<0.05) in the duration of vaginal opening. Histopathological study revealed changes in the testes such as desquemination in some epithelial lining of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells. Undevelopment of localized area of some seminiferous tubules with blood vessels congestion in both testes and ovaries with hyperemia in ovarian stroma, increase in follicular cells, decrease in corpus luteum formation, degeneration of ovarian follicles and increase in ovarian adipose tissue. This study concluded that lead acetate can be transmitted through mother milk to their pups. The dose of lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W) was enough to make bad effects on both male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant) found to have no improving effect in treatment of lead acetate disturbances on reproductive systems of both sexes.

Effect of bone marrow and low power lasers on fracture healing with destruction of both periosteum and endosteum in rabbits

S. M. Ibrahim; M. G. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 5-9
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5569

Ten mature rabbits of local breed were used in this study; weighing between 1.5 to 1.75 kg and aged about 1–2 years. These animals were divided into two equal groups; in group A destruction of both periosteum and endosteum was done one centimeter from each side of mid-shaft femoral bone fracture, then sufficient amount of autogenously bone marrow was injected directly at the fracture site after immobilization by intramedullary pin. In group B a similar procedure was achieved as in group A, but in additional to that He-Ne infrared laser therapy was used for several sessions. The result of radiological findings indicated that, the fracture healing occurred within group B at fifteen weeks, whereas in group A the healing occurred at eighteen weeks after operation. The implantation of autologous bone marrow enhanced the fracture healing, whereas using of combinations of autologous bone marrow and He-Ne infrared laser therapy hastened the healing.

Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Mosul city by indirect ELISA and conventional serological tests

O. KH. AL-Hankawe; K. A. AL-Saad; M. S. Rhaymah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5570

The study was conducted on 126 cattle (94 females and 32 males) of different ages (1->5 years) randomly selected from July 2007 to August 2008 in Mosul. Indirect ELISA test and other traditional tests (rose Bengal test, tube agglutination test and 2- mercapto-ethanol test) were used to determine the incidence of bovine brucellosis. The highest incidence of disease was recorded by Indirect ELISA, 23.01%, whereas it was 18.25%, 11.90% and 4.76% by rose Bengal, tube agglutination and 2- Mercapto-ethanol tests, respectively. The highest incidence was in females in all serological tests and the highest incidence was in females at the age between 1-3 years whereas in males more than 3 years of age it was 23.07%. The results of tube agglutination test revealed the titer 1/40 occurred mostly compared with other titers. Six chronic cases were determined by 2-mercapto-ethanol test. The degree of agreement of negative samples with rose Bengal test and indirect ELISA, tube agglutination, and 2- mercapto-ethanol tests was 94.17%, 100% and 100%, respectively, and by indirect ELISA with rose Bengal, tube agglutination and 2-mercapto-ethanol tests was 79.31%, 51.72% and 20.68%, respectively.

Clinical, haematological and biochemical studies of babesiosis in native goats in Mosul

Q. T. Al-Obaidi; S. H. Arslan; E. G. Sulaiman; E. Daham

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 31-35
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5571

The study included examination of 175 native goats, 27 were infected with Babesia ovis, B. motasi, B. foliata and B. taylori, (recorded in Mosul for the first time) and 25 were clinically normal and served as control. Results indicated that the percentage of the infection with Babesiosis was 15.42% and the percentage of parasitemia ranged between 3.5-10.4% with a mean 6.95%, infected goats showed signs of loss of appetite, weakness, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, fever, coughing, nasal discharge, recumbency, diarrhea and haemoglobinuria. A statistically significant decrease were recorded in total red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and platelets counts. Anemia was of microcytic hypochromic type. A statistically significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and significant increase in total white blood cells was recorded due to significant increase in lymphocyte and neutrophile count. Results of the biochemical testes indicated an increase in activity of alanin amino transferase (AST), aspartate amino transferase (ALT), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and icterus index, with a significant decrease in total serum protein, albumin and globulin levels. Results also indicated the presence of Rhipecephalus ticks which were: Rh. sanguineus and Rh. turanicus.

Prevalence of intestinal ciliate Buxtonella sulcata in cattle in Mosul

H. S. Al-Bakri; E. G. Suliman; T. M. Al-Saffar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 27-30
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5572

The current study was conducted to detect the presence of Buxtonella sulcata (an intestinal ciliate) in faecal samples of cattle suffering from diarrhea in Mosul city. One hundred and twenty faecal samples were examined, and collected from calves (44), beef cattle (34) and dairy cattle (42) these animals were divided into two groups those showed diarrhea (86) and (34) had no symptomatic diarrhea. Direct smear and formalin-ether sedimentation methods were used for detection of this parasite. The total percentage of infection with Buxtonella sulcata was 24.16%. There was no significant differences in the percentage of infection and intensity of infection between calves, beef and dairy cattle where as there were significant differences between diarrheic and non-diarrheic animals.

Clinical study of foot and mouth disease in feedlot calves in Mosul region

M. SH. Rhaymah; M. A. Abd- Alhameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5573

The affected calves showed clinical signs including presence of vesicles at the bucal cavity and hoof (90.7%), fever (36%), salivation (32.9%), depression (20.5%), Anorexia (19.6%), loss of body weight (7.94%), lamness (15.9%), lesions at the muzzle (15.3%), presence of the lesions at the feet (6.0%), prostration (4.7%), diarrhea (3.3%), presence of the lesion at the mouth cavity (3.0%), paralysis of hind quarters (2.2%) and sudden death (1.6%). There was significant increase in the rectal temperature, respiration rates, and heart rates in the infected animals compared with control group. Recovered animals appeared some diseases including theileriosis (40.4%), tympany (22.8%), pneumonia (19.9%), foot abscess (14.7%), and babesiosis (2.2 %). The mortality rate varied between 3.4% to 27.9% in different herds and the mean was 3.3 % in all herds. There was significant relationship between age of animals and the incidence of the disease.

The effect of substituting Nigella Sativa Meal as a source of protein in the rations of local rabbits on their productive performance and carcass traits

A. A. AL-Kuhla; N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5574

Fifteen local male rabbits (6-8 weeks old) were allocated into three nutritional groups. The first group fed standard ration, 5 and 10% of the Nigella Sativa Meal (NSM) were added to the concentrated rations of the 2nd and 3rd groups replacing 36 and 72% of the soybean meal (SBM) protein respectively. The feeding period lasted for eight weeks. Feed consumption and body weight gain were recorded weekly. At the end of feeding period, all rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were studied. No significant differences were found in total body weight gain and feed conversion rate (475, 502, 478 gm) and (4.8, 4.8, 4.9 kg ration/1 kg wt. gain). Feed cost per 1 kg body gain declined 16% in the 3rd group, which cost 2294 ID, compared with the 1st group (2717) and the 2nd group (2561 ID). No significant differences in all carcass traits were found. Substituting 72% of SBM protein by NSM protein in rabbit ration showed no negative effects on all productive parameters and carcass traits.

Concurrent aflatoxicosis and caecal coccidiosis in broilers

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5575

A farm of two broiler flocks fed from one day old to 56 days of age a diet naturally contaminated with high level of Aflatoxin (AF), were suffered from caecal coccidiosis at 35 days of age Aflatoxin levels in feed commodities and mixed feed were determined using ELISA test. Results of ELISA showed that the average level of corn, soybean and mixed feeds contamination with aflatoxin were 1915, ppb, 229 ppb and 860 ppb respectively. Diagnosis of caecal coccidiosis was confirmed by clinical signs, post-mortem findings, fecal oocyst excretion per gram, oocyt size, morphological characteristic of eggs, lesion score and schizonts size. The significance of AF as predisposing factor to coccidiosis infection was discussed.

Serodiagnosis of Johne's disease by indirect ELISA in ovine

I. M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 41-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5576

The study included collection of 92 serum samples from local Awasii breed in Mosul and Karakosh regions, some of them show clinical signs for John's disease, all samples were assayed using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The results showed that 7/92 (7.6%) samples were positive for antibodies against (Map), and 7/89 (7.9%) were positive in female and 0/3 (0%) in male.

Detection of Brucella antigen in the aborted ovine fetal stomach contents using a modified ELISA test

Th. M. Al-Nima; B. A. Al- Badrani; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5577

This study was conducted on two flocks of sheep suffering from abortion in Mosul city, Iraq. The clinical findings in ewes were abortion during the 3-4 months of gestation period in the both flocks. The total percentage of abortion was 11.7 %, whereas stillbirth percentage was 4 %. Brucella spp. was isolated from four (33.3 %) of the 12 samples (stomach contents of the aborted fetuses). All culture – positive samples had also positive with direct smears. By a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Brucella antigens were detected in the fetal stomach contents of 5 samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified ELISA were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The test had a good negative predictive value but only a moderate positive predictive value. Therefore, the test would be useful for confirming the existence of suspect disease. Comparison of modified ELISA with bacterial isolation demonstrated a close agreement (Kappa value = 0.92). Of the 12 serum samples from aborted ewes, eight samples were positive with Rose Bengle test (66.7 %), more than 10 samples (83.3 %) were detected by indirect ELISA test.

Effect of immunization with protoscolices antigens of hydatid cysts on growth of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs

M. N. Al-Shahery; M. A. Aljawady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 7-10
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5578

The study was designed to evaluate the immune response of puppies, injected by different protein fractions extracted from protoscolieces, obtained from ovine hydatid cyst. Indirect heamagglutination revealed a remarkable increase in the antibody titers for the immunized groups (A1.5, A3, B1.5, and B3) before and after challenge when compared with the control. Biological variations showed decline in numbers of adult Echinococcus granulosus in the immunized groups when compared with the control. Other variations proved dropping in numbers of the worms within the same immunized groups. Subsequent reductions of cestodes were reported which were 83.8%, 81.3%, 78.2% and 74.6% for the groups A3, A1.5, B3, and B1.5, respectively.

Effect of industrial product IMBO® on immunosuppressed broilers vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine

T. S. Qubih; O. G. Mohammadamin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 37-40
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5579

The effect of IMBO was investigated on humoral immune response to Newcastle disease vaccines in broiler chickens. Haemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess the immune response. Results showed that although IMBO significantly enhanced humoral immune response to live Newcastle disease vaccine, it did not decrease post virulent NDV challenge mortality.

Diagnosis of foot and mouth disease by indirect competitive ELISA test in feedlot calves - in Mosul province

M. Sh. Rhaymah; M. A. Abd-Alhameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 49-52
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5580

Indirect competitive ELISA test used, for detection of non-structural protein (3ABC) in 460 serum samples of infected animals revealed that 421 samples were positive (91.5%) and 39 samples were negative (8.5%), with 91.5% sensitivity and 28.4% specifity. Blood picture revealed significant (P<0.05) increase in total leukocytic count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and the percentage of granulocytes, and significant decrease in the total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume.

Molds and mycotoxins in poultry feeds from farms of potential mycotoxicosis

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 17-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5581

Forty five finished poultry feed samples, collected from different broilers, broiler breeders and layers farms were divided into two parts, for mycological and mycotoxins examination. In counting of molds, dilute plate technique was used, whereas feed parts were used for mycotoxin estimation, they were subjected to four standard kits of Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, T-2 toxin and Fumonisins. Mold counts were around 105 cfu.g-1 sample. Fourteen mold genera were recovered. From the systematic point of view, 2 genera belonged to Zygomycetes (i.e. Mucor, Rhizopus,), 1 genus belong to Ascomycetes (i.e. Eurotium); the majority, within so-called mitotic fungi (formerly Deuteromycetes), encompassed 11 genera (i.e. Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis,, Trichothecium, Ulocladium and Aerobasidium). The most frequent fungi were those from the genus Aspergillus. The concentrations of the four analyzed mycotoxins in the poultry finished feeds, and the percentages of the recovered mycotoxins, revealed that aflatoxins was recovered in 91.1% of the examined samples, with a mean value of 179.1µg/kg. The same percentage was found with Ochratoxins, but with lower mean concentration of 159.4µg/kg. In the third order were Fumonisins mycotoxins were in the third order, and they were recovered in 51.1% of the tested samples with a mean value of 127µg/kg. In the fourth order was T-2 toxin, with a percentage of 2.2% and a value of 50.0µg/kg.

Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative

A. Al-Saraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 53-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5582

The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

Biotyping of Clostridium Perfringens strains isolated from enterotoxemia cases in sheep using ELISA technique

A. Kalb Allouz; N. Habra; M. A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 17-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5583

The study was designed to determine the types of Clostridium perfringens and their toxins in sheep with suspected enterotoxemia in Hama province, Syria. For this purpose, 89 bacterial isolates were isolated from 132 samples collected from dead and some slaughtered sheep with suspected enterotoxemia and diagnosed with classical diagnostic tests and by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to determine the types and toxins of C. perfringens. These isolates appeared as G+ bulged rods with curved ends and were as positive to lecithinase, gelatin hydrolysis and sugar fermented, as where negative to catalase, oxidase, and indole. Based on the ELISA results all isolates were C. perfringens types A 84 isolate (94.38 %), D 3 (3.37 %), and C 2(2.25 %). Clostridium perfringens type A was the dominant type in cases of enterotoxemia in sheep in Hama province detected by ELISA test. The enterotoxaemia causes considerable economic loss to the sheep industry particularly in Hama province and generally in Syria. Therefore, it is recommended that a proper vaccination schedule against enterotoxemia should be implemented for sheep flocks in Hama province. These vaccines should provide adequate protective immunity against all C. perfringens types specially types A and D.

Effect of treating lactating rats with lead acetate and its interaction with vitamin E or C on neurobehavior, development and some biochemical parameters in their pups

H. M. Jassim; A. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 45-52
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5584

The current study investigated the effect of administration of vitamin E (600mg/ kg diet) concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally) and vitamin C (100mg/kg, orally) concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally) to the female lactating rats on the neurobehavioral, landmarks development and some biochemical tests in their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in open field activity test including (the number of squares crossed and rearing test within 3 minutes), olfactory discrimination test, triglycerides and malondialdehyde brain tissue, with a significant decrease in glutathione brain tissue and high density lipoproteins in their pups. The present study demonstrated that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin C and lead acetate produced a significant decrease in righting reflex test in their pups. Administration of vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in glutathione level accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and triglycerides levels in their pups. The present study showed that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin E or C with lead acetate produced a significant decrease in rearing test, whereas a significant increase in high density lipoproteins in their pups. It is concluded that administration vitamin E or C to the female lactating rats reverse the adverse effects produced by lead acetate on neurobehavioral. Vitamin E had positive effect on the levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde brain tissue, triglyceride and high density lipoproteins in their lactating pups.

Evaluation the suitable level of standard concentrated ration for fattening growing Sharabi calves

N. Y. Abou; A. K. Nasser; N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 53-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5585

Three groups of growing Sharabi calves were used in this study to evaluate the best suitable level of concentrate ration. Each group consisted of four calves between 8-12 months of age, with an average live body weight around 145 kg. They were fed for 90 days on concentrated standard ration according to NRC, 1984, at three different levels of 2, 3, 4 % of live body weight, respectively, consisted of 80:20 concentrate to roughage contained 14% crude protein, 72% TDN and 2.4 Mkcal/kg. ME. The total gain and amount of consumed ration were measured. At the end of the trial, samples of rumen fluid were collected from all calves in order to estimate the activity of bacteria and micro organism. Results showed that the average amount of the daily ration consumed by the three groups of calves were 3.68, 6.91 and 8.12 kg/calves, respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in average daily gain among the three groups of calves (311, 869 and 1000 gm, for the three respective treatments). Also the feed conversion ratio was improved for the second and third groups compared with the first group and they were 7.96, 8.12 and 11.8 kg. ration/kg live body weight gain, respectively. Ration levels showed no effect on rumen fluid pH but increased the time of methylene blue reduction (more than 15 mints) and sedimentation activity test (more than 20 minuets) than their normal standard levels. The cost to produce one kg live body weight gain was about the same for the second and third groups and it was 50% less than first group and they were 3184, 3248 and 4746 I.D., respectively. It was concluded that the fattening regime for growing Sharabi calves on concentrated ration given at 4% of live body weight for three months had more economic profit.

Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from ruminant’s milk and their resistance to antibiotics in Ninevah governorate

O. H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 109-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5586

A bacteriological study was conducted on the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from ruminant milk (Buffaloes, Cow, Sheep, Goat). Four hundred milk samples were collected from these animals (100 samples from each) from different locations in the Ninevah governorate during the period from October 2008 till May 2009. The results showed that the percentage of Staphylococcus aureus isolation from the above mentioned animals was as follows: Buffalos (78%), Cow (55%), Sheep (65%), Goat (49%). Sensitivity test applied on the isolated organisms showed different result between milk samples of different animals and within the same species. It is interesting to note that some of our S.aureus isolates were resistant to methicillin, and thesis resistance was 50% in buffaloes; 20% in cow and sheep and 20% in goat.

Effect of vitamins C and E on reproductive system of male rats treated with sodium fluoride

H. W. K. Aqwaan; N. A. H. ALKasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 123-127
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5587

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin C administration (200 mg/ kg, orally) concomitantly with sodium fluoride (100 ppm in drinking water) for 60 days, the effect of vitamin E administration (500 mg / Kg diet) with sodium fluoride (100 ppm in drinking water) for 60 days and the effect of both vitamins in adult male rats. Sodium fluoride alone caused significant decrease in total sperms count, the percentage of the live sperms and epididymal head weight associated with significant increase in the percentage of the sperm abnormalities compared with the control group. Administration of vitamin C with sodium fluoride and the two vitamins with sodium fluoride produced a significant increase in total sperms count, the percentage of the live sperms and the relative weight of the epididymal head weight, accompanied with a significant decrease in the percentage of sperm abnormalities compared with sodium fluoride group. There were no significant changes in the total sperms count in vitamin E group. A significant increase in the percentage of the live sperms and the epididymal head weight, and a significant decrease in the percentage of sperm abnormalities compared with sodium fluoride group. It could be concluded that antioxidants administration (vitamin C or vitamin E and the interaction between vitamin E and C) concomitantly with sodium fluoride reduce the adverse effects caused by sodium fluoride on sexual efficiency of the adult male rats.

Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with diclofenac

L. E. Shemiss; M. K. Shindala

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 155-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5588

The aim of the present study was to assess developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with diclofenac (0.5, 2.5, 5, 15, 30, 60 mg/kg, i.m.) given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period). Exposure of suckling offspring to diclofinac through the milk caused severe toxic effects in pups which appeared as high mortality rate in pups from dams treated with diclofenac at (15, 30, 60 mg/kg) manifested by sharply reduced in the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning to (0%). In addition, the pups from dams treated with diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg) demonstrated retardation in somatic growth which appearred as significantly decreased body weight rate and index of development accompanied by a significantly increased in the liver / body weight ratio of pups. In conclusion, the results suggest that diclofenac induced developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats exposed to its through the milk.

Effect of hemi-castration on testicular growth and seminal characteristics of Iraqi male goats

M. B. Taha; U. T. Naoman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 71-74
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5589

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of hemi-castration on testicular size and semen characteristics of Iraqi local bucks. Eighteen adult bucks aged 1.5-2.5 years, weighing 36.9-43.7 kg were used. Animals were randomly divided into three groups (6 in each); groups 1 control group. Animals in groups 2 and 3 were subjected to hemi-castration in left and right testicles, respectively. Testicular circumference was measured two weeks before hemi-castration and ten weeks after. Semen samples were collected using electro-ejaculator two weeks after hemi-castration. Volume, color, mass motility, individual motility, percentage of live sperm, percentage of abnormal sperm and sperm concentration were analyzed immediately after collection. Results of the present study showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in testicular circumference after hemi-castration. Testicular circumference in left hemi-castration was higher than that in right hemi-castration. Result also showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in semen volume, mass motility individual motility and percentage of live sperm in semen of animal without any differences between left and right hemi-castrated animals comparing with control groups. The study concluded that hemi-castration leading to improve semen characteristics due to compensatory mechanism of the remaining testis.

Effect of season and mating system in Awassi ewes superovulated with FSH on fertilization rate and embryo recovery

M. K. M. A. Al-Mola; O. I. Azawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 75-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5590

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of laparoscopic intrauterine insemination to the improvement of fertilization and embryo recovery in Awassi ewes superovulated with FSH in breeding and non-breeding season. Twelve nonpregnant and cycling Awassi ewes of 3-4 years of age were randomly allocated in equal numbers (n = 6) to two groups. Each ewe was treated with a progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponge for 12 days. All ewes were superovulated with FSH in eight reducing doses for four days in the morning and evening from two days prior to sponge withdrawal. Ewes of group 1 were mated naturally at least two times with Awassi rams of proven fertility. Ewes of group 2 had intrauterine insemination and were conducted 44-46 h after sponge removal, under laparoscopic visualization of uterine horns, depositing 1 ml of semen in the distal portion of each uterine horn. Ovarian response was assessed by determining number of corpora lutea by laparoscopy on day 6 after mating. Embryo recovery was performed by hand assisted laparoscopy and by flushing both uterine horns. Ovarian response of the ewes superovulated with FSH was decreased to half in the non-breeding season. High number of unfertilized ova (P<0.05) was observed in ewes superovulated with FSH in the non-breeding season when naturally inseminated compared to ewes inseminated intrauterine using laparoscopic technique. Higher rates of embryo recovery (P<0.05) were achieved in superovulated ewes in the breeding season when ewes were inseminated by laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. The fertilization rates in ewes inseminated intrauterine using laparoscopic techniques in breeding season and non-breeding season were 88.1% and 37.98%, respectively. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that the use of FSH to induce superovulation in Awassi ewes combined with laparoscopic intrauterine insemination can increase the fertilization rate in the breeding season.

Clinical and hematological study of the internal parasites in native donkeys

S. A. Esmaeel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 129-135
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5591

The study was included 70 native donkeys at age 3-4 years, 60 animals naturally infected with gastrointestinal parasite and 10 clinically normal served as control group. Coprological examinations revealed that the donkeys were infected with Nematodes such as Large strongyles Strongylus spp. 70%, Triodontophorusspp. 36.6%, Smallstrongyles (caythostomines) 33.3%, Trichostrongylus axei 33.3%, Parascaris equorum 20%, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi 13.3%, Strongyloides westeri 10%, Habronema musca 10%, Oxyuris equi 6.6% and Trematode Worm Gastrodiscus spp., Dicroceolium spp. 3.3%. The rate of a single infection was 20% and mixed infection was 80%. Diagnoses was based on the measurement and the characteristic shapes of eggs and larvae. Results indicate that diseased donkeys exhibited emaciation 30%, rough coat 68.3%, pale mucous membranes 60%, Pica 53.3%, colic 68.3%, moist ralse 6.6%. Significant decrease (P<0.05) were encountered in the RBCS count (P<0.01) and Hb and PCV values of infected donkeys compared with control, while there were significant increase at (P<0.05) in WBCS and eosinophils at (P<0.01).

Serological and histopathological evidences of chickens infected with avian pneumovirus

T. S. Qubih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 97-101
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5592

The aim of this study was to know the etiological agent of mortality which occurred in broilers and parent stocks farms in Ninava province. The main noticed symptoms was swollen head. The suspected samples were inoculated in to embryonated egg to isolate the suspected virus. Neutralization test was performed using hyperimmune serum of pneumo virus and sera from infected birds. Experimental infection via nostrils was performed, samples from bronchi and lungs were taken for histopathological examination. Results showed that gross lesions were observed after second passage of isolates, two which showed mortality after first passage. Hyperimmune serum and sera from infected birds neutralized the isolates, there was variation among isolates. Histopathological picture showed congestion of bronchiole , hemorrhage between alveoli with clot in most of blood vessels with in the lung.

Distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the duodenal wall of native sheep by using different fixatives

N. S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5593

Ten duodeni of adult ram were fixed in chilled acetone, 80% ethyl alcohol, formol- alcohol solution, alcoholic bouins solution and neutral buffered formalin solution. The distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases were similar in their location but different in their intensity and distribution according to different fixative The distribution of alkaline phosphatase in absorptive columnar cell was more intense than in goblet cells, whereas the concentration of acid phosphatase was more intense in goblet cells than in absorptive cells in the mucosa of sheep duodenum. The study revealed that the samples was fixed with chilled acetone gave highest reaction for alkaline and acid phosphatases than other fixative samples. No reaction for alkaline phosphatase include the lower parts of intestinal glands, paneth cells and sub mucosal glands in different fixative ,whereas, paneth cells and sub mucosal glands revealed wreaked reaction for acid phosphatase in samples fixed in 80% ethyl alcohol and chilled acetone respectively in duodenum of native sheep.

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic rabbits by using multiple techniques

E. G. Suliman; A. F. Al-Taee; S. S. Aghwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5594

Fifty local breed rabbits were purchased from commercial markets in Mosul city for Toxoplasma gondii detection during the period from April 2007 to October 2007, using five techniques. Of these, impression smear made from different body organs were positive in 82% of the tested samples. Trypsin digestion technique was positive in 68% of the samples, while pepsin digestion in 82% of them. Serological techniques (latex agglutination test and modified latex agglutination test) were positive in 86% of the tested samples, with IgG titer of 1/64. Biological assay in mice was performed by intraperitoneal inoculation of 0.1 ml digested organs suspension, (lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, muscles, uterus, testes and brain). Brain tissue shows the highest rate of tissue cysts detection among all other organs examined of scarified mice post one month of inoculation.

Distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the duodenal wall of native black goats by using different fixatives

N. S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 169-176
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5595

Ten duodeni of adult goat were fixed in chilled acetone, 80% ethyl alcohol, alcohol-formalin solution, alcohol bouins solution and buffered neutral formalin solution. The distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases noticed in absorptive and goblet cells that lining the duodenal mucosa of black goat, but different in their intensity and distribution according to different fixatives. The distribution of alkaline phosphatase in absorptive columnar cells that lining intestinal glands was more intense than other cells, whereas the concentration of acid phosphatase was more intense in goblet cells than other cells in the mucosa of goat duodenum specially in samples fixed in chilled acetone and ethyl alcohol 80%. The study revealed that the samples were fixed with chilled acetone gave highest reaction for alkaline and acid phosphatases than other fixative samples. No reaction for alkaline and acid phosphatases included some absorptive cells lining villi, all cells lining the lower parts of intestinal glands, paneth cells and submucosal glands in different fixatives, except submucosal glands revealed positive reaction for acid phosphatase in samples fixed in chilled acetone and 80% ethyl alcohol, paneth cells reveal positive reaction for the same enzyme in samples fixed in 80% ethyl alcohol in all examined areas of the duodenum wall of the native black goat.

Study of pathological and anti-hyperlipidemic offects of ginger Zingiber officinalae in rats exposed to oxidative stress

A. M. A. Al-Saidya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 103-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5596

This study was conducted to investigate the role of Ginger as antihyperlipidemic agent and its histopathological effects in rats exposed to oxidative stress. Results of rats treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 1% in drinking water, showed highly significant increase in the level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and atherogenic index, which are indicators for the occurrence of serum hyperlipidemia. Rats treated with H2O2 then with Ginger at 2 mg/kg in diet, revealed significant decrease in the level of LDL-C, VLDL-C and atherogenic index. Histopathological study illustrate no changes in rats treated with Ginger in heart and liver tissues, while rats treated with H2O2 then with Ginger, showed amelioration in histological picture of heart and liver tissues compared with rats treated with H2O2. In conclusion, The Ginger considered as a good antihyperlipidemic agent.

The relationship between blood lipid profile and performance of broilers fed two types of finisher diets

S. H. Tohala

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 87-91
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5597

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two types of finisher diets differed in metabolizable energy (ME) level, but formulated to be iso-nitrogenous, on certain blood lipid profile and some productive traits of broiler chickens from 3 to 7 wks of age. The relationship, as correlation coefficients, among these traits were studied. Birds fed high (ME) diet showed heavier body weight (BW), better feed conversion ratio (FCR), higher dressing and fat pad percentages with more observed fat depots. Serum biochemical parameters for the birds of the two dietary treatments showed that birds fed high (ME) diet, 3200 Kcal / Kg, had higher values of total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C) than their counterparts fed lower (ME) diet, 3070 Kcal / Kg. However low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C) values were relatively similar in the two treatment groups. Regarding the relationship analysis among some productive traits, a significant (P≤0.05) positive correlation coefficient was found between (BW) and fat pad percentage at 49-days of age for both groups. Moderate relationship values were found between (BW) and (TG). On the other hand, fat pad percentage and (TG) correlation values were 0.721 and 0.297 for the high (ME) and the low (ME) dietary treatments, respectively. (VLDL-C) value was shown to be so consistent in both groups of birds with a significant (P≤0.05) positive correlation with (TG).

A comparative study between Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests for detection of the antibrucella antibodies in serum of goats in Mosul city

M. A. Al-Taliby; Q. T. Al-Obaidi; S. H. Arslan; S. D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 93-96
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5598

This study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of brucellosis in non vaccinated goats in different areas in Mosul city and to compare Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests for the detection of the antibodies. A total of 102 blood serum samples were examined, representing 396 goats distributed in different areas. Results of Rose Bengal test showed that the total seroprevalence of brucellosis was (6.8%) and the highest rate in Al-Rahmania (11.1%), and lowest (7.1%) in Al-Muthana area. No seroprevalence of Brucellosis was recorded in Googjaly and Basheka areas. Indirect ELISA test showed that the total percentage was (24.5%) and the highest (55%) were reported in Al-Rahmania area and the lowest percentage was (10%) in Basheka area. The compatibility between the two tests was (0.30) on Kappa value indicating sensitivity of indirect ELISA test compared with Rose Bengal test in detection antibrucella antibodies in serum goats.

A Study on intestinal protozoa in calves in Ninevah governorate

A. F. Al-Taee; E. T. Butty; M. H. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 163-167
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5599

One hundred and sixty five fecal samples, collected from calves (1-12 months), with (75) and without (90) diarrhea, were examined for intestinal protozoal infection, using four diagnostic methods, direct smear, iodine staining, flotation method and modified Zeil Nelson stain. Results showed that the total rate of method intestinal protozoal infection was 54.5%. Three protozoal genera were identified. Their percentages were as follows: Cryptosopoidium 52.2%, Eimeria 28.3%, Giardia 19.6% respectively. Singular and mixed protozoal infection were 51.1% and 48.9% respectively. While those showing sign of diarrhea and subclinical cases, the infection rate were 73.3% and 38.9% respectively. According to age, the rate of infection with intestinal protozoa was 89.7% in calves 1-2 months of age, the trend of infection was progressively decreased with increasing age to one year or more as it reached 15.6%.

Study of pathological changes in digestive system of domestic pigeons (Columba livia) in Mosul city

A. A. Al-Nimma; M. G. Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 115-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5600

One hundred diseased cases of pigeons (Columba livia) in Mosul city were examined, 67 birds (67%) showed pathological lesions in digestive system. Most of the gross and histopathological lesions occurred in intestine (29.3%) followed by oropharynx, liver, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, and pancreas the values (20.8%, 16.6%, 12.5%, 10.4%, 6.2%, 4.2%) respectively. Gross lesions of intestine showed severe tape worms infestation with petechial hemorrhage in some cases, histopathologically there were catarrhal enteritis, necrotic and hemorrhagic enteritis were less, and desquamation of mucosa with bacterial colonies. Gross lesions of oropharynx, esophagus and crop in most cases were yellow caseated masses or necrotic material. In some cases white diphtheritic membrane with thickening of mucosa in esophagus, crop and proventriculus were founded, petichial hemorrhage on the mucosa of proventriculus were less some cases. Histopathological lesions of oropharynx and esophagus were thickening of mucosa and presence of necrotic caseated foci on the submucosa. In crop there were epithelial hyperplasia and in some cases infiltration of inflammatory cells with cocobacilli bacteria and desquamation of epithelial cells were founded. In proventriculus desquamation and necrosis of epithelial cells of mucus glands with infiltration of inflammatory cells. Gross lesions in liver and pancreas were limited represented by enlargement and congestion, histopathologically coagulative necrosis of hepatic cells with cocobacilli bacteria, pancreas showed two types of inflammation one was non-suppurative and another was suppurative.

Effect of pollutants in Tigris river in Mosul on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in tissues of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

A. H. Al-Hamadani; M. S. Kalo; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 81-88
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5601

This research was conducted for evaluation of the effect of pollutants of Tigris on some parameters of oxidative stress in common carp. In addition to detection of Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, vitamins E and C and the results were compared with control group. The results revealed that the presence of congestion on blood vessels in kidney with vacuolar degeneration in hepatic cells with infiltration of inflammatory cells and swelling and fatty change in the epithelial cells lining the renal tubules in addition to coagulative necrosis with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue of kidney. Furthermore fatty change in cardiac muscles with infiltration of inflammatory cells and congestion of blood vessels in heart were observed. The statistical analysis referred to a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in glutathione and increase in the malondialdehyde concentrations levels for the most tissues but there was no difference in E and C vitamins except that of the kidney which show a decrease in C vitamin level. It is concluded from the present study that there is a worse effect of pollutants in river of Tigris on the levels of lipid peroxidation indicators for carp fish tissues naturally exposed to those pollutants which may affects the nutritional and hygienic values of these fishes.

Coccidiosis in domesticated ducks in Ninevah governorate

D. A. Abdulla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 149-153
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5602

This study was conducted to detect the intestinal coccidial types in 80 fecal samples of domesticated ducks in different parts of Ninevah governorate. During the period from October 2007 to June 2008. Flotation method was employed for detection. The results revealed that the total incidence of the genus Eimeria and genus Tyzzeria was 63.75%. Two species of the genus Eimeria and Tyzzeria were detected, namely E.anatis and E.butlakhi with a percentage of 17.5 % and 10 % respectively, while T.anseris and T.perniciosa were found in 25 % and 11.25% respectively. This study is regarded the first study in detection of these species in duck in Ninevah governorate.

Toxic effect of ciprofloxacin on some biochemical variables in chicks

Y. Z. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 137-141
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5603

The aim of the present study was to examine the acute and sub acute toxicity of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism of chicks which included determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and albumin levels in serum of chicks. The biochemical changes induced by giving ciprofloxacin as a single dose (200 and 400 mg/kg. body weight intraperitoneally) included significant increases of cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein levels in serum, whereas albumin level significantly decreased, and there was no significant changes in high density lipoprotein levels as compared with control group. Repeated treatment with ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg. body weight intra peritoneal) for 14 days caused significant increase in cholesterol level, albumin level significantly decreased as compared with control group, whereas it did not change significantly high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, repeated treatment of ciprofloxacin also showed significant decrease of the body weights of the chicks as compared with control group. The results suggest that there are toxic effects of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism as seen through changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin and low density lipoprotein level.

Effect of vaccination on some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens

N. A. J. Al-Hussary; I. M. Kudair

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 59-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5604

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease on some biochemical parameters in serum of broiler chickens. Two hundred and fifty Ross 1-day old unsexed broiler chicks were divided into two groups (unvaccinated and vaccinated), blood samples were obtained from each group weekly until 8 weeks old. The results revealed significant differences in values of some biochemical parameters according to various ages of chickens within either unvaccinated or vaccinated groups, the effect of different ages on parameters was more clearly observed in vaccinated group. It was also revealed from this study that vaccination had no effect on levels of glucose, total protein, total lipids cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Vaccinated chickens showed a significant reduction in the level of albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity accompanied with an elevation in the level of globulin and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) compared with their values in non vaccinated chickens. These data suggest the interference of age and vaccination in broiler chickens on some biochemical parameters.

Some biochemical effects of Aloe vera leaves on tissues in normal mice

S. H. Rashed; S. A. Al-Ameen; M. G. Matti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 93-97
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5605

This research was carried out mainly to investigate the effects of the aqueous extract and proteinous fractions of Aloe vera leaves on cholesterol, acetycholinesterase in brain, glycogen, glutathione in liver and malonaldehyde levels in heart in normal male albino mice. The antioxidant properties and inhibition of acetylcholine-sterase in tissue were detected. Intraperitoneal administration of Aloe vera extract in concentration of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of AchE in brain by (-88.27%) and glutathione content in liver by (-35.48%), and increased the levels of glycogen in liver and malonaldehyde in heart by (22.60%, 85.50%) respectively. At a concentration of 300 mg/kg Aloe vera extract significantly increased the level of cholesterol in brain by (24.39%). These results clearly show the antioxidant property of the extract of Aloe vera leaves.

Effect of rosella extract on development of fatty streaks lesions in female rats

A. I. Al-Khafaf; E. R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5606

This research was conducted to explore the effect of rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on female rats on oxidative stress which induced by 0.5% H2O2. Oxidative stress has been investigated via tissue (aorta and heart) malonadyaldehyde (MDA) as indirect lipid peroxidation index. For atherosclerotic lesions follow up light microscopical technique has been applied. The result elucidate significant reduction in lipid profit parameters namely: low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (vLDL-c), atherogenic index and significant elevation in high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) in few animals treated with H2O2 and rosella extract, parallely, this research illustrate reduction in aorta and heart MDA concentration, concomitant with significant rising in glutathione (GSH) level. Histopathologically, this study revealed fatty streaks associated with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells have been detected after 60 days, in animal treated with rosella revealed reduction in lipid vacuoles and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMcs) in media toward intimal layers after 40 days from treatment.

Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

H. F. AL-Abidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 143-148
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5607

This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infection of the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected mares suffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulent discharge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortion cases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in stud farms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolation of bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total of isolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%), followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%), (6.7%) for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3%) for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%), and Escherichia coli (1.3%). The most bacterial isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (100%), ampicillin (90.9 %), and erythromycin (65.9%), while the most isolates were sensitive to kanamycin (70.4%). It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could be Clostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

Comparison between Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests for detection of the antibrucella antibodies in serum of sheep in Mosul city

S. A. Asmaeel; Kh. J. Hussain; S. H. Arslan; S. D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 89-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5608

The aim of the present study was to determine seroprevalence of brucellosis in non vaccinated sheep in different areas in Mosul city, and make a comparison between Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests for the diagnosis of the Brucellosis in sheep. The study included examination of 228 serum samples representing 1906 sheep distributed in ten flocks.The results of Rose Bengal test showed that total seroprevalence of brucellosis was (8.7%), being highest in Talkaf (40%), while no seroprevalence of Brucellosis was recorded in Al-Rashedia, Bazwaya and Al-Chaban areas. Using indirect ELISA test the total seroprevalence was (23.6%) and the highest percentage (100%) was in Al-Namrood area, but lowest (5.2%) in Bazwaya area. The results showed that the compatibility between the two tests was (0.380) on Kappa value which indicated that the indirect ELISA test is more sensitive when compared with Rose Bengal test in detection of antibodies of Brucellosis in serum sheep.

Effect of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on some biochemical parameters in ewes

A. S. M. Al- Zuhairy; N. A. J. Al- Hussary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 73-80
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5609

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of infection of ewes with toxoplasmosis and/or brucellosis on some serum biochemical parameters. Ninety six samples of blood were collected from aborted ewes at different stages of gestation, suspected to be infected with toxoplasmosis and /or brucellosis from different regions in Nineveh governorate. The percentage of toxoplasma and brucella infection depending on Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) and Rose Bengal Test were 21.88% and 23.96% respectively. The results of biochemical analysis showed that infection with toxoplasma caused significant elevation of serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). As well as the concentrations of glucose, total protein and copper. Where as the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the concentration of calcium and zinc were reduced. Infection with brucellosis caused a significant increased in serum AST, ALT and LDH, ALP and creatin phosphokinase (CPK) activities, and glucose, zinc and cholesterol concentrations. While serum calcium and total protein concentration were decreased. Association of toxoplasma and brucella infection induced significant elevation of serum AST, ALT and LDH and CPK activities and the concentrations of glucose and copper with significant reduction in serum ALP activity and both calcium and zinc concentrations. It was concluded from this study that infection of ewes with toxoplasma and/or brucella caused changes in some biochemical parameters in the serum.

Incidence of broiler caecal coccidiosis in ninevah governorate 1999-2004

A. F. M. AL-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 45-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5610

A descriptive epidemiological survey was made in Nineveh governorate 1999-2004 for determination of broiler clinical caecal coccidiosis incidence in broiler chickens. Out of total 3594 broiler patches reared in this period, 1918 (53.36%) were positive to caecal coccidiosis. The highest percentages (35.34%) of coccidial cases were recorded in the year 2000. There was a decreasing tendency in recording caecal coccidiosis from 24.29% in 1999 to 6.77% in 2004. There was a positive relationship between the patch size (number of birds) in each year and the incidence of caecal coccidiosis. Of the main 7 NINEVAH governmental localities, Kara kosh, practiced the highest incidence of caecal coccidiosis through 1999-2004, in which 1615(49.21%) broiler patches were reared out of the total 3594 broiler patches reared in all 7 localities. Seasonal effect on the incidence of caecal coccidiosis show that the highest were reported in Spring then Autumn, followed by Winter and Summer months. Most of the broiler patches experienced caecal coccidiosis between 3-6 weeks of age. From 1918 positive broiler patches to coccidiosis, 1344 patches were fed diets without anticoccidials, while 574 positive broiler patches were fed diets with anticoccidials. There was a decreasing tendency in caecal coccidiosis with increasing number of broiler patches fed diets amended with anticoccidials from 1999 till 2004. The hygienic significance in reducing clinical caecal coccidiosis was discussed.

Repair of large hernia by polymer graft in goats

F. M. Mohammed; L. M. Alkattan; M. J. Eesa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 125-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5612

Sixth bucks of local breed were used in this study. The animals were anesthetized with mixture of ketamine and xylazine hydrochloride. Ventral abdominal hernias were induced on the lateral ventral abdomen. One month post operation, the induced hernia was repaired with polymer grafts, which fixed by simple interrupted suture, using No. 1 silk suture material. After implantation, there was focal abscess at the operative site in two cases which resolved after evacuation and irrigation with antiseptic. The findings of the microscopic result at 30, 60 and 90 days of grafts implantation exhibited inflammatory reaction around the grafts and later at the 60 and 90 days of implantation there was fibrous tissue formation around implant graft, inflammatory reaction and fibroblast infiltration in the graft. The results indicated that biocompatibility of polymer graft with the host tissue was good with complete healing of the operative site.

Study of the pathological importance of Escherichia coli in respiratory infection of broiler chickens

M. Y. Al-Attar; S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 45-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5613

This study showed airsacculitis when 12 days broilers inoculated in the left thoracic air sacs with 0.1 ml suspension of type-1 E.coli that contained (1 x 108) cfu/ml and noticed after72 hours. The first clinical signs occur after 3 hours of inoculation as acute respiratory signs including dyspnea and respiratory rales. The pathological changes appear as sever air sacculitis with thin layer of fibrenous surrounding the heart after 24 hours of inoculation, then became more thick layer of fibrenous surrounding the heart, airsac and lungs, and spots of necrosis in the liver after 72 hours of inoculation. The first mortality of chicks occurs after 12 hours of inoculation. In concerted with bacterial count, blood and liver showed highest number of E.coli after 24 hours of inoculation and after 12 hours of inoculation in both lungs and airsacs.

A study on the effects of diazinon and carbaryl on cholinesterase activity by an electrometric method in rabbits

M. B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 29-35
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5614

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of diazinon and carbaryl, and validate the efficiency of a modified electrometric method in measuring cholinesterase activity (ChE) in rabbits. Oral administration of female rabbits with diazinon at 35 mg/Kg, and with carbaryl at 500 mg/Kg, induced signs of toxicosis characteristic of cholinergic over stimulation. The signs were associated with significant decreases of plasma, erythrocyte and brain ChE activities with diazinon, but with carbaryl there were only significant decreases of plasma and erythrocyte ChE activities in comparison with control values. The extent of ChE inhibition in the erythrocyte correlated well with that of the brain in diazinon treated rabbits. The results suggested that the described electrometric method is simple, accurate and efficient in measuring the ChE inhibition caused by diazinon and carbaryl insecticides in rabbits.

Interaction between metoclopramide and toxicity of diazinon in mice

M. H. I. Alzubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 23-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5615

The aim of the study was to examine the interaction and toxicity between metoclopramide and organophosphorus insecticide diazinon in mice using the up and down method. The median lethal dose (LD50) of metoclopramide was 293 mg/kg s.c, and that of diazinon was 64.1 mg/kg p.o.
The toxic interaction between metoclopramide and diazinon was examined using a ratio of 1:1 and the (LD50) value for both depending on isbolographic
analysis. Antagonistic interaction was found when metoclopromide was administered before and after 20 minutes of diazinon administration. While synergistic interaction was found when both of the drugs were administrated at the same time.
Metoclopramide at 20 mg/kg s.c significantly reduced the onset time of tremor by diazinon at 60 mg/kg p.o when administered with and after 10 minute and before 5, 15, 20 minutes from the administration of diazinon.
Diazinon at 70 mg/kg p.o significantly inhibited plasma, RBC, brain cholinesterases in mice by 74%, 46%, 12% respectively.
Metoclopramide at 20 mg/kg s.c, significantly inhibited RBC, brain cholinesterase by of 11%, 21% respectively, while plasma cholinesterase insignificantly inhibited by 5%.
The results suggest that metoclopramide. Reduced the percentage of inhibition of ChE in mice which was caused by diazinon and protected them from its toxicity.

Evaluation of mycofix to ameliorate the toxic effect of t-2 toxin on performance of broiler chickens

A. M. Shareef; Z. A. Jameel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 87-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5616

The possible protective effect of Mycofix against the toxic effect of T-2 toxin in growing broiler chickens was investigated in two age stages; the first and second ages, ranged from 1-21 and 22-42 days, respectively. The experiment was consisted of 4 dietary treatments: treatment 1: control; treatment 2: 2.5g Mycofix/kg feed; treatment 3: 8 ppm T-2 toxin alone; treatment 4: 8 ppm T-2 toxin plus Mycofix 2.5g Mycofix /kg feed. T-2 toxin alone significantly (p<0.05) decreased body weight gain, feed consumption and increased feed: gain ratio. Broiler chick performance was more sensitive to T-2 toxin during the first three weeks of age (initial stage of the experiment) than the other 3 weeks of age. When 2.5g Mycofix /kg were added to the diet, it protects broiler chicks against the adverse effect of T-2 toxin on BW gain, feed consumption, and feed: gain ratio. The oral lesion induced by T-2 toxin alone in the first three weeks and the more severe lesions in the following 4-6 weeks were counteracted by Mycofix at both stages of experiment. A significant ((p<0.05) increase in the relative weight of gizzard, pancreas in the initial experimental stage was noticed while a significant increase was reported in the relative weights of bursa, thymus, and spleen in the final stage of the experiment. Mycofix was found to be effective in ameliorating the negative effect of T-2 toxin on these organs. The results of the present trail indicate that Mycofix is capable of counteracting the adverse effects of T-2 toxin on performance, oral lesions, and relative weight of internal organs based on the enzymatic inactivation of the 12, 13-epoxide ring of T-2 toxin.

Immune response in Rattus rattus norvegicus rats against infection with giardiasis by the lipopolysaccharide extracted from Escherichia coli II. Blood picture

S. Y. Yousif; A. A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 15-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5617

The study investigated, for the first time, the effect of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) secreted by Escherichia coli, as an immunomodulator, against infection with giardiasis caused by Giardia lamblia in Rattus rattus norvegicus. The pathological changes occurred in the rats treated with LPS, were followed in comparison with the control groups, along the experiments period, depending on many criteria, included the changes in total and differentiated count of leukocytes. The results showed an elevation in the total count of leukocytes, expressed by elevation in neutrophils, variation in monocytes numbers accompanied with a decrease in lymphocytes numbers in treated rats in comparisons with the control groups. Results are provided that (LPS) modulates the immune defence of rats against infection with giardiasis.

Ineffectiveness of different adsorbents in alleviation of oral lesions induced by feeding t-2 toxin in broiler chickens

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 75-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5618

One hundred and forty one-day-old-male broiler chicks (Ross), were divided into 7 groups (20 chicks/group) and fed T-2 toxin alone or with five different types of adsorbents; Montmorillonite 0.5%, Vermiculite 0.5%, Pigacine 0.5%, Gezilgure 0.5%; and the resin Perlite 0.5%. Gross and microscopic examinations reveal that all adsorbents used were unable to alleviate the oral lesions induced by T-2 toxin in broiler chickens.

Pathological study of the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic field with low power densities on male albino rats

A. A. Azooz; K. H. Al-Mallah; S. O. Youkhana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 69-84
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5620

This study designed to detect pathological effects of exposure to 2.45 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field with low power densities on mature male albino rats. 36 rats at 3-4 months age were used in the study, randomly devided to 6 groups with 6 animals for each group. The groups from 1-5 were exposed to 2.45 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field with different power densities : ( 5 MW/cm2 , 1 MW/cm2 , 500 µW/cm2 , 50 µW/cm2 and 10 µW/cm2, respectively). The 6th group represented non exposed control group. The exposed groups received 6 hours of exposure daily for 21 days as an exposure period. Clinical signs were observed daily and body weight and rectal temperature were monitored weekly. At the end of exposure period 3 animals were killed from each group for gross and histopathological examination , the other 3 animals were left for another 21 days without exposure represented post exposure period to detect the ability of rats to recover from the induced pathological changes if existed. The results showed occurrence of clinical signs at all exposed groups and more severe at group 1 manifested by nervous excitation at 1st hour of exposure followed by depression and stagnation to the end of 6 hours of exposure. There was no significant difference between the groups in body weight averages at the 3 weeks of experiment. A significant decrease in post exposure rectal temperature comparing with pre exposure rectal temperature has been noticed at groups 1 and 2 in 1st week and at group 3 in 2nd week of experiment with no significant differences in other groups. Gross and histopathological examination at the end of exposure period revealed presence of some pathological changes at group 1 manifested by perineuronal edema, mild microglial proliferation and congestion in the brain, in lungs there was acute bronchopneumonia with pulmonary vascular arteriosclerosis, there was also mucinous degeneration in duodenal epithelium with congestion of small intestine, in kidneys there was acute cell swelling of renal tubular epithelium with congestion. These changes less severely occurred at the groups 2 and 3, the exposed groups 4 and 5 similar to control did not show any pathological changes. At the end of post exposure period, pathological changes were detected at the groups 1,2 and 3 represented by bronchopneumonia and mucinous degeneration of small intestine .These changes were lighter than those observed at the end of exposure period .

Comparative injectable anesthetic protocols in ducks

G. A-M. Faris; Z. T. Abd-Almaseeh; B. T. Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 105-115
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5621

This study was performed to compare the effect of five mixtures of anesthetic protocols in thirty adult domestic ducks of local breed. The birds were randomly divided into five groups; six ducks for each group. In group1; a combination of medetomidine and ketamine (M-K), (100 µg and 20 mg/kg) drugs were used. While in group 2; a combination of xylazine and ketamine (X-K), (5 mg and 20 mg/kg) were used. For group 3; a combination of acepromazine and ketamine (Acp-K), (2 mg and 20 mg/kg) were used, and in group 4 and 5, combinations of xylazine-ketamine-diazepam (X-K-D) (5 mg; 20 mg and 5 mg/kg), xylazine-ketamine and acepromazine (X-K-Acp), (5 mg; 20 mg and 2 mg/kg), respectively were used. All the used drugs combinations were given via intramuscular route at the pectoral muscle. The time onset of loss of righting reflex was (2.6±0.5 mins), (1.6±0.5 mins), (1.1±0.3 mins), (1.0±0.1 mins) and (1.8±0.3 mins), respectively for a mean duration of time (51.3±7.5 mins), (55.0±2.0 mins), (48.8±7.5 mins), (56.3±4.3 mins) and (53.8±3.8 mins), respectively. While, the sedative effect started within (1.5±0.3 mins), (1.3±0.3 mins), (0.6±0.2 mins), (0.8±0.1 mins) and (1.3±0.3 mins), respectively. All the anesthetic combinations varied in producing proper anesthesia in the experimental ducks. The palpebral reflex was not abolished, and the eyes remained opened throughout the course of anesthesia with almost all the anesthetic combinations. Additional disadvantages accompanied administration of all 5 combinations were; persistent pedal movement, during the whole course of anesthesia. Muscle relaxation in the anesthetized birds in all 5 groups was poor, as seen clinically by the twisted necks and the contracted pedaled legs. A statistical difference (p >0.05) was found in the onset of loss of righting reflex between group 1 (2.6±0.5), compared to group 3 (1.1±0.3) and group 4 (1.0±0.1). The combination of M-K (group 1), produced good analgesia that was found to be significantly better than with the other combinations. Variable differences at respiratory rate indices at the scheduled time were found between treatment groups. But, the respiratory rate of the birds in all anesthetic protocol groups was significantly decreased from the corresponding base line values (time 0), except in K-X-D combination (group 4), in which the decrease was only at 30 minutes after injection.In conclusion the domestic ducks (Anas platyhynchos) was considered as difficult patients for anesthesia by the investigated anesthetic combinations given by intramuscular route, because none of the anesthetic regimen was effective for production of adequate anesthesia and analgesia in this species of the domestic birds.

Effect of vitamin e on sexual efficiency in male rats treated with cadmium

S. A-K. Rasheed; A. A. Hassan; B. N. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5623

To examine the possible protective role of vitamin ‘E’ 500 mg/kg diet as antioxidant against cadmium induced oxidative stress, 20 male albino rats (3-4 months old) were exposed during 2 months to oral intake of cadmium 25 mg/L (as cadmium chloride) in drinking water, cadmium for 2 months associated with vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet) given at the second month, cadmium along with vitamin E for 2 months, or has been left as a control group. The results showed that cadmium produced no changes in body weight, testicular or prostatic weights. Epididymis and seminal vesicle weights with sperm count and the percentage of live sperms were decreased significantly, with an increased in the percentage of dead and morphologically abnormal sperms. Vitamin E, on the other hand, increased the percentage of live sperm and decreased the percentage of dead and morphologically abnormal sperm caused by cadmium. It is concluded that, vitamin E supplementation decreased the cadmium effect particularly when it is administered along with cadmium from the first day of experiment.

Comparative study between two methods of end-to-end oblique intestinal anastomosis in dogs

F.M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 133-146
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5624

The current study was conducted to compare between two methods of small intestinal anastomosis in dogs after obliquely resected and anastomosed by using simple interrupted and cross mattress sutures technique. The results revealed that the oblique technique of intestinal anastomosis was successful in all operative animals with few complications and without mortality rate postoperatively. The postmortem examination revealed that the cross mattress technique was associated with minimal adhesion as compare to simple interrupted technique which was associated with sever adhesion .The radiographic study revealed that no significant differences in mean degree of stenosis between two methods of this study. Also the radiographic pictures revealed that, the mean degree of stenosis which associated with cross mattress pattern was less than accompanied with simple interrupted pattern at thirty days after operation. The histopathological examination shown minute foci of tissue reaction with thick and mature fibrous tissue at the site of operation after 30 days in cross mattress anastomosis, whereas the anastomosis with the simple interrupted suture accompanied by sever inflammation and destruction of the serosal layer of intestine at 30 days after operation .We concluded that simple interrupted and cross mattress patterns can be used for anastomosis of oblique intestinal resection.

Evaluation of the percentage of live sperm in ram semen by using the mtt reduction assay

D. M. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 147-154
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5625

This study was conducted to evaluate the percentage of viable sperm in ram semen by using the MTT reduction assay. Twenty ejaculates from 5 rams were included in this study. Semen samples were diluted with skim milk-glucose diluent to obtain a concentration of 30x106 sperms/ml. The rates of MTT reduction were taken in microtiter plates after one hour of incubation at 37oC using a Microplate Reader (DNM-9602) at a wave length of 550 nm. Simultaneously, split samples of the same semen were tested using the microscope and eosin-nigrosin stain. The correlation between the results of these tests was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficients and Regression analysis. Results of the present study indicate that the values of sperm viability which calculated on the basis of MTT reduction rates were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the results that simultaneously determined by the microscope and eosin-nigrosin stain, yielding regression coefficients of r2= 0.979. In conclusion, the MTT reduction test proved applicable as diagnostic tool for the quality evaluation of ovine semen. It can be used successfully in routine analysis, where practical aspects as time, costs and practicability are important.

Short–term effect of chlorpromazine and diazepam on blood plasma acetylcholinesterase activity in chicks

L .K. Yacoub

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 11-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5626

The response of blood plasma acetylcholinestrase to acute administration of chlorpromazine and diazepam was examined in chick. Chlorpromazine in a dose–dependent manner at 25, 50, and 75 mg/Kg, subcutaneously inhibited the activity of Ache in the blood. Chlorpromazine (50, 75 mg /kg) significantly decreased the enzyme activity in the plasma by 14.7 % and 17.6 %, respectively for a period of 60 min, as well as, 14.5 % and 13.1 % for a period of 60 and 120 min, respectively in groups received chlorpromazine 50 mg/kg. Diazepam at 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg subcutaneously did not significantly affect the enzyme activity in comparison with the control group. The result suggests that chlorpromazine changes Ache activity in the blood and possibly in other tissues.

Detection of aflatoxin in compound feeds of broiler flocks suffered from field aflatoxicosis

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 65-74
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5627

One hundred and fifty eight broiler compound feed samples were delivered from broiler flocks in Ninevah governorates. These flocks were clamed to be affected with field aflatoxicosis. All the examined samples had aflatoxin levels higher than of the permissible limit (20 ppb). The range of AF levels was 22-2263 ppb. The mean value of AF concentration was 592.7ppb. The percentage of AF concentrations from 0-500 ppb was 48.7%, and from 500-1000 ppb was 41.2%, while that from 1000-2500 was 10.2%.

Immunological and experimental study for cryptosporidiosis

M. H. Hassan; M. N. Al-Shahery

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 129-140
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5628

The present study included the use of IFAT to detect to Cryptosporidium Abs; the percentage of infection in calves with this parasite was 36.6%. Among these animals there were 31 positive cases (20.6%) , but we were unable to determine a significant diagnostic titer. The other part of our study showed that both immunodeficiency and malnutrition having an enhancing effect on Cryptosporidial infection in mice; since the prepatent, patent periods were longer, releasing of oocysts was higher and the Abs level were lower than normal.

Identify the biting lice attacking the chickens in Arbil governorat

R. A. Aliraqi; Kh. A. H. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5629

This study was conducted to identify the biting lice attacking the chickens in twenty locations within Arbil governorate. Results showed that the chickens were infested with six species of lice that are chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus), feather shaft lice (Menopon gallinae), chicken head lice(Cuclotogaster heterographus) ,fluff lice(Goniocotes galline ), large chicken lice(Goniodes gigas)and wing lice(Lipeurus caponis), but the chicken body lice is the dominant species in all locations with a percentage of 58.41% of the total infested chickens. The results revealed that the infestation by the lice on one chicken different between single, double, triple and multiple and the single infestation was the common in the most location and it was 66.25% while it was 28.75, 3.75 and 1.25% in double, tripleand multiple infections respectively.

Some bacterial isolation from pin-tailed sand grouse (Pterocles alchata

G. N. Shamoon; N. R. Abdul Rahman; A. A. Shamaun

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 141-145
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5631

Bacterial isolation was attempted from 20 pin-tailed sand grouse,of different ages, which were obtained from Al-Tamim Province in July 2005. The samples were taken from the liver, gall bladder, heart and intestine. The highest percentage of bacterial isolation consisted of Escherichia coli (61%) and the least one was Streptococcus faecalis (5%). The highest percentage of bacterial isolates was found in the intestine (54%) and non was obtained from the gall bladder. The highest E.coli isolates were from the intestine (77%) and liver (50%), whereas the highest Staphylococcus aureus isolates were from heart (43%). The bacterial isolates, which were recorded in pin-tailed sand grouse for the first time in Iraq, were E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Clostridium colinum and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Capability of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress and initiation of athromatus lesions and to study effect of some antioxidants represented by estradiol, vitamin e and fresh garlic in overictomized rats

A.Y. Al-Khafaf; E. R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 93-110
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5632

This study was conducted to determine the possibility of 0.5% if H2O2 on drinking water for the induction of oxidative stress status overictomized rats, moreover, this study deal with role of the stress in initiation & development
atheromatus lesions. In these animal for improvement the oxidation status, this status deal with some antioxidant agents mainly: Vitamin E, Oestradiol Benzoate and Fresh garlic. The result remarks the similar (but not identical) effect of these agents (Vit E as superior) via its lowering effect on lipid profile as well as lipid peroxidation index, and its ameliorating effects on HDL-c, tissue GSH level. Moreover, these agents show a reduction in fatty depositions in aorta of treated rats.

Anesthesia in xylazine premedicated donkeys with ketamine and ketamine-propofol mixture: A comparative study

A. KH. Al-Jobory; O. H. Al-Hyani; B.T. Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 117-123
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5633

This study was conducted to evaluate the anesthetic quality produced by ketamine hydrochloride (K) (3 mg/kg, I.V.) and ketamine–propofol (K-P) mixture (2 mg/kg-1 mg/kg, I.V., respectively) in six donkeys premedicated with xylazine (X), (1 mg/kg, I.V.). Each donkey was anesthetized one time with each dose of (K) and (K-P), five minutes after (X) administration, in random order at (1) week intervals. The anesthetic parameters; induction and sleeping time, abolishment of the swallowing reflex, recumbencey period, cardiopulmonary responses, were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The results revealed presence of significant difference (p< 0.05) in the induction and sleeping time between (K) and (K-P) protocols. Neither the swallowing reflex, nor recumbency period represented statistical difference between (K) and (K-P) protocols. But clinically, anesthesia with (K-P) produced shorter and smoother recovery to recumbency than with (K), and the swallowing reflex was abolished while persisted with (K) anesthesia. The excellent anesthesia produced with K-P was characterized by smooth, calm, gradual and free of excitement induction (23.75±1.75 sec), good narcosis (22.50±3.57 minutes) and muscle relaxation. The swallowing reflex was abolished for (15.75±5.61 minutes). The recumbency period was characteristically smooth and featured by its rapidness (10.50±2.62 minutes). While on the other hand, induction of anesthesia with (K) protocol was characterized by rough, slow and excitement (56.25±8.44 sec), muscle rigidity, and persistence of the swallowing reflex (not disappeared or slightly disappeared). The shorter sleeping time (10.5±0.95 minutes) and the longer recumbencey (14.75±2.28 minutes) periods that was associated with violent convulsion and excitement, were clinically an obvious associate with (K) anesthesia. The intubations with (K-P) anesthetic protocol was easily performed, but was difficult or failed during (K) anesthesia.In conclusion, anesthesia with (K-P) protocol produced an excellent anesthetic mixture for induction of general anesthesia in donkeys, and up to our knowledge this the first report on the use of this mixture for total intravenous anesthesia in donkeys.

Parasitological and histopathological studies of the natural infection with Leucocytozoon simondi in geese in ninevah governorate

M. H. Hasan; A. F. M. AL- Taee; A. A. Shamaun

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 37-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5634

This study is the first report in Mosul for detection of Leucocytozoon simondi in geese. Blood smears from ninety-six geese were collected in Nineveh governorate during July 2005 till February 2006 for detection of L. simondi. Liver histopathological sections wase also performed. The results showed that 32 geese were positive for L. simondi, with infection rate of 22.85% for young birds and 39.34% for adult geese.Males show higher percentage of infection 35.71% versus 30% in females. The infection rates according to the villages were ranged from 16% to 41.66%. Blood smears show the spindle and the spherical form of the haemoparasite. Liver histopathological sections of livers geese show coagulative degeneration and necrosis with spindle and the oval form of the parasite.

Diagnostic study to the presences of eimeria oocyst in the gall bladder fluid of the slaughtered goats in mosul abattoir

B. A. Muhemmd; E. G. Suliaman; M. S. Daoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5635

Out of 138 gall bladder collected from slaughtered goats in Mosul abattoir, 19 (13.76%) were found to be infected with Eimeria alijevi. Averge oocysts measurements were 16.76 × 14.11 microns. There was an increased in the viscosity of the bile fluid and changes in its color from brown to dark green and the wall of the affected gall bladder was thickened and lost of its transparency. The most observable clinical signs include general weakness, jaundice, pale mucous membrane and diarrhea and the percentage of infection with different types of Eimeria oocysts in feces 42.75% and diagnosed oocysts of E. alijevi in feces.

Isolation of infectious bronchitis virus from broiler

M. Y. AL-Attar; F. F. AL-Haseerchy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 53-61
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5636

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was isolated from broilers chicks. The virus isolation done by samples inoculation in chicken egg embryos via allontoic cavity route which showed sensitivity for virus isolation resulting in stunting and rounding of inoculated embryos, as well as thickening of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Cultivation of the isolated virus was carried out in the yolk sac and embryo vein .The virus was grown in chicken kidney cells (CKC) cultures resulting in cytopathic effect ( CPE ) after 24 h. post inoculation including swelling and accumulation of cells which increased in 2nd& 3rd day post inoculation. The diagnosis of isolated virus was carried out by Agar gel ………….
precipitation test (AGPT) using reference positive antiserum and Serum neutralization test (SNT) using CKC tissue culture.

Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus in chickens in ninevah province iraq

Attar; M. Y. AL

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5637

The study included collection of 200 serum samples from Broilers which showed clinical signs of Respiratory and Digestive lnfections as well as noticable mortality. Samples were collected through two stages, first at acute infection and the second two weeks post infection from the same Broilers flocks.
ELISA test was used for the detection of Avian Influenza antibodies showed positive reaction for 50% of first stage serum samples and 78% Positive reaction of second stage serum samples.

Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test also used for detection of antibodies using reference antigen to Avian Influenza virus subtype (H9N2). Results showed positive reaction of 42% of first stage serum samples with mean of titer at 24.19 and 52% positive reaction of second stage serum samples with mean of titer at 30.15. These results indicated the presence of antibodies against Avian Influenza virus subtype (H9N2). In broiler's flocks of Ninevah province and ELISA test was more sensitive than (HI) test in antibodies detection.

Estimation of fetal age in sheep by measurement of the embryonic vesicle diameter and umbilical cord diameter by using real-time ultrasonography

M.H. AL-Salman; H. M. AL-Rawi; S. N. Omran

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 159-167
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5638

This experiment includes 72 local Awassi ewes aged between 2 to 5 years old. The aim of this study was to estimate the fetal age by the measurement of the embryonic vesicle and diameter of umbilical cord diameters during the different periods of gestation by using 5MHz real-time ultrasonography. Results of this study indicated that the embryonic vesicle could be seen at 14 days post breeding, and this can be the first sign of early pregnancy diagnosis. The embryo could be successfully seen at 20 days post breeding. The umbilical cord was first diagnosed at 23 days post breeding. Linear, quadratic and cubic equations were described, which adjust the relationship between the fetal age and diameter of embryonic vesicle and umbilical cord. In a conclusion, linear equation of the relationship between diameter of embryonic vesicle and fetal age was the best.
equation to estimate the fetal age, while the cubic equation was the best equation to estimate the relationship between fetal age, and diameter of the umbilical cord.

Diagnosis of some pathological causes of respiratory infections in broilers in Al-Hamdaniya

M. Y. Al-Attar; N. S. Mekhael; B. I. AL-Taii; S. Y. AL-Barrodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 83-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5639

Pathological causes of respiratory infections in five broilers flocks in Al-Hamdanyia region were studied. Each flock consisted of 5000-7000 birds at 20-40 days of old which suffered from respiratory infection signs with high mortality ratio. Specific ELISA kit for avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and infectious bronchitis disease virus (IBV), were used as sera diagnostic tests as well as bacteriological isolation. Results shows (AIV) infections at all flocks with nearly similar percentages which were 14%, 15%, 18%, 13%, 10% respectively, (NDV) were recorded at three flocks of older ages with 8%, 12%, 20% at the flocks number 3-5 respectively but no any infection of (IBV) infection was recorded. Bacteriological isolation shows E.coli infections in three flocks with 20% at each of the flocks number 3 and 5 but it was 10% in the flock number 4, also three Gram positive bacteria were isolated, Streptococcus fecalis, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and Staphylococcus aureus at nearly similar percentages ranged from 5% - 20%. In conclusion the real cause of respiratory infection in this study was (AIV) which causes bird immune suppression leading to other disease infections like (NDV), and other bacterial infections.

Effect of nitrate poisoning on some biochemical parameters in rats

J. S. Hassan; M. B. Mahmood; O. H. Azeez

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 47-50
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5640

The present study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of potassium nitrate on glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the possible ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Male Wister rats are used as experimental model divided into three groups (each of 6-8 rats) and treated for six weeks as follows: Group 1: served as control; Group 2: received 2 % potassium nitrate added to the forage and Group 3: received 2 % potassium nitrate together with 1 % ascorbic acid added to rat's forage. Nitrate treatment in group 2 leads to high significant increase levels of glucose in 3rd, 4th, and 5th weeks, cholesterol level increased significantly in both 4th and 5th weeks, while ALT levels increased in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks, and AST increased significantly in the 5th and 6th weeks. Addition of ascorbic acid with potassium nitrate, lead to reverse all the parameters nearly to normal. It was concluded that potassium nitrate causes significant toxic effect on some biochemical parameters which was ameliorated by ascorbic acid.

Effect of omentum graft on esophageal anastomosis in dogs

A. K. Mahdi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 65-70
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5641

This aim of this study was to evaluate the complications and final function outcome of wrapping nonvascularized omentum graft around the suture line of esophageal anastomosis. Twelve adult local breed dogs were used in this study. The animals were divided into two equal groups (control and treated), all animal induced into general anesthesia by injection of atropen sulphate in a dose 0.04 mg/kg B.W, intramuscularly then after 15 minute given mixture of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride in doses 15 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg B.W intramuscularly respectively. An oblique resection of about 1cm of the esophageal length and anastomosis by double layer of simple interrupted pattern by 2.0 cat gut suture (control group), same procedure was done in treated group except the wrapping the anastomosis site with patch of omentum tissue after lapratomy operation in the left flank region procedure. The clinical signs of treated animal revealed signs of dysphagia and regurgitation in treated group while this signs disappear in the control group. Radiological and histopathological examination of the anastomosis site performed at 15 and 30 days post operation. Radiological study recorded high degree of stenosis in the anastomosis site in treated group at 15 and 30 days post operation in compared with animals in control group that record mean degree of stenosis in treated group at 15 day (57.61±0.2) and at 30 day (55.78±0.2) while it recorded in control group at 15 day (39.34±1.04) and at 30 day (36.0.6 ±0.9), histopathological results recorded enhanced healing of anastomosis site in treated animals more than control animals. In conclusion we found that non vascularized omental graft prevent leak when used around the anastomosis line in esophageal and enhanced healing of anastomosis line but it increase the stenosis, fibrosis and adhesion of anastomosis site with surrounding muscle and this interferes with the swallowing as well as dysphagia and regurgitation.

Treatment of hyper-granulated limb wounds in horses

M. J. Eesa; O. A. Bader

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 71-80
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5643

This study was performed to investigate the different methods of treating hyper granulation tissue on experimentally induced wounds in equine limbs. Wounds were induced by removal of a skin patch and subcutaneous tissue for about 5-7 cm width and 6-8 cm in length from the dorsal and lateral aspect of the fore and hind limbs below the carpal and tarsal joints. The wounds were left open without treatment and the animals were trained 2-2.5 hours every day for about 3-5 weeks until hyper granulation tissue was developed. The schedule for the treatment of hyper granulation was divided into five groups each contained eight wounds of hyper granulation tissue; each main group was divided into two subgroups. The subgroups of first, second, third, fourth and fifth groups were treated by the following schedules: bandage alone; copper sulphate ointment 10%; silver nitrate ointment 2%; red mercury ointment 11%; and laser therapy (at a total dose of 9.72 Joule / cm2) respectively. While the second subgroups were treated by surgical resection of the hyper granulation tissue, followed by the same treatments applied on the first subgroup. The bandage for all experimental groups was changed every 48 hours until healing was occurred. The clinical and histological observation of the first group revealed that the healing take long period comparing with other groups. The mean of wound healing were 65 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup, while 57 days in surgical removed of hyper granulation tissue subgroup. The results of the second, third, fourth groups revealed that the caustic material especially red mercury has a role in healing processes through depressing the hyper granulation tissue. The mean of wound healing of the second group was 42.25 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 37.25 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. In the third group the mean of wound healing was 45.75 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 44.75 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. While in the fourth group the mean of wound healing was 39 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 36 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. In the fifth group the clinical and histological observation revealed that the using of laser lead to reduce the period for wound healing significantly comparing with other groups. The mean of wound healing was 25 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 20 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup, so that the laser was the best in this study and the using of surgical removal is better than of non surgical removal.

Effect of laser treatment on thyroid gland hormones in female rabbits

I. F. R. Mohammed; T. S. Al- Azawi; N. S. AL-Mustawfi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5644

This study was designed to investigate the effect of laser treatment on thyroid functions and hormones in female rabbits. A total of 18 female rabbits were used in this investigation. Six rabbits were used for examining the thyroid gland location and dissected to be sure that laser therapy will be directed to this gland. Twelve female rabbits were used in this experiment to study the physiological effect of laser therapy (4J/cm2) on normal thyroid function they were divided into two equal groups, six used as control and the others were exposed to laser therapy at the thyroid gland region for three successive days for 5 minutes on each side. Then blood was collected for hormonal assay from ear vein at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after the last dose of laser treatment. The results revealed a gradual decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels with a concomitant increase in TSH level at the first eighteen days of laser treatment, then normalization of hormones level were take place to be normal after thirty days. More work is needed on this subject to examine the specific role of laser on glands.

The effect of propolis feed supplementation on hygiene and performance of broiler chickens

T. A. Abdulla; M. G. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 77-82
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5647

Propolis is a natural substance produced by worker bees from trees and leaf buds. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of two concentrations (200, 400 mg/kg diet) of propolis on some performance traits and hygienic parameters of broiler chickens body weight, feed conversion, feed consumption, during an eight weeks experiment, weights of internal organs, and dressing percentage also recorded. The results showed that using propolis at 400 mg/kg in the diet lead to significant increase (P<0.05) in eighth-week body weight (2306.27) g, feed consumption especially in the fourth week, maximum daily growth rate (55.52) gm was obtained from the treatment of 400 mg/kg in the seventh week period. Also propolis lead to improve feed conversion efficiency in the second, third and fourth week of age for the broilers fed diet with 400 mg/kg (1.35, 1.59, 1.95), respectively. Average of proportional weights for each of the liver, heart, thighs, and dressing percentage (74.0%) were improved among birds of this treatment, too.

Using Nigella sativa meal as a substitute source for vegetable protein in rations of native growing calves

N. Y. Abou; N. M. Abdullah; A. K. Nasser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 87-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5648

The present study was carried out on 15 growing local bull calves of about 150-200 kg, live body weight and 10-12 months old to investigate the effect of substituting soyabean meal as concentrate feed mixture protein by Nigella sativa meal (NSM) at 0 , 60 and 100%. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each, according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. All groups of animals were fed iso-nitrogen (15% CP) and iso-caloric (2.7 Mcal/kg. ME) diets. Experimental rations were offered at 2.5% of live body weight with 1% of wheat straw. At the end of the feeding trial, which lasted for 105 days, blood samples were collected from all calves to estimate the total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Digestibility trial was carried out on three animals of each group to investigate the nutritional value of rations. Economical study was also carried out on experimental animals. Results indicated that there was an improvement in feed intake by 13 and 14% for groups fed a ration containing NSM compared with the group fed the control one. No significant differences were between groups of calves in total body weight gain and blood parameters. The feed conversion ratio improved by 12% for the group of calves fed control ration as compared with other groups. The same cost of producing 1 kg live body weight gain was found. Substituting soybean meal protein at 60 and 100% by NSM protein significantly improved crude fiber, ether extract, EE, and the values of digestion coefficient. It was concluded that NSM could be substituted instead of soyabean meal for growing local calves with out adverse effects on their performance.

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq

E. T. Butty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 43-46
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5649

A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot) and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107), while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107). This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

B. Y. Rasheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 93-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5651

Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98%) of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80%) chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

Fate of macrosarcocyst of Sarcocystis gigantea in sheep

L.Y. Khalil; E. R. Kennany; N. S. Al-Hyali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 87-91
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5652

This study was conducted to detect the fate of macrosarcocysts of Sarcocystis gigantea in the tongue and eosophagus of naturally infected sheep, via collection of 25 samples, 10 of which showed calcification. The results showed presence of white different size grains on the wall of the pale eosophagus, in addition to presence of nodules containing white chalky materials and on cutting by knife produced grunting sound which indicated calcification. Histopathological results showed presence of granulomatous nodules that contained necrotic centers infiltration by inflammatory cells. Some of which were free from zoites in addition to presence of calcium salt precipitation, which represented dystrophic calcification. Eosinophilic myositis appeared in the tongue was associated with ruptured cyst and released zoites in muscular tissue. Some histological sections revealed ruptured macrocystis with thin wall deposited between muscle bundles. In conclusion, this study showed that the fate of macrocysts included the formation of granulomatous nodules associated with dystrophic calcification and dead zoites in eosophagous more than that in the tongue.

Effect of lysate of Sarcocystis gigantea in rats

A. F. Al-Taei; E. R. Kennany; N. S. Al-Hyali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5653

This study was conducted to examine the effect of lysate isolated from macrosarcocysts of Sarcocystis gigantea after inoculation into albino rats to follow up the pathological effect on heart, lung and skeletal muscle fibers. The results showed the presence of pathological changes, represented by hyperatrophy, congestion, associated with hyaline degeneration in myocardium of heart. In lung tissues severe congestion in each right and left lobes concomitant with emphysema, thickening was observed in wall of branchioles and blood vessels at 3-7 days have been seen. In skeletal muscles the result revealed the presence of multinecrotic areas which infiltrated with inflammatory cells accompanied by hyaline degeneration in muscle fibers at 3-7 days after treatment.

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys in Mosul

Kh. J. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 111-115
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5654

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys in Mousl, Iraq. Fifty two sera (9 males and 43 females) were examined by Latex agglutination test, Modified latex agglutination test with 2- mercaptoethanol test and Indirect ELISA test (Indirect IgG ELISA). The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys was 46.15 %. Acute cases 8.33% and chronic cases 91.67 % when differentiated by Modified latex agglutination test with 2- mercaptoethanol test. The percentages of female and male infections were 51.16% (22/43) and 22.22% (2/9), respectively by using latex agglutination test, and the titeration of antibodies ranged between 1:20 - 1:1280 and for Indirect IgG ELISA it was 22.72% positive cases.

Vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy and progesterone profile: breeding tools in bitches

K. S. Rao; K. G. S. Raju; K. C. S. Reddy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 51-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5656

The exfoliative vaginal cytology, vaginoscopic examination of vaginal mucosa and progesterone profiles were recorded in an attempt to identify the ideal time of breeding in bitches. A total of 18 anestrus bitches were selected and divided into 03 groups (Control, CABG and eCG groups). The bitches in control group did not receive any treatment and exhibited estrus. The estrus was induced with Cabergoline (CABG) and equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) in the other two groups of bitches. In control group, higher percentage of superficial cells (89.94 ± 0.64) and lower percentage of intermediate (7.30 ± 0.77) and parabasal cells (2.76 ± 0.30) were characteristic vaginal cytological changes during estrus. Vaginoscopic examination of CABG group of bitches revealed that the vaginal mucus was creamy and paper white with angular shrinkage during estrus. In eCG group of bitches, the plasma progesterone concentration was 1.55 ± 0.19 ng/ml on day 8.00 ± 0.71 of proestrus. The conception rates were 66.66, 83.33 and 83.33 per cent in Control, Cabergoline and eCG groups, respectively. The litter size varied from 3.50 + 1.12 to 4.83 + 0.83 in the three groups.

Electron microscopic study of ileum of mice infected experimentally with Salmonella hadar

M. M. N. AL-Naqeeb; A. A. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 55-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5657

Recently, Salmonella hadar has been isolated and identified from goat in Iraq. The purpose of the present study was to examine ultrastructural changes in the ileum epithelial cells of BALB/c mice experimentally infected with S. hadar. Mice were used as follows: Group A: 20 mice inoculated orally with phosphate buffer saline and considered as a control group. Group B: 20 mice inoculated orally with (100ID) by drenching the mice about 1 ml of the bacterial suspension which contain (1.5×109 cells) of Salmonella hadar and the ileum epithelial cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after infection. The ultra structural changes seen in the ileum of infected mouse at 24 hours were disorganization of the microvilli with severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, enlargement of the mitochondria and presence of intracellular Salmonella. Changes at 48 hours post infection, were detachments of many microvilli especially at the site of bacterial entry. Similar changes were observed after 72 hours but more severe; there was marked dilatation and proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum with cytoplasmic vacuolization of the infected enterocytes. After 96 hours there were severe cytoplasmic vacuolization with accumulation of the bacteria within phagosomes and there was marked damage to the microvilli of the ileum. After 120 hours there was hypertrophy of goblet cell and thickening of the nuclear membrane and there was several Salmonella containing vacuoles.

Effect of cadmium on CNS function and development in rat offspring: effect of vitamin E

H. M. Jasem; E. M. Abdul Alrasool; A. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5658

The work was designed to study the effect of vitamin E ( 500 mg /kg diet ) on the central nervous system function and landmarks development in offspring of rats whoser mothers treated with cadmium (50mg/L of drinking water) during lactation. Cadmium chloride caused a significant increase in righting reflex , olfactory discrimination tests in pups (aged one week) and in the onset of movement test in weaned pups. The results indicated a significant reduction in motor activity in the open field, cliff avoidance, click response and weight in weaned pups. Cadmium chloride caused a significant increased in negative geotaxic in weaned pups. Cadmium chloride did not affect significantly on landmarks development ( opening of eyes and ears , appearance of teeth and hair) with the exception of a significant increase in descending time of testis and a significant decrease in appearance time of vaginal opening . Administration of vitamin E caused a significant increase in motor activity in the open field. and significant reduction in the onset of movement test, negative geotaxic and weight of weaned pups and in descending time of testis . It is concluded from this study that vitamin E caused positive effects on central nervous system and some landmarks development in pups whose their mothers treated with cadmium chloride.

A preliminary study on the effect of employing bile liquid in a starter diet on performance of young heavy breed chicks

T. A. Ez Aldeen; S. H. Tohala; T. H. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 25-28
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5659

Heavy breed day-old chicks fed Isonitrogenous-Isocaloric diets supplemented with 0.0, 2.0 and 4.0% fresh bovine bile liquid, for three weeks. The three types of diets comprised the experimental dietary treatments, from which the effect of including bile liquid in heavy breed chicks diet on their most prominent economical traits were studied. Results showed that the three groups of birds, consumed almost the same amount of feed during the three weeks of experimental period. However, a significant increase in daily growth rate(DGR)occurred as a result of bile liquid in starter diets. The estimated superiority of this traits, DGR, was found to be 10.76% on an average basis, higher than that of the control group. A good reflection of this phenomenon on feed conversion ratio was observed, as birds fed diets contained 2.0 and 4.0% bile liquid surpassed the control group by 8.75 and 10.63%, respectively. Body weights at third week of age were 8.06 and 10.60% heavier for the two treated groups, respectively, than the control one. Results indicate that the nutritive value of starter diets supplemented with bile liquid warrant further investigation based on long term experiments to make a decision in this direction.

Effect of apple cider vinegar on the healing of experimentally–induced wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

A. H. Alawi; S. Y. Al Dabbagh; T. S. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 11-17
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5660

Standard wounds were made in the backs of 18 rabbits. The rabbits were then divided into 6 equal groups. Rabbits of group (1), constituted a control group and their wounds were treated with physiological saline solution. In group (2), the wounds were treated with Cefotaxime at a concentration of 500 mg. Wounds of the third, fourth, and fifth groups were treated with 5%, 3.75%, and 2.5% apple cider vinegar respectively. Wounds of the sixth groups of rabbits were treated with a combination of equal amounts of Cefotaxime and apple cider vinegar 3.75%. All of the wounds were infected with various isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the time of infected. Wound treatment was done each 48 hours until complete healing. Results of this study indicated that using apple cider vinegar 3.75% gave results similar to those obtained by using the antibiotic (same rates of bacterial reduction). However, using a combination of equal amounts of apple cider vinegar and the antibiotic lead to more rapid and more better healing than using each one of them alone.

Pathological study of gall bladder lesions in calves slaughtered at Mosul slaughter house

M. Y. Al-Mashhadani; S. O. Youkhana; K. H. Al-Mallah; R. T. Al-Rekani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5661

Eighty five samples of complete unopened gall bladder were collected from calves immediately after slaughtering at Mosul slaughter house for detection of any pathological lesions that might be present through gross and histopathological examinations. These examinations revealed various pathological changes which included lymphocytic inflammation (8.2%), fibroma (1.1%), gall stones (2.3%), bilirubin pigmentation (1.1%), congenital deformities (1.1%) appeared as Y shape gall bladder, growth disturbances manifested by hyperplasia (14.1%), coagulative necrosis as a metabolic disturbance (1.1%), hyperemia (20%), petechial hemorrhage (7%) and atherosclerosis (1.1%) of the total samples.

Evaluation the effect of albendazole against nematodes in sheep in Mosul, Iraq

M. I. Al-Farwachi; E. K. Mohamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 5-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5662

Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole) group (10 mg/kg BW). Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%). Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.

Effect of some plant extracts on the Culex pipiens molestus Forskal larvae

A. Al-Khazraji; M. A. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 9-12
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5663

A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of eight plant species collected from Ninavah governorate on the second instar of larval stage of Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. Three out of the eight plant extracts Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Cleome glaucescens Dc. and Quercus infectoria DL. caused 100% mortality of larvae at a concentration of 200 µg/mL after 3days of treatment. The LC50 values were less than 150µg/mL (62.5µg/mL-140µg/mL). The A. excelsa leave extract showed mortality on larval and pupal at low concentrations 40µg/mL-10µg/mL also affected in delaying larval development. The extracts of Achillea santolina L., Ammi majus L. and Ricinus communis L. caused high mortality to the larvae after 7 days of treatment, but the Datura stramonium L. and Carum petroselinum Benth extracts did not cause any mortality to the larvae at the same date.

A statistical study to evaluate the initial weight for fattening in local calves

N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 69-73
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5664

Data of twenty one local breed bull calves (Sharabi and Janoubi) were collected from previous work for this study, their ages ranged from 8-18 month with initial live body weight of 125-300 kg. They were fed for 100 days period a standard ration which consisted of 60:40% concentrate to roughages ratio and contained 12.4% crude protein, 19.9% crude fiber and 2.2 Mcal/kg ME. Feed was offered at 3% of live body weight. Calves weights were sorted out into three groups, according to their means of body weight and were 140, 210 and 280 kg. The first group of calves had a significant increase daily gain more than the other two groups and were 1200, 850 and 830 g, respectively. Also, feed conversion rate of the first group was better than the other two groups, and were 6.2, 8.9 and 9.9 kg. ration/1 kg weight gain, respectively. Cost of feeding to produce one kg of weight gain in the first group was more efficient than the other two groups, and were 1860, 2670 and 2970 I.D., respectively. No differences were found in carcass traits among the three groups of calves. The results of this study suggest that it is better to choose local bull calves at live weight less than 200 kg for fattening purpose, to obtain more economical benefit.

Acute toxicity of Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract in rabbits

B. A. Al-Badrani; M. S. Rhaymah; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5665

The median lethal dose was evaluated in rabbits subcutaneously injected with Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract . The clinical signs , postmortem changes , hematological and biochemical changes were recorded. The results revealed that the median lethal dose was 157.37 mg / kg B. wt. The live animals showed nervous signs in the second days after treatment as crying, ataxia , abdominal respiration , inaddition to a significant increase in body temperature and loss in the body weigth then all animals die during 4 -5 day.The postmortem changes included hemorrhages , and congestion in all organs particularly in the subcutaneous tissue. Hematological changes including increase in the packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration ,and erythrocytic count and leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia .Significant increase in the aspartate and alanine aminotraferease activities , serum sodium and potassium ions , and inhibition in blood cholinesterase activity in both erythrocytes and plasma in 2 and 24 houres after injection as compared to the values in animals before injection.

Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 35-41
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5666

A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis) were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

Ameliorative effect of mycofix plus 3.0 in reducing intensity of Eimeria tenella infection during aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks

A. M. Shareef; D. M. Taher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 39-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5667

One hundred and sixty male broiler chicks were fed at one day of age aflatoxin (AF) at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg alone, or with groups injected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts (40000) at 14 days of age. Adsorbent (Mycofix® plus 3.0) was incorporated at a rate of 0.25% in the above mentioned groups from one day of age till the end of the experiment. The study was conducted to reveal the effect of a aforementioned different diets and treatments on live body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, blood parameters (total red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume), biochemical profile of serum (alkaline phosphatase and β-carotin), liver weights, bursal and thymus indexes, caecal lesion scores and mortalities. The results indicated that AF was responsible for a significant (P<0.05) reduction. in body weigh gain (BWG), feed consumption, and an increase in feed conversion ratio. Afllatoxin was also responsible for reduction in blood parameters, β-Carotin, bursal and thymus indexes. While relative liver weight and alkaline phosphatase level were significantly (P<0.05) increased. Groups that fed AF at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg feed and exposed to sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella show a high significant (P<0.05) reduction in BWG, feed consumption and an increase in feed conversion ratio. Aflatoxin was also responsible for significant blood parameter, β-carotin, and also a significant (P<0.05) increase in caecal lesion scores, mortality, alkaline phosphatase level and relative liver weight, while they showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in bursal and thymus indexes in comparison with injected groups with E-tenella sporulated oocysts alone. The study approved that the groups maintained on mycofix plus 3.0 (0.25%) and contaminated with aflatoxin 3.5 mg/kg, revealed a positive noticeable effects in amelioration on BWG, feed consumption and feed conversion, blood parameter, β-carotin, alkaline phosphatase level, relative liver weight, bursal and thymus indexes in comparison with group fed aflatoxin alone. On the other hand, the groups fed on aflatoxin with mycofix plus 3.0 (1%) and injected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocystes, showed some improvement in BWG, feed consumption, feed conversion, blood parameter, β-carotin, ALKP, bursal and thymus indexes, when compared with those fed AF and injected with doses of sporulated oocysts. It was concluded that the addition of mycofix plus 3.0 to broiler feeds had an alleviating effects in reducing the severity of coccidiosis during aflatoxicosis.

Endoparasites of the fresh water fish Liza abu in Mosul, Iraq

A. F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 25-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5668

Through examination of 176 samples of the fresh water fish Liza abu obtained from Tigers River in Mosul city 2005, the percentage of total internal parasites infection was 57.38%. They were the trematode larval stage Diplostumum spathaecum 44.88%; the cestode larval stage of Ligula intestinalis 32.95%, oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp. 28.97%, oocyst of Eimeria spp. 23.29%. Cryptosporidium was recorded for the first time in Mosul city during examination of intestinal contents. They appeared after staining with modified Zeihl- Neelsen as bright red spherical oocysts with a diameter of 3-7 µ. The effect of season on types of infection was also studied.

Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

M. M. Al-Hassan; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 43-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5669

In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45%) examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

Correlation between broiler aflatoxicosis and European production efficiency factor

T. S. Qubih; O. S. Bayon; A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5670

Ten broiler flocks claimed to be suffering from aflatoxicosis in Ninavah governorate were subjected to study the correlation between natural contamination of feed samples with aflatoxin and European production efficiency factor (EPEF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was adopted for estimation of AF level in broiler feeds. Growth performance parameters were recorded including final body weight, mortality, feed consumption and conversion ratio. Aflatoxins levels in feeds were ranged from 31 to 2381.8 ppb and EPEF was between 91.55-151.05. There was a highly negative correlation between AF concentration in broiler flock feeds and their EPEF (-0.828).

Effect of age and stage of lactation on the milk yield and some of its compositions in Awassi ewes

A. K. Hassan; R. K. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 53-57
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5671

In this study 75 Awassi ewes 3-5 years old were used for the study of the following parameters; milk productionو time required for complete milking were recorded for each ewe twice a day. Fat and protein percentage were determined weekly, and somatic cell count was estimated one time each two weeks. The week effect on average milk production and time required for complete milking were significant (P<0.01), in favor of the first week which was the best one on milk production and a time needed to complete milking. Their values were 876.17 ± 22.94 gm/day and 67.23 ± 1.73 second/kgm respectively, while the effect on the percentage of fat and protein was significant for the favor of the last week of the study and were 7.1 ± 0.05 and 6.42 ± 0.06 respectively, compared with those of the first week of 3.43 ± 0.05 and 2.84 ± 0.04 respectively. It is concluded that milk production, time needed for complete milking and somatic cell count were affected by age. Better results have been seen in five years old ewes.

Effect of diazepam on some physiological and productive traits of Cobb hybrid broiler chickens

H. M. Hameed; S. H. Tohala

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 59-67
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5673

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of diazepam in drinking water on some productive and physiological traits of hybrid (Cobb500) broiler chickens. Forty birds (male and female) were used at age of three weeks to determine the suitable concentrations of diazepam per milliliter of drinking water which can be practically employed to calm down the birds , without producing too much sedation. Two levels of diazepam were chosen (0.02 and 0.04 mg/ml) from the four levels tested (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 mg/ml). At four weeks of age, 90 birds (45 males and45 females) were chosen, relatively homogenous in body weights, and divided into three groups. The first group (the control) was given drinking water free of diazepam, the second and third groups were given 0.02 and 0.04 mg of diazepam / ml of water, respectively. Data indicated that there was an increase in the average body weights for the groups treated with diazepam at age of five, seven and eight weeks .Also an increase in the amount of feed consumed ,an improvement of feed efficiency ,and an increase in dressing percentage for groups treated with diazepam. No significant differences were found between any of the treated groups for the diazepam and the control groups, in the levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides.

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in females buffaloes in Ninavah province, Iraq

O. M. Al-Iraqi; O. K. AL-Hankawe; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 19-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5674

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the females of the local breed buffaloes. A 400 sera samples were collected from 49 herds from different nine geographical area in Ninavah province by using latex agglutination and modified latex agglutination tests. The results shows that the total prevalence rate of the antibodies was 30%, and this percentage was differ according to the region. The highest percentage appeared in Badosh and Qnetra at 52.3%, 51.2% respectively, while the lowest was in Hawiaslan 4.3%. The antibodies titer most appear was 80 in percentage 30.5%, while the titer 640 was lowest in percentage 1.7%. Also recorded that numbers of the active cases was highest in percentage 81.4% compared with inactive cases was lowest in percentage 18.6%, also noted that the seropositive samples decreased with age.

Mycofix ameliorative effect on Newcastle disease antibody production in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis

A. M. Shareef; M. T. Gargees

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 29-34
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5675

Three experiments were conducted to elucidate the alleviation effects of Mycofix plus 3.0 on Newcastle antibody formation during aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Three levels of Mycofix (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.25%) and aflatoxin (2.5ppm, 3.5ppm, and 5ppm) were used. Chickens were vaccinated at 8 and 18 days of age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Haemagglutination inhibition tests were employed for determination Newcastle antibody titers at 28 days. The results showed that, Mycofix , and only at its high level of addition (0.25%) was effective in ameliorating the negative effect of aflatoxin at the rates 2.5ppm and 3.5 ppm levels of inclusion on antibody production but not at the high level of 5ppm on antibody production, comparing with titers in control groups.

Comparison of laparoscopic and conventional surgery of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

O. J. Ali; B. T. Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5676

The aim of this study was to evaluate operative laparoscopy in comparison with conventional laparotomy for intestinal resection and anastomosis in dogs. Eighteen adult dogs were equally and randomly divided into 3 groups: Group I: Intestinal anastomosis was performed extracorporeally, by laparoscopic-assisted surgery, in which a 5cm loop of small bowel was exteriorized through a mini-laparotomy opening (an enlarged trocar incision 1.5-2 cm in length), then surgically resected and anastomosed by simple interrupted suture 3-0 polygalactine. Group II: Underwent laparoscopic intracorporeal intestinal resection and anastomosis, in which the loop of the small bowel was suspended into the ventral abdominal wall, then it was resected and anastomsed with simple continuous suture by polygalactine 3-0. Group III: Small bowel resection and anastomosis was conducted by conventional laparotomy technique with simple interrupted pattern by polygalactine 3-0 suture. The result showed that laparoscopic intestinal resection and anastomosis by either intra- or extracorporeal techniques can be applied in dogs safely and have less morbidity rate. Intra abdominal adhesion of the omentum and even the bowel to the abdominal wall occurred in group III but not in groups I and II. The post operative hospitalization time was earlier in group I and II, as indicated by the earlier return of intestinal motility and appetite, in comparison to group III where it was delayed.

Evaluation of cell-mediated immune response in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus

S.Y .Al-Baroodi; A. Z. Al-Zubeady; Shahery; M. N. Al

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 21-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5677

The leukocyte-migration inhibition test for the evaluation of cell-mediated immunity was developed for the use in chickens vaccinated with newcastle disease vaccine and other infected with local virulant strain of newcastle disease virus. Results indicated that the leukocyte migration test was reproducible and relatively easy assay to be performed .Serological antibody titers were determined to study the correlation between haemagglutination inhibition titers and leukocyte-migration level using the HI macro-assay .By results of this study cellular immunity level very important for evaluation the level of immunity beside the humoral immunity.

Effect of magnesium deficiency on bone metabolism in female rats

H. M. Ahmed; E. M. Al-Khshab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 55-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5678

The present study undertakes the deficiency effect of dietary magnesium on bone metabolism and some biochemical parameters in female rats. Experimental diets included control diet (65 mg magnesium / 100 g) and the deficient magnesium (3 mg/100g) diet. Deionized water was supplied for drinking. Forty six albino female rats were divided into two main groups, the first group included 18 adult female rats, divided into 9 control and 9 animals given magnesium deficient diet. The second group included young female rats divided into two groups, the first group was treated from dams،and included 14 young female rats. They were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. The other one was treated at 28 days old and included 14 young female rats, which were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. Blood samples were obtained at specific times from each group for biochemical parameters: magnesium, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), albumin, calcium and phosphorus were estimated. At the end of the experimental period, rats were anesthetized and killed. The right femurs were obtained for mineral analysis in bone ash (Ca, Mg). The results of adult female (Mg deficient) group showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP activity, albumin, calcium (within normal range). Both young female rat groups showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP and albumin compared with control group. The mineral analysis in bone ash showed no significant differences in calcium level where a significant decrease in magnesium level was observed compared with the control groups. It was concluded from this study, that magnesium deficiency could be used for detection of osteoporosis and defect of bone formation in adult and young female rats, respectively.

Extraction of Staphylococcus aureus toxin from minced meat in Mosul City

E. R. Al-Kennany; I. A. Al-Juboori; O. H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5679

This study was conducted to isolate and identify of Staph.aureus with its toxin from (41) sample of minced meat from different areas of Mosul city collected between April to July 2007. The positive samples to bacterial isolation reached 14.6%.In order to search the effect of bacterial toxin 0.2 ml and 0.4 ml of the toxins have been give orally and injected interperitonealy , respectively in albino mice. Histopathological changes of this toxin were described, the results showed the presence of vascular degeneration and apoptosis in hepatocyt as well as vascular and fatty degeneration in the tubercular epithelium of kidney. In the brain tissue the lesion was characterize by presence of vacuolation, gliosis and privascular odema, also the results revealed elongation and blunting of villi associated with lymphocytic proliferation in lamina properia of intestine. The histopathological changes were more severe in dose 0.4 ml as compared with 0.2 ml bacterial toxin.

Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

Saraj; A. A. Al

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5680

Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm) throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8%) among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%), encephalocele (6.1%), Oligodactyly (4.1%), Umbilical hernia (3.4%) and Short tail (3.4%); besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

Therapeutic efficacy of a mixture of ivermectin and closantel against gastrointestinal parasites in draft horses

B. A. Albadrani; M. K. Aldelami

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 37-42
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5681

Examination of 19 fecal samples showed positive results for nematodes. It was classified as a single and mixed infestation 58.0% and 42.1% respectively. The percentages of infestation with Strongylus spp, Oxyuris equi and Parascaris equorum were 31.58%, 15.75%, 10.52% respectively. Administration of a single dose of mixture of ivermectin and closantel (0.05 ml/kg body weight) revealed a significant reduction in average egg count in feces of the treated horses with both single and mixed infection. Efficacy of mixture of ivermectin and closantel for was 100% in removing eggs of the Parascaris equorm and Oxyuris equi and 99.42% for Strongylus spp at 14 days post-treatment. The preparation was also effective in removing larvae of Gastrophilus nasalis.

Effect of soybean seeds alone or in combination with insulin or glibenclamide on serum lipid profiles in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

O. H. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 17-23
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5682

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soybean seeds administration alone or combined with either insulin or glibenclamide on serum lipid profiles in diabetic rats. Male Wister rats were induced diabetes by a single subcutaneous injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg.b.w.The rats randomly divided into six groups (eight rats in each group): The first group served as a control, the second group was administered soybean seed 400 mg/kg.b.w orally as suspension, the third group injected insulin 10 I.U/kg.b.w, subcutaneously, the fifth group administered glibenclamide 5 mg/kg.b.w. orally. Accompaniment of soybean seeds with either of insulin or glibenclamide given the fourth and sixth groups, using the same routes and doses in the individual groups. All treatments were once daily for two weeks. Soybean seeds treatment alone resulted in an improvement of body weight and decrease of triglyceride and total lipids levels. While treatment with insulin or glibenclamide as alone or combination with soybean seeds showed a significant reduction in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and total lipids, beside a significant increase in both body weight and high density lipoprotein. Beneficial effects were seen when soybean seeds combined with either of insulin or glibenclamide treatment. These results indicate the usefulness of soybean seeds in the management of diabetes through the hypolipidemic effects of soybean seeds in diabetic rats.

Treatment of anestrous in buffalo cows by massaging the uterus and ovaries rectally

M. A. Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 23-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5683

This study was conducted to evaluate the application of the massage method of the uterus and ovaries by rectal palpation to treat true anoestrus in local Iraqi buffaloes. The study was conducted during the period from September 2007 to May 2008, on 236 buffalo cows including 113 multiparous and 123 heifers. Multiparous buffalo cows were divided into treated group (n=63) and control group (n=50), heifers were divided in to treated group (n=73) and control group (n=50). Results of the present study indicated a significant effect of the massage method for the uterus and ovaries in heifers by producing oestrus (80.82%), as well as a significant effect of treatment on multiparous buffalo cows was observed (58.73%). The response of heifers to treatment with massage method was significantly higher than multiparous buffalo cows. It could be concluded that using manual massage for uterus and ovaries by rectal palpation is a successful method for treating true anestrous in buffaloes.

Effect of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor on some biochemical parameters in normal male rats

M. S. Kalo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 5-12
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5684

Endogenous cholesterol acts as a precursor of testosterone and other steroids hormones, this study was conducted to evaluate if there is a counterproductive effect associated with inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway specially in high doses and the degree of these effects in normal male rats. Forty eight adult Wistar rats divided into four groups, the first is control while the remaining three groups were treated with simvastatin (cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor) in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 respectively. Serum samples were observed at the baseline then every fifteen days while tissue samples were observed at day 30 and 60. Results of statistic refered to a significant decrease (p≤ 0.05) in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (by 24 and 49% ± 3) respectively, also serum testosterone was significantly decreased (by 71% ± 2) in all groups compared to control after thirty and sixty days. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was increased (57% ± 3) versus to aspartate aminotransferase. Liver cholesterol was significantly decreased (by 72% ± 2) while testicular cholesterol was decreased except the group of 100 mg.kg-1 which in turns to elevate (61% ± 4), in addition also there was a decrease in body weight gain percentage neither the weights of liver nor testis was affected. In conclusion, the inhibition of denovo pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis negatively affects testosterone level in addition to cholesterol concentration in the tissues, body weight gain and alanine aminotransferase with no successful compensatory mechanism as related with testosterone level.

Effect of Nigella sativa meal in native milking cows rations on milk production and its composition and the digestion coefficient of the nutrients

N. Y. Abou; N. M. Abdullah; A. K. Nasser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 47-53
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5685

Two groups of Sharabi cows were examined, each consisted of four cows during the first month of labor, having about
equal live body weight and milk production. The cows in the first group were fed individually on concentrated ration containing 5% of soybean meal in an enough amount for maintenance and milk production according to N.R.C., 1984. Wheat straw was given in an amount equal to 1.25% of cow’s weight. The cows in the second group were fed on the same ration except that 70% of the protein of the soybean meal was replaced with protein of Nigella sative meal when it was added as 5% of the ration. The feeding process was continued for 6 weeks during which the amounts of milk production were checked and samples of milk were weekly taken for laboratory analysis. The cross over design was used for second 6 weeks. At the end of each feeding period the feces produced from each cow was collected for five successive days and samples for chemical analysis were taken. There were no significant differences between the cows of the two groups regarding to the amount of the milk 9.1 and 9.7 kg milk/cow/day with 3.5 and 3.3% of fat, respectively. Also the results indicated that there are no any significant differences in milk composition regarding crude protein, lactose, ash and total solid compounds percentages, as well as no significant differences between the two groups to produce one kg of normal or 4% fat adjusted milk. Where the values were 1.32, 1.48 and 1.43, 1.66 kg ration/kg milk produced respectively. The results showed a significant (P<0.01) improvement in all digestion coefficient, for nutrient of the experimental rations. Our conclusion is that the Nigella sativa meal could be used at 5% level of concentrate rations for native milking cows to cover 70% of the protein from soybean meal without any negative effects on milk production or its composition and improve nutrients digestion coefficient of these rations.

Diagnosis and classification of Eimeria species in cattle in Mosul

H. S. Al-Bakry

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 17-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5686

Examining 140 fecal samples of cattle from different regions of Mosul showed that the total percentage of infection was 25.71% with the oocysts of Eimeria, and the species of Eimeria recovered were: E. subspherica (11.42%), E. zuernii (8.57%), E. bovis (6.42%), E. alabamensis (5%), E. canadensis (4.28%), E. bakidnonensis (4.28%), E. ellipsoidalis (4.28%) and E. cylindrica (2.85%). The single infection with Eimeria constituted 12.85% of the animal infection. The incidence of infection was higher in cattle under the age of one year (30.92%) and the percentages of infection in both males and females of cattle were 24.13%, 26.82%, respectively.

Identification of beef using restriction fragment length polymorphism–polymerase chain reaction

R. A. Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 43-46
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5687

To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.

Detection of antibodies level for goat brucellosis in Mosul, Iraq

I. M. Ahmed; S. Y. Al-Baroodi; Aalim; A. M. Al; M. Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 33-36
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5688

This study included 184 serum samples collected from goats, the samples were distributed between aborted, vaccinated and unvaccinated females in the period between February–September 2007 in Mosul city. Rose Bengal Test and 2-mercaptoethanol test were used to evaluate antibodies in serum samples. The results showed that the percentage of positive cases reached 72% , 25.6% and 52.9% in vaccinated, unvaccinated and aborted females, respectively by using rose Bengal test. Where as the percentages of positive cases reached to 83.3%, 51.7% in vaccinated and unvaccinated animals, respectively and decreased to 11.1% in aborted animals when positive rose Bengal test samples were tested with 2-mercaptoethanol test.

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of ducks in Nineveh governorate

N. H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5689

The results of examining 100 fecal samples of ducks from different locations of Nineveh governorate revealed 77% infection with Cryptosporidium by using modified acid fast (hot) stain, whereas the percentages of infection were 63% and 56% by staining with iodine and flotation with sugar solution technique, respectively. The dimensions of the oocysts of the parasite were 1.9-6.6 (4.7) m length and 1.9-5.7 (3.8) m width. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between females and males and the percentage of infection appeared in high rate in female ducks (87.6%). No significant difference appeared between seasons. The percentage of infection with Cryptosporidium in ducks appeared in high rate in Al-Rashidiah and Quban region (90%).

Effect of dexamethasone on osteoclast formation in the alveolar bone of rabbits

S. A. Hamouda; A. Y. Yasear

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 13-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5690

This study was planned to determine whether a short period dexamethasone treatment induce alveolar bone loss or not, therefore, twenty six male albino rabbits were divided into three groups as follow: Test groups I (10 rabbits) received 1.56 mg/kg dexamethasone intraperitoneal injection daily for two weeks, test group II (10 rabbits) received 3.12 mg/kg dexamethasone intraperitoneal injection daily, and the control group (6 rabbits) received saline solution for same period. The animals were sacrificed and histological sections were prepared from the alveolar bone of molar areas of mandible, as well as morphometric analysis of osteoclasts number was performed. The results showed a significant increase in the number of osteoclasts, which indicates that bone loss, is quite inevitable secondary to dexamethasone treatment even in a short period of treatment for two weeks.

Effect of sesame seeds on blood physiological and biochemmical parameters in broiler breeder hens

M. M. Alkatan; A. F. Abdulmajeed; S. Y. Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 25-28
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5691

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of employing sesame seeds in broiler breeder diet on some physiological parameters. 30 Cobb breeder hens (36 week age) were divided into 3 groups (10 hens each). The 1st group was reared on standard ration (control), the 2nd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (250 mg /kg) and the 3rd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (500 mg/kg). The treatment continues for 4 weeks period. Results showed a significant increase in the RBCs, Hb and PCV in the 2nd and 3rd group compared with the control group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in MCV and MCH. Significant increase in the MCHC in the 3rd group compared with other groups after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment was noticed. Sesame seeds treatments for 4 weeks also caused a significant increase in the WBC count in the 2nd and 3rd group as compared with control. Hormonal Assay revealed that sesame seeds treatment with tow doses has no effects on plasma levels of LH hormone (4.94 and 4.48 miu/ml) compared with control (3.93 miu / ml), but the sesame seeds treatment (500 mg/kg) causes a significant increase in plasma levels of FSH (0.88 miu / ml) compared with the control (0.64 miu/ ml). Sesame seeds treatment, also, increased the egg weight, shell weight and yolk weight and it reached the levels of significantly in the 3rd group (66.15, 7.33 and 20.65 g) respectively as compared with control (61.48, 6.86 and 18.66 g), respectively. It is concluded that, sesame seeds treatment enhanced erythropoiesis, FSH activity and some productive parameters.

Lesions of urinary bladder in sheep slaughtered at Mosul slaughter house

A. M. Ali; A. A. Al-Hially; K. H. Al-Mallah; A. I. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 7-15
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5692

Urinary bladder samples (83) were collected from male sheep directly after slaughter. Gross and histopathological examination were performed for detection of any pathological changes, the collected samples included various groups of lesions that been diagnosed including the Disturbances of cell metabolism represented by cloudy swelling , zinker necrosis, liquefactive necrosis and caseous necrosis at the percentage of 3.6%, 10.8%, 1.2% and 1.2% respectively. Cell growth disturbance were manifested by epithelial hyperplasia, Connective tissue hyperplasia and smooth muscle fibers atrophy At the percentage of 6%, 4.8% and 10.8%. Circulatory disturbances also observed mainly as hyperemia 24%, Petechial hemorrhage 2.4% and edema 1.2%. Acute cystitis was noticed at 6 % and Chronic cystitis as a Granulomatous reaction at 3.6% and as Ulcer 1.2%. Crystal deposition appeared at 2.4%, Dystrophic calcification 1.2% and cystocele at 7.2%. One sample showed Congenital deformities represented by an excessive appendix from bladder wall appeared at 1.2% from total collected samples.

Diagnostic and experimental study of Corynebacterium renale isolated from urinary tract infection of cattle

S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 51-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5693

The study includes isolation and identification of Corynebacterium renale from urine of cow apparently suffering from urinary tract infection. C. renale represent highest isolate 49. 99% followed by Corynebacterium pyogenes 24.24% from the total number of Corynebacterium 74.23%. on the other hand Staphylococcus saprophyticus also isolated from urine samples 25.75%. Since C. renale was isolated at highest rate we studied its pathogenesis via inoculation of isolate intraperitoneally into white Swiss mice. Results showed that C. renale type I has ability to produce kidney damage after 48 hr. post inoculation revealed embolic glomeruler nephritis with less number of C. renale, also there is infiltration of polymorphnuclear inflammatory cell and nephrosis, in addition to vacular degeneration, coagulative necrosis with blood vessel congestion in liver tissue.

Effect of Marek's vaccine on some lymphoid organs in layers

T. S. Qubih; H. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 39-42
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5694

The aim of the study was to examine experimentally the gross and histological changes in layers (ISA Brown) inoculated with bivalent vaccine (CVI 988 and HVT) intramuscularly at one day of age. Samples of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were taken at different period post vaccination. Results indicate, gross changes were characterized by atrophy of thymus and congestion, congestion of spleen, with presence of serous fluid in bursa of Fabricius in some samples. Histologically, the spleen at early stage, infiltration of lymphocytes was low and then relatively an increased in number on post vaccination days 13 and 16. Also there was high infiltration of these cells around the splenic artery in addition to their aggregation in the nodes. The bursa of Fabricius showed decreased infiltration of lymphocytes on days 4, 7 and 10, where as these cells increased in infiltration on day 13 after vaccination.

Histopathology of virulent Newcastle disease virus in immune broiler chickens treated with IMBO®

T. S. Qubih; O. G. Mohammadamin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 9-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5695

The effect of feed additive IMBO was investigated on histopathology of Newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens. Result osf this study showed no differences in histological changes of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens treated with IMBO compared with non-treated chickens.

Diagnosis of some helminthic eggs in faeces of ducks and geese in Ninevah governorate, Iraq

N. H. Mohammed; R. G. Mohammed; A. F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 5-10
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5696

This study included the inspection of 80 faecal samples for each of ducks and from geese from different region of Ninevah governorate from December 2008 to July 2009. Mixed infection was the most predominant being 44.92% and 22.66% in ducks and geese respectively. Parasitic examination revealed the presence of 17 species or genera of internal warm in ducks and 12 species or genera of internal warm in geese. The most common nematode recovered in ducks and geese was Capillaria represented with 38.75% in ducks and 42.5% in geese, while the common trematode species were Noticotylus attenuatus represented with 10% in ducks and 17.5% in geese. Raillietina represented with 22.5% and 50% in ducks and geese respectively as a major cestodes genus recovered.

Changes in some biochemical parameters accompanied with Brucellosis in native goats

Q. T. Al-Obaidi; N. A. Al-Hussary; S. H. Arslan; M. M. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5697

The aim of the study was to determine changes in some of biochemical parameters accompanied with brucellosis naturally infected native goats. The study included examination of 102 blood sera representing 396 native goats from different areas in Mosul city using rose bengal test, indirect ELISA test and tube agglutination test. Results showed that prevalence of brucellosis by using rose bengal test and indirect ELISA test was (6.8% and 24.5%) respectively. Titers of rose bengal seropostive sera ranged (1/80 -1/640), whereas titers of indirect ELISA seropostive sera ranged (1/40 - 1/640) using tube agglutination test. Results also showed significant increase in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and significant increased in alkaline phosphatase, there were also significant increases in glucose concentration, total and direct bilirubin, triglycerides and cholesterol, whereas total protein and albumin values were significantly decreased. All these parameters examinated on seropostive sera for indirect ELISA and tube agglutination tests in goats naturally infected with brucellosis compared with seronegative sera for same tests.

A comparative study for lung biopsy in dogs

O. H. Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 35-40
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5701

This study was conducted to compare two techniques for obtaining lung biopsy in dogs. Twelve adult dogs from both sexes were used in this study. The animals were divided into two groups, each group contained six dogs. In both groups, the animals were applied under right thoracotomy for lung biopsy collection from the middle lobe. In group one the lung biopsy was obtained by removal of a piece of lung tissue with a scalpel and the cut edge was sutured by two rows of continuous horizontal matters and simple continuous patterns where as in group two the biopsy was collected using a therom-cautery device and the cut edge was left without suturing. Gross and histopathological changes were examined on postoperative days 15 and 30. The gross pathological changes in group one after 15 day revealed presence of severe adhesions between the cutting site and pleura where as the adhesion was less after 30 postoperative day. The pulmonary tissue at site of biopsy collection relatively became hard especially near the suture line. Group two showed no adhesion on postoperative day 15 but the adhesion appeared on postoperative day 30 between the sites of cauterization with the other lung lobes which varied from simple to moderate adhesion while the lung tissue at cauterization site had approximately the same consistency of normal lung tissues. The histopathlogical changes in group one was characterized by formation of inflammatory nodules and high infiltration of inflammatory cells particularly polymorphonucular cells with presence of pulmonary hemorrhage and edema in the cutting site. Group two showed lesser histopathological changes and they were associated with lesser mononuclear inflammatory cells where as hemorrhage and edema were not developed on the cutting site. In conclusion, the use of thermo-cautery device to obtain the lung biopsy is simple, fast, less invasive and more aseptic than use the cutting and suturing method.

Isolation and identification of conjunctival bacteria in cattle in Mosul

N. S. Mechael; H. F. Al-Abidy; H. H. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 11-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5702

This study included examination of (120) eye swabs, from cows from different ages and regions in Mosul city. This study extended from September – December 2009. The samples were collected from clinically healthy and infected eyes of animals. 11 bacterial species were isolated they included Staphylococcus spp. 22.4%, Bacillus spp. 18.2%, Corynebacterium 17.6%, Streptococcus spp. 7%, Staphylococcus aureus 8.2%, Moraxella bovis 10.6%, E. coli 5.9%, Pseudomonas spp. 4.7%, Klebsiella spp. 2.4%, Micrococcus spp. 1.8%, Proteus spp. 1.2%. The isolated bacteria were 170, Gram positive bacteria were 128/170 while Gram negative bacteria 42/170 (24.7%). Many types of bacteria isolated from healthy swabs 110 (64.7%) and 60 (35.3%) from infected swabs.

Effect of Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S® on rumen ecosystem in rams

M. O. Abdul-Majeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 29-33
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5703

The effect of two antimicrobials (Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S®) on sheep rumen ecosystem (pH, viscosity, microbial activity and protozoal activity) was investigated in adult rams. The rams were randomly divided into two groups; each group included four rams dosaged orally one time daily for three successive days according to the manufacturer recommendations. Ruminal fluid was analyzed before dosage, after 24 hrs of the first, second and third doses, and after 3, 7 and 10 days after the last dose (3rd dose). No significant differences in ruminal fluid pH and viscosity with oral antimicrobial administration were noticed. Microbial activity tests used (methylene blue reduction test and floatation/sedimentation test) showed a significant reduction of microbial activity of rumen (P<0.05) without differences in staining characters of bacterial population. Protozoal activity of the rumen was influenced significantly (P<0.05) by oral antimicrobials with some differences between Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S®. It was concluded from this study that dosing of Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S® orally to rams one time daily for three successive days had an obvious effects on microbial and protozoal activity of the rumen.

Experimental histopathological study of chicks infected with Cryptosporidium baileyi isolated from wild pigeons in Mosul

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5704

The aim of this study was to investigate naturally occurring cryptosporidiosis in pigeons in Mosul city as well as the pathology of experimental C. baileyi infection in chicks. Prevalence of the naturally occurring cryptosporidiosis in the pigeons was 30% according to morphological features of the isolated oocysts and distribution of the lesions of the experimental infection in chicks, the cryptosporidium was diagnosed as C. baileyi. Using a dose of 1000 oocysts, the infection was induced in chikens. Oocysts shedding was noted in the infected chickens at the 7th post – infection (p.i.) day and increased till the 15th p.i. day. Infected chicks showed dullness and anorexia. Microscopically p.i. day 7, there were necrosis of the tips of some of the intestinal villi, mucinous degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, and the presence of large numbers of the parasite in the tips of the intestinal villi. On p.i. day 10, necrosis of the tips of the villi was more extensive and the necrotic cells were sloughed into the lumen and accumulated as debris. Inflammatory mononuclear cells were seen infiltrating the various layers of the intestine. Similar but more extensive lesions were seen on p.i. day 15.

Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil) on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

H. S. Alnaemi; S. D. Alsawaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 21-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5705

The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil (0.3% and 1%) on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g) in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05) in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil (0.3% and 1%) with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1%) was significantly more affective (P<0.05) as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3%) respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05) in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil (0.3% and 1%) were observed in treated soft white cheese.

Detection of parasitic nematodes in some fresh water fishes in khazir river in Ninevah governorate

M. Gh. Zangana; A. F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5706

A total of 200 freshwater fishes belonging to 7 species include, ALburnus capito, Barbus gryous, B. xanthopterus, Chondrostoma regius, Varcorhinus trutta and Liza abu, were collected form Al-Khazir river, Ninevah governorate (about 37 Km east of Mosul city), during the period from October 2006 to April 2007. All fishes were inspected for detection of nematode worms. The study reveals presence of 12 fishes infected with nematode worms, from the total fishes inspected with the prevalence of 6%. In this study also recorded 10 species of nematodes infecting freshwater fishes 3 genera of them recorded for the first time in Iraq are Raphidscaris sp., Anisakis sp. and Eustrongylides sp. in addition to the species Cucullanellus minutus, and Rhabdochona khazirensis as new species.

Humoral immunity resulted from vaccination with Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine given subcutaneously and intraocularly in goats

B. M. Yahiya; M. J. Mohamed; I. I. Aldabagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5707

The aim of this study was to evaluate the humeral immune response induced by administration of smooth strain of B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine (1-2× 109 viable organism per dose) given by subcutaneous and intraocular routes in goats. Rose Bengal test was done to ensure the absence of Brucella infection in experimental animals and the 2- ME agglutination test was used to evaluate the antibody titers. The results showed that subcutaneous group showed positive results in 80% of animals whereas 38.5% of intraocular group showed positive results.

Changes in some blood parameters in lactating female rats and their pups exposed to lead: effects of vitamins C and E

A. A. Hassan; H. M. Jassim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5708

The present work was designed to examine the changes in some blood parameters in lactating rats treated with lead acetate (10 mg /kg B.W. orally) and its interaction with vitamin E (600 mg/kg diet) or vitamin C (100 mg/kg B.W. orally) during lactation period (20 days) and their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), body weight, mean corpuscular heamoglobin concentration (MCHC) whereas the white blood cells count (WBC), total proteins, the percentage of monocyte and mean corpuscular volume(MCV) significantly increased administration of lead acetate to female lactating rats produced a significant decrease in PCV, Hb, RBC, MCHC, body weight, and the percentage of the neotrophils in their pups. But the WBC count, total proteins, the percentage of lymphocyte, monocyte, MCV a significantly increased in their pups. Treatment dams with vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate increased the PCV, Hb, MCHC, whereas percentage of monocyte significantly decreased, PCV, Hb, RBC, the percentage of neutrophils a significantly increased, whereas WBC count, the percentage of lymphocyte decreased significantly in their pups of this group of dams. Treatment dams with vitamin C concomitantly with lead acetate significantly increased the PCV, MCV, whereas percentage of monocytes significantly decreased, but Hb, PCV and RBC significantly increased in their pups. It could be concluded that treatment female lactating rats with vitamin E or C concomitantly with lead acetate exert an antioxidant effect on blood constituent in dams and their pups and vitamin E more effective than vitamin C.

Study of pathological changes of kidney associated with some diseases in broilers

M. Z. Mahmood; H. Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 15-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5709

Seventy kidney samples of broiler chickens 3-6 weeks old were collected from private chicken farms in Mosul province, used to study gross and histopathological changes in the kidneys. The most prominent gross pathological changes were variable ranging from swelling and congestion of kidney with petechial hemorrhage on the cortex to swelling and congestion w while other cases of kidney appears pale and small in size. Histopathological changes of the kidneys were characterized by acute tubular nephrosis leading to necrosis and desquamation of epithelial lining the renal tubules degeneration of the epithelial cell of renal tubules to diffuse degeneration of the epithelial cells of renal tubules leading to necrosis and desquamation of epithelial cells. Additionally there is infiltration of inflammatory cells (Lymphocytes) in the interstitial tissue of the kidney. In other samples the histological changes appears as proliferation in the mesengial cell of glomeruli with sever hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue. Also there is hyaline degeneration in the renal glomeruli. Moreover visceral gout was seen in some samples of kidney characterized by deposition of urates as clefts in the lumen of renal tubules with infiltration of inflammatory cells especially foreign body giant cell and macrophages in addition to congestion of blood vessels and hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue. From the result of the present study it was concluded that renal pathological changes occurred in broiler chicken associated with many diseases.

Isolation and identification of some bacteria causing subclinical mastitis in cows

A.S. Sadoon; M. M. H.Al-Jammaly; B. A. Abdulla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 63-67
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2011.5710

Isolation and identification of different type of bacteria from milk samples of 20 clinically healthy cow from different area in Mosul city between the period from May 2007 to May 2008 was carried out. The quality of the milk was screened using white side test. Identification of the isolate was carried out depend on the morphology of colony and biochemical test. The results indicated that total percentage of the infectivity of milk was (80%). The coagulase negative Staphyloccoci (CNS) was dominant. The more frequent from them was Staphylococcus sciuri which was (21.8%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%), Streptococcus spp. (15.6%) then G-ve Coccobacill, Arcanobacterium pyogenes (9.3%) and Micoccocus (3.1%). Staphylococcus sciuri and CNS were more sensitive to Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin but resistance to Ampicillin and Penicillin G.

Effect of vitamin E on cadmium toxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L

A. H. A. Al-Hamdani; S. K. I. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 119-126
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5711

The sublethal median concentration of cadmium chloride was used at concentration 1mg/L for 7 days ,with 0.2mg/1g body weight of vitamin E for 3 days which was used as an antioxidant there was no improvement in hematological parameters, but there was significant reduction in the serum alanine aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase activity. Treatment with vitamin E and cadmium chloride could not repair the tissues damage result from cadmium which included grossly congestion of gills , hitopathological lesions revealed hyperplasia of epithelial cells with hyperatrophy of piler cells and inflammatory cells infiltration which lead to adhesion of the secondary lamellae of gills, In liver and kidney which appeared congested with presence of pale areas, histopathological lesions include infiltration of inflammatory cells specially melanomacrophage and mononuclear cells in hepatic tissue with thickening of the bile duct wall, haemmorrhage and necrosis in hepatic tissue, while in kidney there was congestion of blood vessels, deposition of hyaline casts in the renal tubule.

Bovine tunica vaginalis: a new material for umbilical hernioplasty in sheep

B. T. Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 69-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5712

In this study, fresh patches of bovine tunica vaginalis (BTV), was used as implants for the repair of experimentally-created umbilical hernias in eight sheep. The scrotum were harvested immediately after slaughter and thoroughly washed with sterile distilled water for 5-7 times. The scrotal skin together with the fatty tissues and the loose connective tissues and the tunica adventitia were mechanically stripped by means of a sterile surgical knife, and finally washed with sterile physiological saline solution for 5-7 times. The prepared patches were immersed in the sterile saline solution and preserved at 2-4 ºC in sterile jars, ready for use within 4 hrs from their harvesting for hernioplasty of sheep umbilical hernias. The eight implanted grafts were examined clinically and histologically, and all were successfully healed except one (87.5%). Clinically, the successfully implanted BTV patches didn't show signs of rejection, except for the presence of cardinal signs of local inflammatory reaction which were subsided 48 hrs post-operation, and disappeared within 4-5 days post-operation. The healing processes showed no significant abnormalities, except for the occurrence of a few simple multifocal stitch abscess infections. The histopathological examinations showed invasion of dense fibrous connective tissues, consisted of heavy bundles of collagen fibers, through which newly formed capillaries and mononuclear inflammatory cells and melanin pigments deposition, were infiltrated through the graft. As a first report on this new tissue implant in sheep, BTV is proved to be a suitable biocompatible heterogenic surgical patch for reconstruction of umbilical hernias, because of its availability as a cheap tissue, with a high tensile strength and flexibility. However, further investigation is required regarding preservation efficiency and employment for reconstruction of soft tissue defects in man and animals.

Efficiency immunization peritoneally with different antigens of Toxocara canis، Toxascaris leonina aganist infection with Toxacara cati and Toxascaris leonina larvae

A. B. Hosin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 111-118
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5713

This study includes effect of Immunizaton by intrapertoneal inoculation of unembryonated eggs, embryonated eggs , died larvae , live larvae and excretory / secretory products of larvae (L2) of T.canis and T.leonina to protect white mice (Balb/c) from the experimental infection by T.cati and T.leonina the results showed that the highest rate of protection is 69. 56% then , 68.77%, 65.83% , 65.20% and 55.70% when the mice immunized by excretory/ secretory products, Live Larvae, died Larvae, embryonated eggs and unembryonated eggs of T.canis antigens against the challenge dose of T.cati the highest protection rate against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by inoculation of live larvae of T.leonina (58.63%) by using a challenge dose same to the immunization dose. while the highest protection rate obtained by T.canis against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by immunization with live larvae(54. 74%).

Screening test for avian influenza virus antigen in poultry in Mosul

Th. M. Al-Nimma; M. Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 77-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5714

Rapid avian influenza virus antigen test kit and rapid H5 avian influenza virus antigen test kit were used to detect avian influenza antigens by examine 1143 samples taken from broilers, layers, house chickens, local poultry markets and poultry slaughters houses in period from January to December 2007 in Mosul city. Cloacae feces swab method was used for all samples and results showed that all tested samples were negative for both AIV and H5 antigens. In conclusion Mosul city was free from avian influenza virus till Dec 2007 and this test is rapid, easy and a reliable field test and can be done frequently.

Pathological and anatomical abnormalities affecting buffalo cows reproductive tracts in Mosul

E. H. Lazim; A. J. Ali; O. I. Azawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 59-67
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5715

A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3%) of cases. Twenty two (5.4%) were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405) were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%), ovarobursal adhesions 26 (6.4%) and hydrosalpinx 20 (4.9%). Other abnormalities recorded were follicular cyst, luteal cyst, cystic corpus luteum, paraovarian cyst, ovarian sarcoma, inactive ovaries, senility anestrous, pyosalpinx, hemosalpinx, obstruction of oviduct, salpingitis, double oviduct, hydrometra, mucometra, pyometra, permetritis, parametritis, uterine edema, perimetrial adhesions, parametrial adhesions, parauterine abscess and uterine tumor. Histopathological examinations in this study revealed that reproductive tract lesions seem to be an important problem with possible subsequent infertility and sterility in buffalo cows leading to animals slaughtered.

Comparative topographical histologic study of the skin of native cattle

A. M. Elias; N. S. Ahmed; M. H. Abdul-Raheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 165-169
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5716

Six circular samples of a known diameter were taken from each of the different regions of the skin of the native cattle. Three samples of each region were fixed in neutral buffered formalin whereas, the other three samples were fixed in alcoholic boin´s fluid. All samples showed shrinkage in the surface area particularly after paraffin infiltration and embedding. The final shrinkage percentage were noticed to be relatively higher in sample fixed in boin´s fluid than those fixed in neutral buffered formalin .Accordingly, the correction factors for samples fixed in boin´s fluid were calculated to be 0.810 for tail region, 0.787 for scrotal region, 0.783 for frontal region 0.780 for back region and o.766 for abdominal region, whereas the correcting factors of samples fixed in boin´s solution were found to be 0.799 for tail region, 0.777 for scrotal region, 0.769 for frontal region, 0.768 for back region and 0.753 for the abdominal region. With the application of the above mentioned correcting factors the actual hair density at living condition were adjusted to be 18.48/mm2 for tail region, 14.07/mm2 for scrotal region, 11.72/mm2 for frontal region, 10.72/mm2 for back region and 9.16/ mm2 for abdominal region.

Changes in the ruminal contents of buffaloes suffering from digestive disorders

B. A. Al-Badrani; K. A. Philip

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 151-163
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5717

The objective of the study was to determine the digestive disorders in 45 of local breed buffaloes and their prevalence in Mosul city. Traumatic reticuloperitonitis was 33.3 %, then frothy bloat (15.6 %), simple indigestion was 13.3 % and left side abomasal displacement (11.1 %), where as the occurrence of ruminal acidosis was lesser than other digestive disorders and was about 6.7 %. Also the secondary causes of digestive disorders was (20 %) which included some infectious diseases, administration of some antibiotics like oxytetracycline 20 mg/Kg body weight or sulphonamide or Diacleane for 3 successive days to each drug. The results also showed significant changes in ruminal pH, sedimentation activity test and the time needed for methylin blue stain reduction from normal values.Also the ruminal protozoal activity showed significant differences between samples in different cases, and species of bacteria from morphology and stain characteristics with Gram's stain. The total and differential counts of ruminal protozoa was decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all cases. Ruminal protozoa were classified into 14 types firstly in buffaloes in this study.

Effect of Thymus vulgaris oil on some reproductive characters in adult male rats

S. M. Ahmed; S. J. Kakel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 83-87
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5718

The study was undertaken to show the effect of thymus vulgaris oil administration at (0.3, 0.6 ml/kg) orally for 60 days on male fertility and epididymal sperms characters in male rats at age of 100 days. The animals treated with thyme oil at a dose of (0.6 ml) revealed a significant decrease in the weight of testes, body of epididymis, percentage of live/dead sperms and epididymyal sperm count, with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. On the other hand the animals treated with thyme oil at a dose (0.3 ml) show a significant decrease in the weight of body of epididymis, epididymal sperm count and the percentage of live/dead sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. Its concluded from this study that thymus vulgaris has an inhibitory effect on reproductive system and spermatogenesis in mature male rats.

Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

N. S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 87-94
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5719

The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week) of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

Pathological study of experimental cadmium toxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L

A. H. A. Al-Hamdani; S. K. I. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 127-139
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5720

The median lethal concentration of cadmium chloride CdCl2 at 24 hour in Cyprinus carpioL was determined. The toxic effect of sublethal concentration of CdCl2 was studied for 4, 7, 15 day. There was estimated significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, Packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte counts, with significant increase (P≤0.05) in the serum alanine aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase activity correlated with progression of exposure period. The elevation was more significant on the 15th day in all groups in comparison with non treated control group. The fish treated with sublethal concentration of CdCl2 showed behaviors of nervous signs manifested as abnormal swimming and jumping above the water surface. The gross lesions of sublethal concentration toxic effects included congestion of gills. Histopathological lesions revealed hyperplasia of epithelial cells with hyperatrophy of piler cells and inflammatory cells infiltration which lead to adhesion of the secondary lamellae of gills. The same lesions were observed on the 15th day of exposure but were more severe. In liver and kidney which appeared congested with presence of pale areas, histopathological lesions include infiltration of inflammatory cells, specially melanomacrophage and mononuclear cells in hepatic tissue with thickening of the bile duct wall, hemorrhage and necrosis in hepatic tissue. In the kidney, there was a congestion of blood vessels and deposition of hyaline casts in the renal tubules. Accumulation of cadmium in gills, kidney and liver after 4, 7 and 15th day of exposure showed an increase in level of accumulation with progression of exposure period.

Comparative study of some local therapeutics for endometritis in cows

M. B. Taha; E. B. Basheer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5721

The present study was conducted on 57 local breed cows suffering from various degrees of endometritis. The clinical examination included visual examination of vagina supported by uterine palpation per rectum; the laboratory examination included the bacterial isolation from the uterine swabs and histopathological examination of the uterine biopsies. Animals were randomly divided in to three groups of 15 cows each and 12 cows were considered as a control group received no treatment and observed for three consecutive estrous cycles. The first group was treated with a mixture of oxytetracycline (4 g) and tylosin (2 g), second group was treated with cephquenome sulfate 0.5 g, and the third group was treated with lugol's solution (30 ml) 2 %. These treatments were applied as a single intrauterine infusion and the clinical recovery was evaluated at the next estrous cycle by considering the absence of abnormal vagina discharge as an indicator of clinical recovery. Cows that showed clinical cure were inseminated artificially and the pregnancy diagnosis was preformed at least 75 days after insemination by rectal palpation. Retained placenta was the most important predisposing factor of endometritis 50.8 %, results of the bacterial examination demonstrated that E. coli was the most prevalence bacteria (27.4 %). Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy showed a high incidence ratio of chronic endometritis (42.1 %). Results of the treatment showed a higher response and conception rate in the second group (using of cephquenome) 73.3 % and 63.3 %, respectively, followed by first group (using mixture of oxytetracycline and tylosin) 60 % and 55.5 %, respectively, then the third group (using of lugol's solution) 40 % and 50 %, respectively. The lowest cure and conception rates were observed in the control group 25 % and 33.3 %, respectively. This study pointed out a positive relationship between the nature of the vaginal discharge and each of the bacteriological and histopathological examination and revealed the importance of the early treatment of endometritis especially using of cephquenome sulfate.

Prevalence of some parasitic helminths among slaughtered ruminants in Kirkuk slaughter house, Kirkuk, Iraq

S. A. Rasheed; M. A. Kadir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5722

A retrospective study was carried out in year 2003, to show the prevalence of hydatid cysts, liver flukes and lung worm among slaughtered sheep, goats, calves, cattle and buffaloes in Kirkuk slaughter house. The number of ruminants slaughtered in Kirkuk abattoir was sheep (40233), goats (9223), calves (9577), cattle (2855) and buffaloes (50). It was found that the highest rate of hydatid cysts was seen in cattle (4.38%), followed by sheep (1.17%), calves (0.52%) and goats (0.32%) respectively. The rate of liver flukes was observed in sheep (0.50%), goats (0.43%), cattle (2.63%) and 2(4%) in 50 buffaloes slaughtered. No liver fluke was seen in calves. The distribution of lung worm was in sheep (0.55%), goats (0.22%), and cattle (2.98%). No cases were detected from calves and buffaloes. In addition to that there was seasonal fluctuation in the rate of helminthes infection. Hydatid cysts in sheep and cattle were highest in autumn (1.97 & 8.33%) respectively, in goats it was highest in winter (1.01%), while in calves was highest in spring (1.24%), followed by winter (0.84%). The rate of liver flukes in sheep and goats was highest in winter (0.88 & 0.68%) respectively, while in cattle was highest in autumn (5.0%) followed by winter (2.80%). In sheep and goats, the rate of lung worms was highest in winter (0.88 & 1.08%) respectively, while in cattle it w as highest in autumn (5.0%) followed by winter (3.91%).

Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats treated with alloxan

A. Y. Jasem; H. K. Ismaiel; H. M. Jassem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 75-82
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5723

This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight). The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight), caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight) with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

Gross histological changes in some lymphoid organs in broilers after vaccination against infectious bursal disease

S. F. Habash; M. D. Kako

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 101-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5724

This study was designed to detect the reactions grossly and histologically on the lymphoid organs (Bursa of Fabricious, Spleen, Thymus) in 8 day old broiler chickens vaccinated with infectious bursal disease vaccine (Intermediate plus)-(Ceva- IBDL).The study revealed no clinical signs on post vaccination days 2, 4 and 6. Gross lesions were swelling of the bursa due to the edema which obviously appeared as yellowish transudate covering the serosal surface area, and the bursa appears congested, the longitudinal striation on the surface become more prominent and congested while small gray foci appear on the surface of spleen. Microscopically there is degeneration and necrosis of lymphocytes in the medullary area and lymphoid follicles, edema between lymphoid follicles, hyperemia, lymphocytic depletion and cystic cavities developed in the medullary area of the follicles. In spleen, there were degeneration and necrosis of reticuloendothelial cells in the germinal center of the white pulp, with hyperemia in spleen and thymus. It was concluded that the intermediate plus vaccine which used in this study induced severe pathological changes in the bursa and spleen and less in the thymus on post vaccination days 2, 4 and 6.

Effect of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves on the growth and development of ovary and histological structure of the mid gut in the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera : Muscidae

N. S. Gorgees; S. M. Mahmood; A.T. Yaseen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 141-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5725

Four sub lethal concentrations 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5% of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. were used against the second instars larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L.. The results of the microscopical preparations and statistical analysis have shown that this aqueous extract had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth and development on the ovaries and ovarian follicles of the adult flies obtained from previously treated larvae with four stage of age, 24, 48, 72, 96 hour after birth. The extract also led decreased in the numbers of ovarian follicles and their degradation. In some instances the microscopically preparations of the mid gut of the housefly have also shown that this aqueous extract has seriously affected the histological structure of the alimentary canal particularly the mid gut. It has led to the separation of the muscular layer from the epithelial lining.

Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites

E. D. Al-Mawla; T. M. Al-Saffar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 95-100
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5726

The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old), from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village), for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken) 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 %) and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae). One species of flies (1.4%) (Pseudolynchia canariensis). One species of mites (4.3%) (Dermanyssus gallinae) were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8%) (Argas persicus) were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird). Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily) infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis) with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

I. K. Zangana; N. A. Issa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 29-34
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5727

The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and fromasymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University ofDohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%), clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoidtype lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching wasreported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growthrate (85.71%) of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57%) from asymptomatic and from breeding cages,the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides ofT. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerousnumbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape,varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia werealso present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes andtreated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and synthetic nystatineointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranateand nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone

M. A. Fadel; M. K. Shindala

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 81-87
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5728

Suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period) demonstrated in a dose – dependent manner significant decreased (P<0.05) the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning, body weight, index of development, whereas brain, heart, kindey, lung,liver / body weight ratio significantly increased (P<0.05) as well as delays in physical maturation (ear opening, fur development, tooth eruption, eye opening) in the pups. Swimming scores on postnatal day 9, 13, 15, 17, 20 was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in offspring from mothers treated with betamethasone 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that betamethasone induced developmental toxic effects in suckling pups exposed to its through the milk.

Diagnosis of causes of suppurative arthritis in sheep in Mosul, Iraq

Q. J. Khaleel; M. M. H. Al-Jammly; S. H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5730

The prevalence of suppurative arthritis in one hundred sheep from both sexes and different ages were studied. Aspiration of synovial fluid from knee joint of animals showed signs of lameness with reluctant to move in addition to decrease in the body weight and loss of appetite. Physical and bacterial examination of the synovial fluid was revealed green color, turbid and containing pus. Mucin clot showed difference in degree of clotting, and increased number in leukocyte, neutrophile but decreased in lymophocytes and monocyte. The result showed that Streptococcus dysagalactiae was predominate 61.1% while Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the less 5.5%, also the result showed that all the strains were more sensitive to the Ciprofloxacin. This study is considered to be the first attempt to isolate bacteria from Sheep joints in Mosul-Iraq.

Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul

H. S. Al-Bakry

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 105-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5731

The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas), rock mountain dove (C. livia), and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto).Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.

Prevalence of brucellosis using indirect ELISA test in raw milk in individual cases of ewes and does in Mosul city

B. A. Mohammad; S. D. Hassan; Q. T. Al-Obaidi; S. H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5732

The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of brucellosis antibodies in individual cases of ewes and goats (3-8 weeks after parturition) using indirect ELISA test in raw milk in different areas of Mosul, and using Rose Bengal test in serum samples of same flocks of sheep and goats. Examination of 211 raw milk samples represented (1906) sheep and examination of 88 raw milk samples represented 102 goats randomly collected from individual cases. The study included examination of blood sera of 211 sheep and 88 goats. The prevalence of milk samples in ewes and does positive to antibodies of brucellosis was 6.6% and 11.3%, respectively. Highest percentage was in Al-hamdania area (20%), and lowest in Googjaly area (3.3%), but non recorded in Basheka, Bazwaya and shrazad areas. Examination of raw milk of does showed the highest percentage (22%) was in Al- Namrood area, and lowest (5%) in Hay-Alarabi area. Results of Rose Bengal test in serum samples of ewes and does were 8.5% and 5.8%, respectively. It is concluded that ELISA test on raw milk in individual cases can be considered a confirmatory screening test the with the Rose Bengal test in diagnosis of brucellosis in parturated ewes and does.

Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

M. S. Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 51-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5733

A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

Comparative study of three methods of esophageal anastomosis in dogs

M. J. Eesa; Z. T. Abd Al-Maseeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 45-50
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5734

This study was performed to compare three methods of esophageal anastomosis. Twenty four healthy adult dogs were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups; each one consisted of 8 animals. In group 1; two layers were used to perform the esophageal anastomosis. The first layer represented simple interrupted suture to close the mucosa with knot inside the lumen, and the second layer represented horizontal mattress interrupted suture to close the other layers of esophagus. While in group 2; one layer of cross interrupted mattress suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall, and in group 3; one layer of Schmieden's suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall. The results of clinical, radiological and histopathological studies after 15 and 30 days of surgical operation revealed that most of the animals showed different degrees of difficulty concerning the moderate dysphagia and regurgitation. The radiological study showed significant difference of stenosis. The best results were recorded in the second group where the mean degree of stenosis was 7.69%, however the mean degree of stenosis was 42.80% in the first group, while the mean degree of stenosis in the third groups was 37.81%, through 30 days. The histopathological study of group 2 showed rapid healing of the site of anastomosis, lack of granulation tissue and consequently the less degree of stricture and other complications as compared with groups 1 and 3. The Schmieden's suture was characterized by its standard short time as compared with group 1 and 2, although accompanied by some complications. In conclusion this study revealed that the cross mattress suture used in the second group characterized by faster healing and minimal amount of fibrous tissue formation manifested by decrease in moderate degree of stenosis as compared with the two other suture patterns used in the first and third groups.

Hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx in Iraqi local breed cows

E.H. Lazim; H.F. Al-abidy; U. D. Naoman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 121-126
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5735

The aim of this study was to determine the bacteria associated with hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx. 260 genital tract specimens collected from Mosul abattoir randomly. Examination of specimens showed that18 genital tracts were affected with hydrosalpinx and 7 were suffering from pyosalpinx. Specimens were collected for bacterial examination from oviductal fluid for hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx and also swabs were taken from oviduct and uterus from same specimen. Samples were taken from oviduct and uterus for histological examination. The results of this study showed the prevalence of hydrosalpinx was 6.92% and unilateral case was 61.1 % (n=11) while the prevalence of pyosalpinx was 2.69% and in unilateral case was 57.1% (n=4). The bacteriological examination show no bacterial growth in 13 specimen (72.2%) in hydrosalpinx while bacterial growth in pyosalpinx 100%. The results of this study revealed no bacteria isolated from hydrosalpinx compared with bacteria isolated from uterus in same specimens and most frequent bacteria isolated were Actinomyces bovis and Escherichia coli in percentage (25.0%), (37.5%) respectively , The histological examination show no inflammatory reaction in hydrosalpinx associated with endometritis while Archanobacterium pyogenes isolated pyosalpinx in high percentage (33.3%), and there were an inflammatory changes in oviduct tissue in pyosalpinx with inflammatory reaction in uterus which effected with endometritis. It could be concluded that the hydrosalpinx caused by inflammation of uterus which extend to tube junction with accumulation of fibrin leading to closure of oviduct due to fluid accumulation while pyosalpinx is a result of inflammation of uterus and extending to oviduct leading to salpingitis and accumulation of pus and closing of the oviduct.

Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

D. Tabbaa; D. M. Taher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 127-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5736

Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis.), Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides),Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus.), and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis) in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C) with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors). On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the composting substances led to efficient and fast composting process in temperature, acidity and the power of biosecurity in hygienic bioremedication.

Toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride on the liver of chicken

M. G. Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 89-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5737

The aim of the present study was assessment of gross and microscopic pathological changes resulting from sub acute and sub chronic toxicity of carbon tetrachloride CCl4 (99.5%) in the liver of chicken and its relation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The approximate lethal dose in three weeks old chickens was equal to (994 mg/kg i.p.). In the sub acute toxicity experiment the given dose was (497 mg/kg i.p.) twice a week for one week, the liver of treated animals with CCl4 grossly appeared pale and mottled with white yellowish color patches represent the necrotic tissue, the histopathological changes was severe hepatitis with infiltration of inflammatory cells specially heterophiles and diffused coagulative necrosis. In sub chronic toxicity experiment the dose was given (248.5 mg/kg i.p.) twice a week for eight weeks, in gross appearance the liver was severely congested, the histopathological changes was hypertrophy of hepatocytes, hyperplasia of lining epithelium of bile ducts and chronic venous congestion, growth depression and significant decreased in the body weight of the treated animals also noticed at this experiment in compared with control group, a significant increased in (ALT) and (AST) activities also recorded. The results suggests that pathological changes and response of the chicken’s liver to the CCl4 toxicity relatively differs from other laboratory animal models like rats and mice when used approximate dose in the same duration of exposure, so it didn’t appear fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver of chickens, therefore it can't use chickens as a model to induce experimental fibrosis or liver cirrhosis when treated with CCl4 according to the dose and duration of exposure of this study.

Effect of chlorpheniramine on acute dichlorvos poisoning in chicks

Y. J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 35-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5738

The protective and therapeutic effects of the H1–antihistamine chlorpheniramine against an acute poisoning induced by organophosphorus insecticide dichlorvos in a 7–14 days old chicks model were evaluated and compared with that of the standard antidote atropine. Chlorpheniramine or atropine at 20 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m.) given immediately after oral dichlorvos dosing increased the LD50 value of dichlorvos (10.85 mg/kg, orally) in the chicks by 77 and 123 %, respectively. Chlorpheniramine at 20 mg/kg, i.m. given immediately after dichlorvos (12 mg/kg, orally) significantly delayed the onset of acute signs, time of death, decreased toxicity score and increased the percentages of survivors (62.5 %) during 2 and 24 h after dichlorvos dosing. The antidotal effect of chlorpheniramine and atropine groups at a dose of 20 mg/kg, i.m. given immediately after oral dichlorvos were close to each other in delaying the onset signs of poisoning and time of death. They also significantly increased the percentages of survivors and decreased of toxicity scores. Chlorpheniramine at 20 mg/kg, i.m. significantly decreased plasma (34%) and brain (52%) cholinesterase activities in comparison with the control group. Dichlorvos dosing at 8 mg/kg, orally significantly reduced plasma (83%) and brain (93%) cholinesterase activities in comparison with the control and chlorpheniramine groups. Chlorpheniramine given after dichlorvos dosing significantly protected the plasma and brain cholinesterase from further decreased in its activities caused by dichlorvos dosing by 29 and 41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study suggests that chlorpheniramine have a protective and therapeutic effects in case of dichlorvos poisoning in chicks resembling that of atropine.

Using of competitive ELISA in detection of brucella antibodies in cattle sera

O. Kh. Al-Hankawe; O. M. Al-Iraqi; M. I. Al-Farwachi; M. O. Abdul-Majeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 97-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5739

Competitive ELISA test was used in this study to identify brucella antibodies in cattle sera in Mosul, and assessing the results that are given by Rose-Bengal test. Results of testing 126 cattle sera revealed that the seroprevalence was 16.7% using C-ELISA and 18.3% using RBT. There were differences in seroprevalence according to sex of animals, females showed higher seroprevalence than males, it was 19.1% and 20.2% in females and 9.4% and 12.5% in males by C-ELISA and RBT respectively. Also there were differences in seroprevalence according to age of animals and pregnancy status of females. Kappa value revealed that there was little agreement between C-ELISA and RBT, (Kappa value was 0.229). RBT was not accurate in giving real seroprevalence, since there were 13 false-negative samples from 21 samples positive with C-ELISA, and there were 15 false-positive samples from 105 samples negative with C-ELISA. Results of tube agglutination test and 2-Mercaptoethanol test indicated a decline of titers from those of previous studies, lower titer of TAT was 1/10 (19.05%) and most of titers were lower than 1/40 (76.2%) in 2-Me test. This study concluded that the brucella antibodies in cattle sera in Mosul was increased from previous years and most of cases were acute.

Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

E. M. Abdul-Rassoul; N. A. Hassan; K. H. Al-Mallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 71-80
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5740

This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly), central nervous system activity tests (weekly), hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30). The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg) at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis) tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg). Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

Histological and topographical study of the skin of native buffalo: hair density

A. G. Al-Haaik; N. S. Ahmed; M. H. Abdul-Raheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 65-70
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5741

The study was done on the skin of native buffalo to detect the value of hair density in different regions of the body. This included cranial back, lateral and medial surfaces of the limbs, abdomen, scrotum and the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the tail. The skin specimens were fixed in alcoholic Bouins solution and processed routinely. The degree of shrinkage was calculated at the end of histological processing. The hair density was calculated from the prepared horizontal sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The hair density ranged between 2.65-4.9 hair follicles/mm² according to the different studied body regions. Using the correction factor for each region, the actual hair density was calculated to be ranged between 1.58-3.2 hair follicles/ mm² in different studied regions. It was found that the hair density in the dorsal surface of the tail, back, lateral surfaces of limbs was more than the hair density in the ventral surface of the tail, abdomen, scrotum and medial surfaces of the limbs. Hair follicles are characterized by variable sizes and their indefinite grouping arrangement, although some doublets or triplets groups were detected in some regions.

Effect of some hormones on reproductive performance and some serum biochemical changes in synchronized black goats

K. T. Mahmood; N. N. Maroff; F. T. Juma

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 57-61
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5742

In randomized block design, 58 indigenous black mountain goats were examined for the effect of different hormonal treatments in inducing oestrus on selected biochemical characteristics of blood serum that were (aspartate transaminase, AST. Alanine transaminase ALT, Akaline phosphatase, ALP, total protein, albumin and total cholesterol). The animals were randomly assigned into four groups according to their treatment. The control group (C) consisted of 10 females whereas the rest of the groups, each consisted of 12 females. The treatments included a double PGF2α (Dinoprost tromethamine) intramuscular injection (5 mg) at a time interval of 11 days plus an intramuscular injection of pregnant mare serum (PMSG) (400I. Uand 600I. U.) two days before second injection for (treatments, TI, T2) respectively. Treatment (T3) was as that of T1 except PMSG was not injected. T4 was treated as T3 plus an intramuscular injection of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) (12. 5µg) after 24 hours of second injection of PGF2α was added. The results indicated that oestrus was higher (P<0.05) in all treatment groups (100%, 91%, 100%, 100%) respectively than that of control group (70%). There was a significant effect (P<0.05) of hormonal treatment on kidding rate in which the ratio were (116%, 115%, 75% and 83%) for treatment groups respectively in comparison with 70% for control group, also there was significant effect (P<0.05) of hormonal treatment on litter size in (T3). There were significant increases in activity of AST, ALT, during late pregnancy and the first week of parturition, whereas the activity of ALP enzyme was increased during early pregnancy. The concentration of total protein, total cholesterol and albumin were increased (P<0.05) during late stage of pregnancy and then decreased during the first week after parturition. It was concluded that administrating of PGF2α to does on this synchronization regimen in the natural breeding season is desirable.

Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

H. I. A. Al-khan; R. J. M. Alnuaimy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.35189

This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

Bovine mastitis caused by gram negative bacteria in Mosul

S. Y. A. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.35193

A total of 90 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city, in a period from October 2009 to June 2010, for the detection of gram negative bacteriological causative agents. The bacteria were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. thirty tow (35.3%) gram negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the total count which included 14 isolates (15.5%) for Escherichia coli, 7 isolates (7.7%) for Klebsiella spp, 4 isolates (4.4%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 isolates (3.3%) for Enterobacter aerogenes ,2 isolates for Serratia marcescens and one isolates (1.1%) for each of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pasteurella multocida. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that most of these isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin following by Gentamycin and Cotrimoxazole, while most of these organisms were resistant to Ampicillin, the isolates showed different percentages of sensitivity to Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Neomycin and Chloramphenicol.

Prevalence of Giardia spp. in ducks and geese in Nenevah governorate

N. H. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 17-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.35197

This study include the examination of 235 fecal samples 125 from domesticated ducks and 110 from domesticated geese from different localities in Nenevah governorate through the period from September 2009 to March, 2010 the Samples were stained by iodine stain and Giemsa stain and flotation method. The total percent of infection with Giardia cyst was 34.4%, 36.4% in duck and geese respectively. The study revealed presence of Giardia in diarrhetic and non diarrhetic fecal sample of ducks and geese. Higher rate was in diarrhetic ducks and geese of age less than 5 months 41.8%, 44.4% and this rate decreased with aging. The results showed the higher infection rate in rural area which was 38.5% in duck and 40.7% in geese compared to urban area 30%, 31.4% in ducks and geese respectively. Higher rate was recorded in December in ducks were 53.5% while the higher infection in March in geese were 44.4% and lowest rate of infection in September for both ducks and geese, this is the first study of Giardia spp, in ducks and geese in Nineveh governorate.

Clinical and therapeutic study of gastrointestinal parasites in fedlot calves

Kh. J. Hussain; S. A. Esmaeel; Q. T. Al-Obaidy; M. A. Abdulhameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.35203

The study was conducted on 10 herds included 811 local fedlot calves (1 to 2 years old) in Goggeli region, 86 calves were affected with gastrointestinal parasites. Total infestation rate was (60.99%). The study showed that Calves were infested with various species of nematodes and cestodes representing,The highest ratio of infestation was with Ostertagia spp (61.62%), and the lowest with Monezia expansa (2.32%). Affected calves exhibited weakness, pale mucous membranes, loss of appetite, diarrhea, easily detached and lusterless hair. Results revealed that single infestation was (17.5%), whereas mixed infestation was (82.5%). Results of blood picture indicated significant increase in total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, and significant decrease in total leukocyte count, at days 7, 14, 21 post treatment calves with Albendazole and (levamisole hydrochloride 3% and oxyclozanide 6%) compared with control group. Levamisole hydrochloride 3% and oxyclozanide 6% was more efficient against gastrointestinal parasites when compared with albendazole.

Immunosuppressive effect of Marek's disease virus in broiler

Mozahim Yasen Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37262

تمت دراسة التأثیر المناعی المثبط للاصابة التجریبیة بفایروس مرض میرک فی فروج اللحم على مستوى المناعة المتکونة عند تلقیح حیوانات التجربة بلقاح مرض نیوکاسل وقد تم الکشف عن مستوى الأضداد المناعیة باستخدام اختبار تثبیط التلازن الدموی، حیث أظهرت نتائج هذا الاختبار انخفاض معیار الأضداد المتکونة ضد مرض نیوکاسل فی المجموعة الأولى المصابة تجریبیاً بفیروس مرض میرک والتی جرى تلقیحها بلقاح نیوکاسل بالمقارنة مع المجموعة الثانیة والتی اعطیت لقاح نیوکاسل فقط دون احداث الاصابة التجریبیة بفیروس مرض میرک، کما استخدم اختبار التحدی للتأکد من مستوى الحمایة التی أحدثها لقاح نیوکاسل حیث تبین أن هذا اللقاح أعطى حمایة بنسبة 50% فی المجموعة الأولى بینما کانت تلک النسبة 90% فی المجموعة الثانیة عند استخدام فیروس مرض نیوکاسل الضاری کجرعة التحدی لکلتا المجموعتین. وهذا یدل على أن الإصابة بفیروس مرض میرک فی الدواجن له تأثیر سلبی على مستوى المناعة التی یحدثها لقاح مرض نیوکاسل فی الدواجن.

Effect of fresh garlic as antiatherogenic on initiation and development of atherosclerosis induced experimentally by oxidative stress in rabbits

E Sh Al-Allaf; E R Al-Kenany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 7-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37268

أثبتت هذه الدراسة تأثیر الثوم الطازج وبجرعة 1غم/کغم من وزن الجسم یومیاً ولمدة 60 یوماً على کل من القلب والکبد والکلیة حیث أظهرت المقاطع النسجیة للقلب وجود تضخم فی الحزم العضلیة کما لوحظ وجود تورم خلوی حاد فی کل من الخلایا الکبدیة والخلایا الظهاریة المبطنة للنبیبات الکلویة، کذلک تم ذکر تفصیلی لصورة الدهن فی المصل. وأکدت هذه الدراسة من جانب آخر على أن للثوم الطازج تأثیر مضاد للأکسدة فی الحد من تطور آفات التصلب العصیدی من خلال الانخفاض المعنوی فی مستوى الکولیستیرول الکلی والکلیسیریدات الثلاثیة و (LPL-C) و (VLDL-C) ودلیل التعصد مع الارتفاع المعنوی فی مستوى HDL-C کما وأکدت هذه الدراسة على القابلیة العلاجیة للثوم الطازج وفیتامین هـ المستهلک لفترة 15 یوماً بعد التعرض لبیروکسید الهیدروجین لمدة 60 یوماً وجود انخفاض معنوی فی مستوى الکولیستیرول الکلی والکلیسیریدات الثلاثیة و LDL-C و VLDL-C ودلیل التعصد مع وجود الارتفاع المعنوی فی مستوى HDL-C وقد أظهرت المقاطع النسجیة حصول اختزال ضئیل فی تطور آفات التصلب العصیدی.

Study of some eggs and oocysts of internal parasites in sheep in Mosul

E G Sulaiman; Q Talib; E Daham; S H Arsalan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 21-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37275

تم تشخیص 14 نوعاً من البیوض وأکیاس بیض أجناس مختلفة من الطفیلیات فی 266 عینة براز أغنام جمعت من 21 قطیع وبمختلف الأعمار ومن کلا الجنسین من مناطق مختلفة من مدینة الموصل فی محافظة نینوى. بلغ عدد الحالات الخمجة 114 وبنسبة خمج کلیة 42.85%. شکّل الخمج بأکیاس بیضة الایمیریا أعلى نسبة إذ بلغت 60.52% ویلیه الخمج بکل من بیوض الجنس Nematodirus وأکیاس بیضة Cryptosporidium وبیوض Haemonchus و Trichostrongylus وبنسبة 42.1% و 29.82% و 23.68% و 16.6% على التوالی. وشکّل الخمج بکل من بیوض Trichuris spp و Paramphistomum spp و Strongyloides spp و Marshallagia spp والیرقات الأولى لـMuellerius capillaries نسبة خمج قلیلة بلغت 0.87%. نمط الخمج المفرد هو الشکل الشائع مع عدم وجود فرق معنوی بین نمطی الخمج المفرد والخمج المختلط. شخصت تسعة أنواع من الآیمیریا E. pallida 62.31% ، E. parva 60.86% ، E. intrica 52.17% ، E. ovinoidalis 50.72% ، E. granulose 26.08% ، E. ovina 14.49% ، E. crandalis 10.14% ، E. faueri 8.69% ، E. ahasta 7.24%. وان الخمج المختلط بأنواع الآیمیریا هو النمط الأکثر شیوعاً 55.07%. بلغت نسبة الخمج فی الذکور 58.3% مع وجود فرق معنوی فی نسبة الخمج بین الذکور والاناث المفحوصة وأیضاً لوحظ وجود فرق معنوی فی نسبة الخمج بالفئات العمریة عند احتمال P≤0.001. سجل لأول مرة وجود الهدبی Balantidium coli فی براز الأغنام المفحوصة. شملت العلامات السریریة الملاحظة فی بعض الأغنام وجود اضطرابات معدیة معویة وبعض من الأغنام الأخرى کانت خمجة ولکنها لا تعانی من أی علامة سریریة. أظهرت القطعان المعالجة بالبندازول Albendazol جرعة 5ملغم/کغم من وزن الجسم نسبة خمج عالیة 22.32% بأکیاس بیوض الایمیریا وبیوض Nematodirus وبعض الطفیلیات الأخرى.

Common causes of anemia in ovine in Mosul

B A Al-Badrani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 33-41
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37284

تضمنت الدراسة فحص 90 رأساً من الضأن الواردة إلى المستشفى البيطري في باب سنجار/ الموصل. وأثبتت العلامات السريرية والتغيرات الدموية أن 7.77% منها مصابة بعلامات فقر الدم. وأظهرت جميع الحيوانات المصابة درجات متفاوتة من الضعف العام، فقدان الشهية، شحوب الأغشية المخاطية، الاسهال، تساقط الصوف أو سهولة نزعه، تجمع السوائل تحت الجلد في الفك السفلي (الفك القنيني). أجريت الفحوصات المختبرية على عينات الدم، والبراز، والقشطات الجلدية لتشخيص الحالات المختلفة المسببة لفقر الدم. تبين من خلال النتائج أن الاصابة بديدان المعدة والأمعاء وديدان الكبد هما الأكثر شيوعاً لمسببات فقر الدم في الضأن، إذ بلغت نسبة الخمج بهما 35.71% و 24.28% على التوالي، أعقبها أمراض النقص الغذائي 10.0%، أما نسبة الخمج بالأوالي الدموية فكانت (الثايليريا 7.14% والبابيزيا 2.85%). كما أظهرت الإصابة بحلم الجرب والايميريا نسبة 4.28% في حين كانت نسبة الاصابة بالقمل والقراد 2.85% لكل منهما. وأظهرت دراسة التغيرات الدموية المصاحبة للحالات المسببة لفقر الدم انخفاضا معنوياً في تركيز خضاب الدم وحجم الكريات المرصوصة والعدد الكلي لكريات الدم الحمر ومعدل الحجم الكروي ومعدل تركيز خضاب الدم الكروي. وتبين وجود تغيرات في أشكال وأحجام كريات الدم الحمراء فضلاً عن بعض مشتملات كريات الدم الحمراء المصاحبة لحالات فقر الدم.

The capability of oxidative stress to induce atherosclerotic lesion in rabbits

E Sh Al-Allaf; E R Al-Kenany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 43-53
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37297

بينت هذه الدراسة قابلية بيروكسيد الهيدروجين 0.55 والمستهلك في ماء الشرب بصورة حرة ولمدة 60 يوماً على إحداث الاجهاد التأكسدي ومن ثم نشوء وتطور آفات التصلب العصيدي في الآرانب، حيث أظهرت النتائج وجود انخفاض معنوي في مستوى الكلوتاثايون Glutathione (GSH) وارتفاع معنوي في زناخة الدهن المالوندايالديهايد Malondialdehyde أنسجة كل من الأبهر والكبد والكلية فضلاً عن وجود ارتفاع معنوي في مستوى الكوليستيرول الكلي والكليسيريدات الثلاثية والشحوم البروتينية ذات الكثافة الواطئة Low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) والشحوم البروتينية ذات الكثافة الواطئة جداً Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) ودليل التعصد، في حين كان هناك انخفاض معنوي في مستوى الشحوم البروتينية ذات الكثافة العالية High density lipoprotein (HDL-C) مقارنة في مستوياتها في حيوانات السيطرة، أما بالنسبة للتغيرات النسجية فقد تمثلت بوجود الآفات الدهنية التكاثرية في جدار الأبهر والتي تعتبر بداية لحدوث آفات التعصد.

Clinical study of dystocia in Awassi ewes (causes and treatments)

Z M Al-Kass; E B Basheer; M b Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 55-61
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37311

شملت الدراسة 73 حالة عسر ولادة من مجموع 138 نعجة من سلالة العواسي عانت من مشاكل ولادية (عسر ولادة، تدلي الرحم، احتباس المشيمة، الالتهابات والتمزقات للقناة الولادية) للفترة ما بين تشرين لأول 2002 – نيسان 2004. تراوحت أعمار النعاج ما بين 2-5 سنوات ولكل منها 1-4 ولادة. شكلت حالات عسر الولادة نسبة مئوية مقدارها 52.9% من بين المشاكل الولادية الأخرى. وأظهرت النتائج أن النعاج عند الولادة الأولى كانت أكثر عرضة لعسر الولادة مقارنة بالنعاج في الولادة الرابعة 35.6% و15% على التوالي. إن 60.3% من حالات عسر الولادة كانت بسبب الجنين في حين كانت نسبة 39.7% منها بسبب الأم. وتبين أن الحضور الجنيني الخاطئ كان من أكثر الأسباب المؤدية لعسر الولادة والتابعة إلى الجنين وبنسبة 26%، يليه كبر حجم الجنين المطلق، والتشوهات الخلقية والحبن 12.3%، 9.5%، 6.8% على التوالي، فيما شكلت حالات عدم انتفاخ عنق الرحم 21.9% يليها ضيق الحوض ووهن الرحم بنسب 10.9% و 6.8% على التوالي من الحالات بسبب الأم. وباستخدام طرق العلاج المختلفة والتي شملت المناورات التوليدية، التقطيع الجنيني والعملية القيصرية ظهرت كفاءة العلاجات كالآتي: 77.7%، 84.6% و 92.1% على التوالي. تظهر هذه النتائج أن العملية القيصرية تعتبر من أهم الطرق المستعملة لعلاج عسر الولادة.

Clinical, hematological and biochemical studies of some blood protozoa in dogs in Ninavah

S H Arsalan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 63-77
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37318

تضمنت الدراسة الحالية فحص 30 كلباً تراوحت أعمارها بين 2شهر -3 سنوات ومن كلا الجنسين، من ضمنها 5 كلاب سيطرة، لتشخيص حالات الخمج ببعض الأوالي الدموية. تم تشخيص نوعين من جنس Babesia وتم تسجيل لأول مرة جنس Haemobartonella في 25 كلباً، إذ شكل الخمج المشترك بكلا الجنسين نسبة 48% في 12 كلباً ونسبة الخمج المفرد بطفيلي B. canis و B. gibsoni 32% في 8 من الكلاب المصابة، في حين بلغت نسبة الخمج المفرد بطفيلي H. canis 20% في 5 من الكلاب المصابة. أهم العلامات السريرية الملاحظة على الكلاب المصابة تضمنت شحوب الأغشية المخاطية المبطنة للعين والارتفاع في درجة حرارة الجسم والتنفس والنبض مع اليرقان في بعض الحالات ولوحظ التضخم في العقد اللمفية السطحية بالأخص العقد اللمفية أمام لوح الكتف والفخذ والضعف العام والبيلة الهيموكلوبينية وبعض العلامات العصبية، ولوحظ القراد على أجزاء مختلفة من جسم الحيوان. أعلى نسبة إصابة سجلت بالشكل الحلقي لطفيلي B. canis و B. gibsona وبلغت نسبة التطفل الدموي 1.1-6.7% بمعدل 3.85%، أما بالنسبة لشكل طفيلي H. canis فكان بشكل النقطي أو بشكل مستعمرات صغيرة داخل كريات الدم الحمر وبلغت نسبة التطفل 1.2-4.2% وبمعدل 2.92%. ظهر في حالات الخمج المشترك انخفاض معنوي في معدل العدد الكلي لكريات الدم الحمر وكمية خضاب الدم وحجم خلايا الدم المرصوصة وعدد الصفيحات الدموية مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة في حين لوحظ زيادة معنوية في سرعة تثفل كريات الدم الحمر مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة، وكان فقر الدم من النوع ذي الكريات السوية الحجم السوية الصباغ Normocytic normochromic ورافق فقر الدم ظهور خلايا التنقيط القاعدي، وأظهر العدد الكلي لخلايا الدم البيض زيادة معنوية نتيجة الزيادة المعنوية في الخلايا اللمفية والعدلات. أظهرت الفحوصات الكيموحية في حالة الخمج المشترك وجود زيادة معنوية في معدل خميرة الأسبارتيت ناقلة الأمين AST وخميرة الألنين ناقلة الأمين ALT والفوسفتاز القاعدي ALP والصفراوين الكلي Total Bilirubin ويوريا الدم Blood urea، في حين لوحظ انخفاض معنوي في معدل البروتين الكلي Total protein. وأظهرت الفحوصات الدموية في حالات الخمج المفرد بطفيلي B. canis و B. gibsona وجود نفس التغيرات الدموية الملاحظة في حالة الخمج المزدوج وكان فقر الدم من النوع ذي الكريات السوية الحجم قليلة الصباغ Normocytic hypochromic وأظهرت فحوصات الدم في حالة الخمج المفرد بطفيلي H. canis حدوث تغيرات طفيفة على الصورة الدموية وكان فقر الدم من النوع ذي الكريات السوية الحجم سوية الصباغ Normocytic normochromic. ومن نتائج الدراسة تشخيص نوعين من القراد لجنس Rhipocephalus وهما R. sanguineus و R. turanicus.

Effect of black tea on some biochemical parameters in broiler exposed to experimental hydrogen peroside-induced oxidative stress

F K Tawfeek

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37322

The effect of 3 weeks oral administration of 20% black tea infusion or decoction alone or combined with 0.5% H2O2 on body weight and certain blood biochemical constituents was studied in broiler chickens. The results indicated a significant decrease in body weight, treatment with black tea decoction with or without H2O2 produced a significant decrease in both serum cholesterol and total li[pid. Black tea infusion with H2O2 induced a significant decrease in serum cholesterol level. A significant increase in serum sodium concentration was observed in animals treated with black tea decoction. In addition, black tea decoction alone or with H2O2 caused a significant decrease in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentration. Morover, different black tea treatments decreased liver glycogen concentration compared with its increased level with H2O2 treated groups. It is concluded that the use of widely available, inexpensive beverage tea displayed valuable preventive properties on some biochemical parameters in broiler exposed to experimental hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

Some neurobehavioral effects of ketamine in chicks

B Kh Al-Baggou; G A M Faris; F K Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37328

The neurobehavioral effects of ketamine 0.5 and 1 ml/kg subcutaneously were examined in 14 days-old domestic chicks using the open-field (5 minutes) and tonic immobility tests. Ketamine decreased locomotor activity as seen by a significant increase in the latency to move from the central square of the open-field arena and a decrease in the numbers of lines crossed (0.5 mg/kg, 30 and 60 minutes post injection) in comparison with control values. Ketamine also decreased vocalization behavior. The depressed open-field activity was further supported by significant increases in the durations of tonic immobility of the ketamine-treated chichs in comparison with the control group. Xylazine challenge at 5 mg/kg, subcutaneously, two hours after the ketamine injections signifantly increased the duration of sleep in both ketamine-treated groups by 59% and 100%, respectively in comparison with the control group. The data suggested that ketamine at subanesthetic doses reduses open-field activity in chicks, increases tonic immobility and increases the sedative action of xylazine.

Isolation and diagnosis of mycobacteria species in local water fishes in Ninevah province

M A Hammad; H H Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 21-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37335

This study was conducted to isolate and diagnose mycobacteria species from local freshwater fish samples collected from different markers in Ninevah province. Seventy samples were examined by staining and study of cultural characteristic of colonial growth, two mycobacteria species were isolated from 10 (14.3%) samples, seven (10%) of them were M. fortuitum, while 3 (4.3%) were M. marinum from different species of fishes belongs to family Cyprinidae which includes the genus of Barbus, B. sharpeyi (2%), B. grypus (3%), B. xantnopterus (2%) and family siluridae includes the genus Silurus glanis (1%), and the genus of Carp, Cyprinus carpio (2%).

Salmonella serotypes isolated from local cheese in Mosul city

H H Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 27-30
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37337

Total of 60 random samples of local fresh, non-salted cheese collected from different markets of Mosul city were found to be contaminated with Salmonella 7 (11.7%). Three different Salmonella serotypes were identified with S. agona was the most prevalent serotype accounting for 3 (42.86%) of all isolates followed by S. typhimurium 2 (28.57%) and S. anatum 2 (28.57%).

Pathological changes in liver, spleen and lymph nodes in mice treated with hydatid cyst fluid of sheep origin and its toxic fractions

O A N Abbu; N E Salih; E R Al-Kenany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 31-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37343

Swiss albino mice were injected, intraperitoneally, with hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) of sheep origin and its toxin fractions (TFs) at two concentrations (10 and 50 µg/ml). changes in the wight and organ index of liver, spleen and lumph nodes, in addition to the histopathological changes occurred in these organs, and was investigated. Results demonstrate that the severity of the pathologicl lesions caused by TFs, at both concentrations, is more than that caused by HCF.

Effect of taurine and vitamine E in treating atherosclerosis induced experimentally by hydrogen peroxide in rabbits

E R Al-Kenany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 45-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37347

This study was conducted to determine the effects of taurine and vitamin E on atherosclerotic lesions in H2O2-induced atherosclerosis model in rabbits. Rabbits were firstly treated with daily intake of 0.5 H2O2 in drinking water for 60 days, then divided into 3 groups left for 12 weeks and treated as follow: Group1; no further treatment, Group2; treated with taurine that dissolved in drinking water at 0.3% (w/v) daily, and Group3; treated with vitamin E in the diet as 400 mg/kg feed. Results confirmed the persistency of atherosclerotic lesions till 12 weeks post treatment with H2O2. taurine and vitamin E treated showed the same effect on some biochemical profiles. Taurine treatment decreased serum levels of total cholesterol by 41.5%, triglecerides by 31.5% as well as decreased in serum atherogenic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), cholesterol by 50.2% and 51.5% respectively. The same treatment increased antiatherogenic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 23.3%. Aortic biopsies from taurine treated rabbits and stained with Sudan IV reveal reduction in the areas of sudanophilia and, the histological examination also demonstrated regression in fatty streaks and foam cells in the intestine, furthermore, taurine treatment elucidate a significance reduction in tissues malondiadehyde (MDA) level; liver (31%), heart (31.9%) and aorta (46.7)% concomitant with significant elevation in tissues glutathione (GSH) level; liver (190%), heart (113%) and aorta (86.2%). In conclusion, taurine reduce the severity of atherosclerotic lesions induced by H2O2 treatment and its antioxidative effect may related to the anti-atherosclerotic action.

A comparative experimental study of the use of tunica vaginalis and pericardium as allografts for hernioplasty in sheep

H I AlSadi; B T Abass; N H Kader

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 57-70
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37360

In this study umbilical hernias were created experimentally in eight sheep. At the 30th postoperative day, hernia developed that had the typical characteristic features of reducible hernia. The animal were divided into two groups and hernioplasty was done using freshly prepared ovine tunica vaginalis in one group and ovine pericardium in the second group. Following hernioplasty, the animals were inspected clinically. Biopsies were taken from the grafts and surrounding tissue at 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. Clinical examination of the experimental animals and the patch grafts showed no apparent abnormalities except for the occurrence of simple multifocal wound infection. Histopathological examination of the patch grafts showed inflammatory reactions that ranged from polymorphonuclear cell infiltration of the graft up to chronic foreign-body granuloma. Dense fibrous tissue was seen invading the graft particularly through perforations of the suturing needle and fissures in the graft. These histopathological changes were not seen at the 60th postoperative day except for the fibrous capsulation of remnants of suture material in the graft. No major differences were seen in the microscopic picture of hernia grafted with tunica vaginalis and those grafted with the pericardium. This study described a model for experimental induction of umbilical hernia in sheep and introduced for the first time in the literature the use of tunica vaginalis as an allograft for hernioplasty in sheep. Further studies are needed on the use of tunica vaginalis patch graft in repairing other types of tissue defects such as in duraplasty.

Castration by closed method in equine

M J Eesa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 71-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37365

This study was applied on six donkeys and two horses. The castration was performed by making longitudinal skin incision in area above to the level of the head of the epididymis at the site of the panpniform plexus and by blunt dissection the spermatic cord was isolated from other surrounding tissues without opening of tunica vaginalis. At the same time moderate pressure was applied on the scrotum by the other hand to expel the testis from the incision. The spermatic cord crushed and ligated at the site of crushing, and the testis was removed by cutting the spermatic cord below the ligation to ensure that there were no bleeding from the stump of spermatic cord. The site of operation was closed by three rows. The first row included the area of passage of the spermatic cord and the cavity of scrotum, while the second included subcutaneous tissues with simple continuous suture by using catgut materials for both rows. The skin closed with simple interrupted suture by using silk. The results revealed presence of slight swelling at the site of operation, the animals returned to work early and quickly. Healing occurred with minimal complications.

Biometry of genital organs in Iraqi female buffalo

A F Alwan; H E Al-Saffar; D J Khammas

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37421

Ninety-three of grossly normal buffalo genital tracts were under taken in this study. The mean length, width, thickness, and weigth of the ovary devoiding functional corpus luteum (CL) were 2.39±0.77 cm, 1.55±0.46 cm, 1.19±0.31 cm and 3.12±2.11 gm, respectively, and 2.139±0.65 cm, 1.23±0.3 cm and 3.14±1.86 gm, for the left one respectively. The mean length, width, thickness and weight of right ovary containing functional CL were 2.61±0.52 cm, 1.59±0.45 cm, 1.53±0.24 cm and 4.79±1.59 gm respectively, and 2.88±0.60 cm, 2.34±0.38 cm, 1.48±0.15 cm and 5.54±1.23 gm for the left one respectively. The mean diameter of the largest six follicles located on the right ovary was 1.42±0.19 cm, and 1.41±0.1 cm of six follicles on left ovary. The mean length of prominent part of the 15 functional CL found on the reight ovary was 0.57±0.17 cm and it was 0.57±0.21 cm on the left one, while the mean length and weight of those 15 functional CL of the right ovary were 1.151±0.18 cm and 1.31±0.52 gm, and on the left ovary they were 1.73±0.93 cm and 1.7±0.57 gm. The mean length, diameter and number of caruncle of the right uterine horns were 23.76±8.14 cm, 2.12±0.6 cm and 84.63±13.62 respectively, and they were 23.34±7.96 cm, 2.10±0.58 cm and 84.12±13.27 of the left horns respectively. The mean length and numbers of uterine body carncules were 1.37±0.75 cm and 6.27±1.92 the mean length, diameter and number of annular rings of cervix were 5.33±0.96 cm, 2.58±0.64 cm and 4.7±0.61, respectively.

Pathological findings associated with experimental Mycobaterium bovis infection in rabbits

K H Al-Joboury

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 83-89
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37424

During the 2nd week postinoculation of thirteen rabbits with Mycobacterium bovis tuberulosous lesions appeared in the lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, mediastinal and hepatic lymph nodes and in the omentum with an equal distribution in these organs. During the 4th week postinoculation, these tuberculosous lesions increased in size to become well developed granulomas with caseated centeres. These granulomas persisted to the 6th, 8th and 10th weeks postinoculation and became more encapsulated later on. Three rabbits died during the 7th week postinoculation due to generalized tuberculosis.

Evaluation of two different methods for slaughtering in broilers

N A Khattab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.38099

Two slaughtering methods (with and without electrical stunning) for broilers were used in this study, using 20 broilers (10 males and 10 females) at a rate of 5 birds for each method. The results showed that there was a significant (P<0.01) increase in the amount of blood collected from slaughtered females by using electrical stunning method when compared with the females slaughtered without electrical method. The amount of blood collected from male broilers of both gropes and methods showed no significant differences. It was concluded that electrical stunning of broilers gave better results of bleeding than birds stunned without electrical stunning. Moreover, it does not object with Islamic believes since birds were alive at slaughter time.

Contamination of the parentstock feed with salmonella in Ninava Government

A M Shareef; Z K Khather

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.38102

A total of (180) feed samples were collected from three different parent stock flocks in Nineveh governorate during the period between September till March 2003, to determine the prevalence of salmonellae contamination of these samples. Fifteen isolates (8.3%) of six salmonellae stereotypes were isolated. they were S. typhimurium (4) isolates (26.6%), S. anatum (1) isolates (6.66%), S. good wood (3) isolates (20%), S. braenderup (3) isolates (20%), S. senftenberg (3) isolates (20%) and S. Amsterdam (1) isolate (6.66%). All of the isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantion but resistant to sulphamethoxazol, trimethoprim and amoxicillin (100%).

Occurrence of Eimeria spp. In goats in Mosul abattoir – Iraq

H S Al-Bakray; M S Daoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 97-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.38106

Fecal examination using floating technique with saturated sugar solution revealed that the total infection rate with Eimeria spp. was 95.08% among 1140 slaughtered goats in Mosul abattoir. From October 2001 to July 2002 Nine species were recorded .E. apsheronica ( 65.6%) , E. alijevi ( 53.6%), E. christenseni (36.5%) , E. arloingi (35.4%), E. ninakohylakimovae (26.4%), E. hirci (18.5%), E. pallida ( 14.5%), E. jolchievi (11%), E. caprovina (8.5%). The highest infection rates were found (96.7%) in October, 2001 and (100%) during January, April and July 2002, respectively. The incidence of infection among male goats was (95.7%) and (92.3%) among females . Depending on the age groups, the results showed that the incidence of infection was (100%) in goats 3-5 years old, and (93.9%) in goat kids less than 1 year old. Multiple infection with more than 3 species was more common (79.15%) , than single infection ( 7.38 %) .

Pathological study of experimental infection of Enterococcus faecalis in broiler chichen

O S Beyon; G N Shamoon; E R Al-Kenany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 105-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.38204

This study elucidates the isolation of the enterococcus from faeces of chickens and fellow up pathogenesis through the induction of Experimental infection in broiler chickens. The study showed the development pathological lesions in the heart represented by vegetative endocarditis, in liver represented by present of coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphocytes around central vein, as well as sever fatty changes, also the lesion included splenitis. Lung lesions characterized by presence of Bronchopneumonia and infiltration of serous and sero-fibrinous exudates with localization of lipid vacuoles in the wall of thoracic aorta & aortic arch.

Changes in alanine aminotransfearase, aspartate aminotransfearase in blasma, kidney and liver in rabbits treated with cadmium chloride

K. A. Mohi-Aldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45779

The study was designed to investigate the subchronic toxic effect of cadmium chloride administered orally on alanine aminotransfearase (ALT), aspartate aminotransfearase (AST) activity and certain tissues in adult male rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups (6 animals lgroup). The first and second groups were administered cadmium chloride (30 and 60 mg/kg respectively). The third group was given distilled water and served as a control. All groups were treated daily by gavage needle for a period of eight weeks. The results demonstrated that cadmium chloride(30 and 60 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in alanine aminotransfearase activity in treated animals,
while a significant increase in aspartate aminotransfearase activity was reported only in animals administered cadmium chloride at a dose of 60 mg/kg.
Histologically, cadmium-treated groups showed lesions in liver and kidney. These lesions were more severe in animals treated with 60 mg cadmium chloride than those treated with 30 mg cadmium chloride.

Comparative anatomical and histological study on the trachea of native awasi sheep and black goat

A. G. Al-Haaik; M. H. Abdul-Raheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 9-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45780

To explore the various constituents of the trachea of the local awasi sheep and black goat, gross anatomical, histological and morphometrical studies had been carried out.
The study revealed that the average length of the trachea is directly proportional to the number of tracheal rings and it was also noticed that the length, diameter and wall thickness of the trachea of the sheep were greater than those of black goat. These parameters decreased gradually toward the posterior third of the trachea in both species. The free dorsal ends of the tracheal rings of the sheep overlapping each other at the cranial third, but they gradually move a part at the mid – third, and they become again very close to each other and run side to side dorsally to forming a dorsal crest at the caudal third. However, the two free ends of tracheal rings of the goat remain considerably apart throughout the entire length of the trachea forming a (U) shaped configuration. The cartilaginous rings were so oriented that they disposed one beside the other at the ventral and lateral aspects of the tracheal wall. But they overlapping each other at the dorso – lateral aspect of the tracheal wall in both species. Three main cells were detected in the surface epithelium of the trachea of both species (ciliated columnar cells, basal cells and goblet cells), another cell type was restricted to the posterior third of the trachea of both species. The tracheal glands were found to be compound, mixed tubulo – acinar type. The majority of the secretory units were mucous, the others were serous. Most of the tracheal glands occupied the triangular area between the successive tracheal rings particularly at the medial side of the ventral aspect of the trachea. The density of the tracheal glands decreased gradually anterio – coudally in the both studied species. The percentage of goblet cells in the trachea of sheep was greater than that of goat, and decreased gradually toward the lungs in both species.

Comparative carbohydrate histochemical study of the trachea of native sheep and goat

M. H. Abdul-Raheem; A. G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 23-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45781

The aim of this work was to explore the different types of carbohydrates histochemically in the trachea of local Awase sheep and to compare it with that of the local black goat. Ten tracheas from each sheep and goat were used for this study. Different histochemical methods were used to explore types and locations of carbohydrates in trachea’s wall of both animals. It was observed that the amount of mucus secreted from the anterior third of trachea was comparatively greater than that of the middle and posterior thirds due to its higher content of
tracheal glands and goblet cells. The carbohydrate histochemistry of different constituents of the trachea showed that there was no noticeable difference between the two studied species. However, the glycogen was found in a greater amount in goat's trachea in comparison to sheep. The goblet cells and the mucous secretory units of the trachea showed a considerable amount of carboxylated glycoprotein together with a little amount of other forms of carbohydrates. The mucus that covers the lumen of the trachea contained almost all the carbohydrate substances with the exception of neutral glycoproteins. Chondrocytes contain glycogen, sulphated and neutral glycoproteins but didn't show any form of GAGs, whereas, the territorial matrix of the cartilage contains a mixture of carboxylated and sulphated GAGs with the predominance of the latter, but glycoproteins could not be detected. The interterritorial matrix contained mainly carboxylated glycosaminoglycans together with a little amount of glycoproteins. The columnar cells and the basal surface epithelial cells showed no reaction to any form of carbohydrates.

Detection of Staphyl ococcus aureus capsules producer isolated from bovine and buffaloes mastitis

G. N. Shamoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45782

This study was done for the detection of capsulated Staphylococcus aureus strains which were isolated from bovine & buffaloes Mastitis. 23 (57.5 %) & 8 (53 %) strains of these bacteria were isolated, 6 (26 %) & 2 (13.3 %) were capsule producing strains, and that 9 (39.1 %) & 4 (26.6 %) were slime producing strains, respectively. An increase in the number of capsules and slim producing strains was observed following growing of these bacteria in culture media containing glucose and milk. The experimentally performed histo-pathological study, revealed presence of capsules in lung sections stained with Hematoxylin–Eosin as a halo areas appeared around the bacterial cells. In addition to a strong positive reaction with periodic acid shiffs.

The effect of methionine supplementation to diets free of animal protein on broiler performance

N. A. Katab; A. S. Al-Saigh; T.A. Az-Aldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45783

The effect of methionine supplementation on growth performance of 180 briolers type (Cobb) during growing period (1-21) days, fattening period (22- 42) days and the entire rearing period (1- 42) day, and carcass traits were examined. Three levels of methionine (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20%) were supplemented to corn-
soybean diet and compared with a normal diet (as control), for broiler feeding. Increasing methionine supplementation levels significantly improved weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, particularly at (0.15 and 0.20%) levels. Feed intakes were not significantly different among treatment groups. Carcass yield and breast yield increased at (0.15 and 0.20%) levels of methionine addition (P<0.05). Abdominal fat content and liver relative weights were not significantly different among the various treatments due to different methionine levels. Results of this experiment suggest that addition of methionine to corn-soybean diets had improved performance and carcass traits of broilers.

Effect of the natural serum (non-immunized) on the bacteria isolated from pneumonic lung in sheep

Attar; M. Y. AL; M. A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 59-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45784

Normal serum bactericidal activity study were carried out against nine bacterial species (Mannheimia haemolytica, Staphelococcus aureus, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Moraxella ovis) isolated from pneumonial lungs in sheep by the use of a normal non immunized serum collected from normally healthy sheep, cattle, horses. All species of bacteria were resistant for serum effect except B. subtilis and Pseudo. aeruginosa which were sensitive for all types of serum, while Moraxella ovis was sensitive for horse serum only, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis were resistant to complement free serum.

Comparison of therapeutical efficacy of ivermectin and oxybendazole in treatment of draught Horses naturally infected with Gastrointestinal worms in mosul

M. O. Abdul-Majeed; K. M. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 65-70
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45785

Twenty draught stallions, 4-10 years old, were used in this study. The horses were divided into two equal subgroups (10 horses for each) to compare the
efficacy of a single dose of Ivermectin (oral paste), 0.2 mg/kg B.W., with a single dose of Oxibendazole (oral suspension), 10 mg/kg B.W. The parameters that used were EPG, RBCS, Hb and PCV pre- and post-treatment. Results indicated reduction in EPG to zero within 14 days after treatment with Ivermectin, while there were gradual reduction in EPG without complete absences of eggs after 21 days of treatment with Oxybendazole. Also there were increase of RBCS, Hb and PCV after 14 days of treatment with Ivermectin and after 21 days of treatment with Oxybendazole. Results of evaluation of therapeutic agents indicated that Ivermectin in a dose of 0.2 mg/kg B.W. given as oral paste as a single dose was more effective than Oxibendazole in a dose of 10 mg/kg B.W. given as oral suspension as a single dose in the treatment of draught horses affected with gastrointestinal and lung worms.

Clinical and pathological effects of gastrointestinal and lung worms on draught horses in mosul

M. O. Abdul-Majeed; K. M. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 71-80
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45786

A total of 150 draught stallions 4-10 years old were used in this study, included 125 horses were naturally suffered from gastrointestinal and lung worms infection and 25 clinically normal draught horses served as control group. Coprological examinations revealed that draught horses were infected with many specieses belonged to nematodes and cestodes. The mean EPG were 2020 in McMaster method. Results indicated that diseased draught horses exhibited emaciation, rough coat, pale mucous membrane, black spots on the gum & lip, loss of appetite, diarrhea and/or constipation, worms with feces, mucous with feces, colic, anal pruritis, moist ralse, coughing and strong heart beat. Statistically, significant increase (P<0.01) were encountered between respiratory and heart rates of diseased horses in comparison with control, while there were no changes in body temperature among the two groups. Significant decrease (P<0.01) were encountered in the RBCS, Hb and PCV values of diseased horses, and significant increase (P<0.01) were also encountered in the sedimentation rates of RBCS, while there were significant increase (P<0.01) in WBCS and eosinophils. Results of biochemical tests indicated decrease in total protein and albumin values, the decrease was statistically significant (P<0.01). Levels of BUN and AST were increased significantly (P<0.01), while there were no significant changes observed in ALT levels. Presence of worms causes macroscopical and histopathological lesions in many organs of dead horses.

Clinical and pathological study of equine babesiosis in draught horses in mosul

G. M. AL-Mola; K. M. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 89-101
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45787

A total of 128 draught male horses (4-12) years old were used in this study. Among these 100 animals were naturally suffered from babesiosis and 25 clinically normal horses served as control, three dead infected horses served for gross pathological and microscopical changes. Results revealed that diseased horses were affected with the acute form and they exhibited general weakness, loss of appetite, congestion of mucous membranes with petechial hemorrhages in some of them, pale and/or icteric mucous membranes were seen in others, hemoglobinurea, edema of fetlock joint and supraorbital fossa, colic with signs of diarrhea and constipation, profuse sweating, dehydration, rough coat, ticks were observed on various parts of the body. Statistically significant increases were encountered between body temperature, respiratory and heart rates and significant decrease were detected in the RBCS, Hb, PCV, platelets count and fibrinogen. However statistically significant increase were encountered in the sedimentation rate of RBCS, clotting time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Anemia was macrocytic hypochromic type, the percentage of parasitemia ranged between 6-28 %. Reticulocytes detected in blood smears prepared from blood of diseased animals with mean of 3.07 %. Significant increase WBC count, lymphocytes and significant decrease in neutrophils were showed in diseased animals. The results of biochemical tests revealed significant increase AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and icteric index with significant decrease in total protein and calcium. The results indicated that equine babesiosis caused gross pathological and microscopical changes in different organs of dead animals.

Comparative study of imidocarb, buparvarvaquone & diminazinein treatment of draught horses affected with equine babesiosis

G. M. AL-Mola; K. M. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 103-112
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45788

A 30 drought male horses (4-12) years old infected with equine babesiosis were used in this study. The animals were divided randomly into three groups, 10 animals for each. First group was treated with Imidocarb dipropionate
intramusculary at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg B.W. repeated after 48 h., the second group treated with Diminazine aceturate intramusculary at dose rate of 3.5 mg/kg B.W. repeated after 48 h., and the third group treated with Buparvaquone intramusculary at dose rate of 6 mg/kg B. W. repeated after 48 h. The main parameters used were clinical signs, hematological changes, percentage of parasitemia and changes of some biochemical values pre and post treatment for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy against natural infection with equine babesiosis.
Results indicated that imidocarb at dose rate of 4 mg/kg B. W. intramusculary repeated after 48 h., is more effective in the treatment of equine babesiosis in comparison with diminazine and buparvaquone as well as buparvaquone used for the first time give good result but does not cause complete elimination of babesia bodies.

The correction factor of hair density in the skin of native cattle

N. S. Ahmad; A. M. Elias; M. H. Abdul-Raheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 177-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45789

The hair density of the native skin cattle was calculated by counting hair follicles from the Hematoxylin and Eosin stained horizontal sections taken from skin samples which were fixed in either formalin buffered solution or alcoholic Bouin's solution and processed by the routine paraffin embedding method. The hair density of the formalin fixed samples was counted to be 13.68 ± 2/mm2 while the hair density of the Boins fixed skin samples was found to be 14.12 ± 5/mm2.
The surface area of skin samples showed variable skin shrinkage percentage during the different stages of histological procedure. The shrinkage percentage was especially obvious in paraffin infiltration. The final shrinkage percentage of the surface area of formalin and alcoholic Bouin's fixed samples was 13.94 % and 15.03 % successively. The increased shrinkage percentage of the samples fixed in alcoholic Bouin's fixed compared to that of the formalin fixed samples lead to a false increase in the hair density of Bouins fixed samples compared to formalin fixed samples. Therefore the increase in the hair density is directly proportional to an increase in shrinkage percentage, and this reflects on the values of the correcting factor which becomes 0.67 for the Bouin's fixed samples and 0.69 for the formalin fixed samples. Thus we reached to a conclusion that the shrinkage percentage is inversely proportional with value of the correcting factor. Taking the correcting factor in consideration, the high false hair density of the stained skin sections is corrected to become 9.44/mm2 only in the back region of the living native cow.

The effect of different laboratorial concentrations of ammonia on interior egg quality ,chick embryo vitality and hatchability in broiler breeder eggs

T.A. Az-Aldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 183-189
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45790

The effect of different concentrations of gaseous ammonia was studied. Six batches (27 eggs each of Cobb broiler breeders were used). The six batches were exposed to 0.25; 0.50; 1.01; 1.51 and 2.53 mg/lit. of ammonia, respectively, in special dessicators for 12 hours before incubation for the purpose of the complete ammonia evaporation in the disscators. In the mean time another non treated batch of eggs was kept as control .
Ammonia gaseous significantly (P<0.05) affected the interior egg quality as indicated by the PH which was gradually increased in both albumen and egg yolk, so by albumen height and yolk index depression at the different concentrations.
The early embryonic mortality was significantly affected (P<0.05) by the groups which was exposed to (0.50 and 1.01) mg/lit of gaseous ammonia. While, high significant effect (P<0.01), was shown at the concentrations of (1.51 and 2.53) mg/l of gaseous ammonia, However no significant impact of gaseous ammonia was detected in the group subjected to (0.25) mg/l comparated with the control group.
Hatchability in the treated groups was significantly reduced (P<0.05) reaching to 45% , 40% and 36% due to the exposure to ammonia at a concentrations of 0.50, 1.01 and 1.51, respectively in comparison with the control group. A further reduction (p<0.01) was noticed in the group which was received the highest percentage of the ammonia gaseous (2.53) mg / lit.
No statistical differences were observed in the group, which was exposed to 0.25 mg/lit.ammonia gaseous.
It was concluded that significant differences were observed in early embryonic mortality and hatchability, more than (0.50) mg/lit. due to eggs exposure to heigh ammonia concentrations.

Effect of dichlorvos on cholinesterase activity in pigeons (rockdov)

A. S. ALIAS

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 191-202
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45797

The aim of this study was to examine the toxicity of organophosphorus insecticide Dichlorvos in wild pigeons (Rockdov), and measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the serum, plasma, brain, liver and Pectoralis muscle using a modified electrometric method.The maximum activity of ChE was in the serum (1.03 ∆pH/30 min) and the minimum ChE activity in liver (0.04 ∆pH / 30 min) as well as inhibition effect of Dichlorvos on ChE activities in serum, plasma, brain, liver and Pectoralis muscle. Whereas the maximum inhibition appear in plasma 88-95% in the pigeons that treated by (10-20 mg /kg B.W) of Dichlorvos. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) of Dichlorvos in pigeons is 21.4 mg/kg B.W. Atropine at 20 mg / kg S.C lead to decrees in toxicity signs in the pigeons that treated by 20
mg /kg B.W of Dichlorvos orally, decrease of death 33 % and delay time of death. Where as pigeons treated by atropine at 20 mg / kg and diazepam 5mg/kg subcutaneously was effective in reducing toxicity signs and 100 % protected the birds that treated by Dichlorvos from death.

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp in zoo of Mosul and Dohuk cities

W. A. Ahmed Al-Obaidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 203-212
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45798

This study includes detection of Cryptosporidium spp from fecal samples taken from different animals in Duhok and mosul Zoo , and parasite from workers in these Zoo in 2002 .The total infected percentage reach to (54.5 % , 46.6 % , 41.6 % , 80 % , 71.4, 60 %) in Monkeys, Deer, Parrot, Finch, Fox and Zoo Workers. Four laboratory method were used for diagnosing parasite oocysts, The results showed that efficient diagnostic method was modified acid fast stain method (100%), followed by Iodine staining method and flotation in saturated
sugar solution method. While, formalin sedimentation method gave low confidence for diagnosis the oocysts of parasite in fecal samples. Features of oocysts were varied according to the technique was used for examination of fecal samples, but there are no morphological differences appeared in oocysts. The average of oocysts sizes were shown to be within the normal range of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. The average of oocyst sizes was shown to be within the measure of oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp.

Isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from the infected eye of sheep and cattle

M. A. Hamed; B.E. Rasheed; G.H Shamoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 213-218
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45799

The study included isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi associated with the mycotic keratitis in sheep and cattle, the observed study Aspergillus niger was the most frequent species isolated and was accounted to 62.5% of all isolates, while other fungi included Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus, Alternaria sp isolated in 12.5% for each .

Diagnostic study of microfilariae in blood samples of cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

E. T. Butty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 219-224
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45802

The result of this study revealed to diagnosis the infection of microfilaria in blood samples of cattle which were collected from veterinary hospital and Mosul abattoir. The total percentage of infection was 25.76% and the high percentage of infection appeared in May was 35.7%, with no significant differences in percentages of infection between the months of this study. There were significant differences in the infection rate between male and female of the cattle, and the high percentage of infection appeared in female was 37.97%. High percentage of infection appeared in age 3 years and more was 37.09% with significant differences from age less than one year with P-value (P<0.01).

Study of some parasitic disease of pond fish in Mosul area

A.H. Azziz; A.H. Al-Hamdane

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 225-228
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45816

Parasitic disease of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. from ponds in Mosul area were studies for one year period from March 1999, to the end of February 2000. The parasites were noticed on the skin, gills and in the eye. The percentage of crustacean infestation of the skin was 39.1 % which were due to both anchor worm Lernea cyprinacea and fish lice Argulus foliaceus. The protozoan skin infestation was with Trichodina 7.2%. The gill parasitic infestation was both the monogenetic trematode Dactylogyrus 35.1 % and the Crustacean Ergasulus 6.2 %. The parasitic infestation of the eyes was by the metacercarial stage of Diplostmum 12.37 %.

Capability of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress and atheromatous lesions in female pregnant rats

A. Al-Khafaf; E.R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 229-240
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45817

This study was conducted to determine the capability 0.5% H2O2 on drinking water, for the induction of oxidative stress status in female pregnant rats. Moreover, this study deal with role of this stress in initiation and development of atheromatous lesions via estimation the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation index and Glutathione (GSH) as antioxidant index in aorta, heart and liver tissues as well as the histological examination of the that tissues.
The result elucidate study the levels of lipid profile parameters in all studied animal. In addition, the results showed histologizal lesions, represented by localization of fatty vacuoles foam calls in intimal media layers associated with lymphogtic in filtration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells toward the intima, these lesions appear at 21 day from treated H2O2 in female pregnant rats. The study also remark hitopathological changes in placenta.

Pathological study of toxoplasma gondii expermintally infected in broiler chicken

O. S. Beyon; E. S. AL-Alaf; E. R. AL-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 241-248
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45818

This research was conducted to explore the pathological changes produced from the infection with oocyst of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from infected cats in broiler chicken. The research showed histopathological lesions in liver, intestine, spleen, brain and lungs.
Histopathological examinations of liver revealed perivascular tachyzote cuffing and localization of tissue cyst in hepatocyte, and intestine showed hyperplasia with presence of tachyzoite in epithelial lining of villi and submucosal glands, while in spleen localization of tissue cyst in arteriosclerosis have been seen, moreover, in brain there was parasitemia associated with penetration of tachyzoite in red blood cells have been seen and in the lung, showed proliferation of tachyzoite in epithelial lining alveoli associated with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells.

Pathological and histochemical study on cats and mice experimentally infected with TOXOPLASMA GONDII

E. R. AL-Kennany; A. M. A. Al-Saidya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 249-263
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45821

In this Study, Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed and isolated successfully from domestic (Stray) cats at Mosul city, Iraq using Latex test and the flotation method of fecal material. The study also included experimental induction of the condition by giving orally oocysts of T. gondii to albino mice at a dose of 1000 sporulated oocysts and leaving the mice for 14 days. All infected mice (15 with tissue cysts) were fed to 8 cats negative for latex and fecal flotation method. The pathogenesis of the isolated T. gondii has been followed through daily fecal examination which indicated the presence of oocysts at the 5 th post infection
(p. i.) day. Postmortem examination of 2 cats was done at 3, 7, 14, and 21
days p. i. with preparation of histological section from the intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas and brain. Additionally, histological techniques were done for the intestines and liver. Clinical sings were not seen in cats infected experimentally. Grossly, multifocal areas of necrosis and severe congestion were seen most prominently in the brain. Histiochemically, there was an increase in mucopolysaccharide in the intestine and in glycogen infiltration in hepatic cells.

Study of pathological effect of Newcastle disease virus isolated from upper respiratory system in broiler

S Y Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 115-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46702

This study was conducted to determine the pathogenicity of six local isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) obtained form different area of Ninevah province. Isolation procedures employed via fertile chicken eggs inoculation. This study processed on the 4th passage of this isolate. Depending on the embryonic lesion induced by this isolates, parallel with Mean Death time (MDT), Intravenous Pathogenicity Index (IVPI) and Intra Cerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI). The results
of the study demonstrate that four of the isolates were highly pathogenic, while the other two were mesogenics. The experimental infection using this isolate in broiler
chick revealed variability in respiratory signs and in mortality rates. However,
antibodies Hemagglutination titers (HI) showed elevation in all infected bird in the
first week post-infection (PI) and were more prominent in the second week of (PI).

Diagnostic study of some intestinal protozoa in domestic rabbits in Mosul area

E G Sulaiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 123-133
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46703

The current study reveals that the total percentage of infection with
Eimeria spp oocysts 57.14% , eleven species were diagnosed , according to their percentage they are : E. exigua 38.57% , E. perforans 32.85% , E. nagpurensis 25.71% , E. elongata 17.14%, E.stiedai 15.71%, E. media 14.28% , E. coecicola 14.28% , E. irresidua 10% , E. matsubayashii 8.57% , E. magna 5.71% and E. intestinalis 5.71% . Infection with three species of Eimeria or more was most frequent in rabbits with percentage 67.5%. The total infection with Cryptosporidium spp was 58.57%. The modified acid fast (hot stain) technique diagnosed all positive cases while the flotation with sheather’s sugar solution and iodine stain techniques were 42.85%, 48.57%, respectively.

Comparative study of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome vaccine in poultry

F A Jassim; M Y Al-Attar; F A Danial

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 135-141
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46705

Two commercial types of Hydro pericardium Hepatitis Syndrome (HHS) oily inactivated vaccines were evaluated. The first was (Angavac) French in origin (Merial Co.) & the 2nd is (Nobilis Hepatitis) Holland in origin (Intervet Co.). A unified program of vaccination had been used for both vaccines. One & ten days old chicks were vaccinated by subcutaneous & intramuscular route of injection with both vaccines in each age separately . Serum antibodies titer weekly measured by using Indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) & agar gel diffusion test. Challenge test at 4 week of age was done by virulent avian adeno virus serotype – 4 (VAAV-4) as well as virulent field isolate was used as challenge virus. The result showed highest antibodies titer at week age. Angavac vaccine gave highest titer than Nobilis Hepatitis vaccine & IHA was more sensitive than AGDT. All groups vaccinated with Angavac gave 100% protection in challenge test with (VAAV-4) at 28 days. While in Holland vaccine the protection ratio was 60-80% only, but the ratio of protection of both vaccines did not exceed than 40-50% when the field isolate was used as challenge virus.

Study of some endo and ecto parasites in domestic rabbits in Mosul/ Iraq

I D H Al-Moula

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 143-153
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46707

This study has been carried out in order to investigate the present of some endo and ecto parasite through the examination 30 of domestic rabbits of both sexes was 2 months – 2 years old. Our results revealed, (23) were infected (76.6%) Oocysts of Eimeria spp showed the highest percentage (73.9%) followed by the eggs of nematodes and Cestodes represented as Passalurus ambiguus ,Trichuris leporis , Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Oblelescoides cuniculi, Graphidium stigosum, Capillaria hepatica, Nematodirus leporis, Cittotaenia ctenoides, 52.1%, 30.4%, 17.3%, 13.04%, 8.6%., 4.3 % , 4.3%, 21.7% , respectively. Our results diagnosed One species of adult cestodes Cittotaenia ctenoides in percentage 4.3% also we observed Cysticercus pisiformis of adult parasite Taenia pisiformis at 8.6%.Species of nymphs Linguatula serrata (tongue worm) in domestic rabbits were diagnosed with percentage (17.3%) and it is the
first report in Mosul / Iraq .Mixed infection was most common with no significant differences appeared between males and females and between ages.

Occurrence of the Anchor worm Lernaea cyrinacea on Cyprinus carpio in Mosul – Iraq

H S Al-Bakry; A H Al-Hamdani; M S Daoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 155-156
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46708

Fishes as other animals are infected with endo- and ecto-parasites L. cyrinacea was so far recorded from 23 species of fishes in middle and south of Iraq. The present article deals with the first recorded of L. cyrinacea on the common Carp, in Akrah, Mosul, Iraq.

Effect of Eimeria tenella attenuated vaccine with levamisol on immunity of broilers

E G Zakaria; A F Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 157-167
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46735

This study has been applied on broilers which were given vaccine prepared from sporulated oocyst of E. tenella that attenuated by X-ray (10, 15, and 20) K rad, in its 1st day with dose 1×104oocyt/bird orally; Levamisole was used as an immunomodulator with 15mg/kg- body weight gains during 4 days after vaccination. Broilers were divided to 8 groups challenging was performed in 22 days of the immunized groups and 7thgroup by sporulated oocyst 6×104oocyst/bird. After challenge recording the quantity of the consumed feed, weight gains, and some immune examinations were also applied like: Phagocytes, delayed hypersensitivity test and organ index.

Natural infection of Cysticercus pisiformis in domestic rabbits and a study of experimental infection in the final host (Dogs)

E G Sulaiman; M Sh Rhymah; M S Daoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 169-174
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46737

The results reveal that the natural infection of domestic rabbits with Cysticercus pisiformis was 68.18% from 22 rabbits. The postmortem changes revealed prescience of peticial hemorrhage beneath capsule and parenchyma of the liver with large number of larval cysts attached at the liver, peritoneum and diaphragm and others found within the peritoneal cavity. Histopatholgical changes of the liver tissue were showed necrosis of hepatic cells with highly infiltration of inflammatory cells especially lymphocytes around the portal area in addition to deposit of haemosidrin pigment. Larval stage reached to adult stage after 45 days in the final host (dogs) and the morph metric study was indicated that the species of the parasite is Taenia pisiformis.

Comparative efficacy of Moxidectin and Ivermectin in cattle naturally infected with old world screw worm larvae

E A Hassan; A Y Al-Karogholli; A S Hassan; M O Al-Ani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 175-177
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46740

Moxidectin is a second generation semi-synthetic Macrocyclic Lactone of the Milbemycins family, which have a broad spectrum of activity against external and internal parasite including Oestrus ovis and hypodermatosis. A trial was conducted to identify the efficacy of moxidectin against the natural infection of cattle with larvae of screw worm fly Chrysomya bezziana. A dose of 0.2 mg/ kg b.wt. (1 ml /50kg b. wt.) S.C . which was found to be very effective for more than 40 days? The trial shows the effect of Moxidectin is over that of Ivermectin in re-infection of the animal. No side effects & no abnormal behaviors, was noticed on the animals treated with Moxidectin during the trial.

Effect of garlic oil as antiatherogenic on intiation and development of atherosclerosis induced experimentally by oxidative stress in rabbit

E Sh Al-Allaf; E R Al-Kenany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 179-192
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46741

This study searched the microscopical effects of garlic oil at a dose of 50 mg daily for 60 days on tissues of heart , liver, and kidney in female rabbits. The results revealed hyperatrophy in cardiac myocyte, acute cell swelling in hepatocyte and epithelial cells that lined renal tubules. Complete lipid profile was also described.
The study also proved that garlic oil had a good antioxidant effects toward the meliorating progression of atherumatous lesion. Antioxidative effects also explained by significant reduction in lipid profile parameters (except an elevation in HDL-C), as well as elevation in tissue GSH and reduction of tissue MDA, as compared with control group. One more result , this study was suggest on the therapeutic efficiency of garlic oil and vitamin E for 15 days after exposure to hydrogen peroxide for 60 days. The therapeutic effects interpret within the significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, atherogenic index and significant increase in the level of HDL-C. In addition to significant increase in the level of GSH and significant decrease in the level of MDA. The histopatholgical changes, reveled less reduction in atherosclerotic lesions. This study concluded that garlic oil have a capability to decrease the level of lipid profile as antiatherogenic. In addition, the ability to decrease the level of lipid peroxidation MDA, and to increase the level of GSH as antioxidant.

Mortality and birth weight in Friesian, Sharabi and Crossbred calves

S A M Dabdoub

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 91-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46744

Birth weight of 149 Friesian, 270 Sharabi and 121 crossbred calf's males and females were utilized. The mortality rates have been obtained from birth until weaning for each breed in males and females. Average birth weight in male's survival group for sharabi, Friesian and crossbred were 20.94, 30.82 and 30.19 kg respectively, and in females were 18.42, 29.11 and 28.10 kg, respectively. Birth weight in Sharabi was significantly different (P<0.01) from Friesian and crossbred in both males and females. In mortal group the birth weight was significantly (P<0.01) less than survival group in both sexes and for each breed.
Mortality rate in males and females were (14.1%, 16.7%) in Frieasian, (21.2%, 23.6%) in Sharabi and (8.8%, 7.5%) in crossbred respectively, which differ significantly (P<0.01) among breeds. But, no significant difference between males and females was detected.
The Point-Biserial correlations between mortality anb birth weight were negative and highly significant for the three breeds in males and females. The threshold point of birth weight values which gave the best efficiency, the efficiency were for Friesian (89%, 85%), Sharabi (86%, 80%) and crossbred (93%, 94%) for males and females calves respectively, Fm and Fc, as well as efficiency were determined. Advantageous results were in least specificity Fm and Fc, and in high efficiency and sensitivity.
The threshold values of birth weight for classifying mortal and survival groups were (25.6, 26.6 kg) in Friesian, (16.6, 16.1 kg) in Sharabi, and (24.6, 22.6 kg) in crossbred in male and female, respectively.

Some immunosuppressive effect of T-2 toxin in broiler

A M Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46745

Male broiler 1-day-old chicks were fed T-2 toxin at a rate of 8 mg/kg for 3 weeks, to determine its effect on total leukocyte count; differential and absolute leukocyte count; stress ratio (Heterophils/ Lymphocytes), (H/L); serum albumin and globulin's (α, β, δ) levels; bursal weight index (BWI); bursal diameter index (BDI); Thymus length index (TDI); histological changes in both bursa of Fabricious and thymus. The results show that T-2 toxin had a significant negative effect on all of the above mentioned parameters, with cortical thinning effect on both bursa of Fabricious and thymus.

The effect of autotransplantation of bone marrow with laser irradiation on the healing of non-union fractures in the femoral bone of dogs

O H Al-Hayani; B T Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 109-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46747

In this study, the effect of autotransplantation and laser irradiation on the healing of experimental induced non-union fractures in the femoral bone were investigated clinically and radiographically in 12 dogs. The fractures were left without fixation for 40 days and over, and following the occurrence of non-union state the fractures were treated at 3 different schedules in the experimental animals, which were divided into three groups, each containing 4 dogs:
Group 1 (control): the non-union fractured femoral bones were treated by the routine surgical procedures using intramedullary fication achieved with Steinmann intramedullary pins.
Group 2 (intramedullary fixation with autotransplantation of bone marrow): following the surgical treatment of non-union fractured femoral bone and their fixation by the Steinmann intramedullary pins (by the same procedure applied in group 1), 4-6 ml of fresh bone marrow was implanted at the fracture site. The bone marrow was aspirated freshly and aseptically from marrow cavity of the opposite femur from the same dog.
Group 3 (autotransplantation of bone marrow with He:Ne I.R. laser irradiation): in addition to the procedures applied in group 2, the surgical site was exposed to laser irradiation type He:Ne I.R. with a total dose of 2.7 J/cm2 for 12 irradiation sessions. Each daily irradiation session was for a period of 5 min for 3 successive days, followed by one-day rest.
The concluded results were:
1-autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow at the site of the treated non-union fractures has a role in accelerating or improving the healing process, by promoting excessive callus formation, whereby the fracture line disappeared at the end of the 4th post-treatment week.
2-the use of laser irradiation with autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow, greatly improved the healing process by increasing the periosteal reaction and callus formation, and lead to disappearance of the fracture line at the end of the 3th post-treatment week. Furthermore, this technique improved the functional use of the affected limb in comparison with groups 1 and 2.
3- the laser irradiation made the remodeling stage shorter (finished within about 3 months) in comparison with group 1 and 2, in which it continued for more than 3 months.

Modified suture technique for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in dog

A H Allawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 123-133
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46749

The present experiment was conducted to study the possibility for using single layer of modified suture technique and to compare it with interrupted horizontal mattress suture technique. Clinical, radiographical and histopathological studies of anastomotic site have been made, 15 and 30 postoperative days in two groups. Results showed that the intestinal anastomosis with modified technique was associated with minimum adhesion, less degree of stenosis, healing by formation of granulation tissue and complete formation of villi at 30 days. While, intestinal anastomosis with interrupted horizontal mattress suture was associated with sever adhesion, major luminal stenosis, healing by increase formation of fibrous tissue, thinning of epithelium layer and the mucosa was not complete at 30 days.

Evaluation of foaling heat in Arabian mares in Ninevah province

M. A. Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 29-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46805

The present study was conducted to study the relationship between breeding season of Arabian mares at first estrous after foaling and pregnancy rate. Thirty six mares were divided in to two groups according to foaling heat in breeding season, transitional periods. Animals included in this study were maintained with the same management and conditions in the special breeding stables. This study was performed in a farm located in Nineveh province during the period from June 2008 to June 2010. The mares were observed for the first estrous after foaling and the duration between foaling and first estrous after foaling (foaling heat) in breeding season or transitional period and the estrous signs were recorded by exposing the mares to a teasers stallion. The results of this study showed that the foaling heat in the first group was 8-9 days in 26 mares in breeding season observe first estrous while the pregnancy rate in 8 mares was 30.76%. However, results the second group of the first estrous sign after foaling was 8-10 days in the 10 mares observe the first estrous in, transitional period without pregnancy. It could be concluded that the detected foaling heat duration 8-10 days after normal foaling in breeding season and natural mating in spite of decreased pregnancy rate at foaling heat.

Effect of pretreatment female lactating rats with albendazole on preventing developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups

M. K. Shindala; A. M. AL-Jobory

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46807

The aim of the present study was to evaluated the effect of treated female lactating rats with enrofloxacin alone and its interaction with albendazole on the occurrence of developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity in suckling pups by using percentage of survival of pups to weaning as well as neurobehavioral test (surface righting reflex). The exposure of suckling pups to enrofloxacin alone through the milk caused sever toxic effects manifested by significant decrease in percentage of survival in pups to weaning to (0%) as result from death all pups from dams were treated with enrofloxacin at high dose (480 mg/kg, i.m.) during the first 5 days of lactation. Whereas, treated lactating female rats with albendazole at (300 mg/kg, orally), 1 hour before enrofloxacin (480 mg/kg, i.m.) during the first 5 days of lactation protected suckling pups from developmental toxic effects of enrofloxacin which mainly appeared as a significant increase in percentage of survival of pups to 100% as result from survival all suckling pups to weaning, accompanied by preventing the neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups manifested by highly significant decreased response time to surface righting reflex to (2.64 ± 0.57) minuets in the postnatal day 3 in compared with pups from dams that treated with enrofloxacin alone which reached to (15.82 ± 0.27) minuets. In conclusion, our results suggest that pretreatment of female lactating rats with albendazole protecte suckling pups from developme-ntal and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin.

Detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp in gall bladder of sheep slaughtered in Mosul, Iraq

E. G. Suleiman; E. T. Butty; A. A. AL-Abadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 41-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46812

The current study revealed the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium in the fluid and tissue of gall bladder of sheep which is slaughtered in Mosul city by using different diagnostic techniques, including direct smear method, staining method by modified Zeil-Nelseen stain, scraping of mucosal layer of gall bladder and histological examination, the percentage of infection 20% and there were significant differences in the percentages of infection between gall bladder 20% and fecal samples 41%. The histological study showed that the oocyst of Cryptosporidium was attached on the surface of the epithelial cells of gall bladder. The high percentage of infection appeared in ewes was 30% and there was no significant differences in the infection of gall bladder between rams and ewes.

A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

M. H. Hasan; H. M. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 45-53
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46816

The study was conducted to diagnose and study species of Eimeria in sheep in Mosul city from beginning of September 2009 to end May 2010, as well as to determine the percentage and intensity of infection of Eimeria species. Five hundred fecal samples of sheep with different ages were collected from different areas of the Mosul city. The results showed that total percentage of Emeria infection was 63.6%. The variations in percentage of infection were recorded according to month of study. Highest percentage was recorded in March being 89.2% and the lowest in September 25.9%. The species E. ovina recorded the highest infection rate 86.7%, while the species E. granulosa represented lowest infection rate 10%. Moreover the intensity of infection was higher in young ages and lower in adult. The results were detected that indoor sheep infection with high parasitic infection 69.9% whereas outdoor animals have an infection rate 25.3%. The morphological characters of oocysts were varied according to species of Eimeria has been studied. Fifty of intestinal and abomasal samples from both slaughtered in shops butchery in Mosul city and dead animals were examined to detect Eimeria infection, and results show that infection percentage was 56.4% in intestine of slaughtered animals and 36.3% in dead animal. Moreover no infection of Eimeria were detected in abomasums in both slaughtered and dead animals. The oocysts of (E. parva, E.pallida and E. ovinoidalis) detected at more than 5000 oocysts per gram of intestinal contents. The intestinal secraping stained with Giemsa stain reveals the presence of different developmental stages of parasites in wall of intestine. The histopathological sections of intestine revealed the different pathological changes concerning of Eimeria infection.

Serum glucose concentration and lipid profile in racing horses

S. A. Hasso; H. A. Al-Hadithy; R. M. Hameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-3
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46823

The aim of the present work was to evaluate serum glucose concentration and lipid profile in racing horses in Iraq. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 92 clinically healthy racing horses (males and females, Arabian and Cross bred), 2-8 years old at Equestrian Club, Baghdad. Investigations included serum measurements of glucose (sg) and lipid profile parameters; total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and the atherogenic ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C), in order to register the normal ranges and mean values of these measured parameters in Iraqi healthy racing horses. Results showed that the range and mean values ± standard error of sg were: 33.3 – 6.71 mmol/l and 5.17±0.07 mmol/l, respectively, whereas the TC was 2.07 – 4.22 mmol/l and 3.01±0.05 mmol/l, TG 0.6 – 1.47 mmol/l and 1.06±0.02 mmol/l, HDL-C 0.93 – 2.25 mmol/l and 1.50±0.03 mmol/l, LDL-C 0.10 – 2.12 mmol/l and 0.91±0.04 mmol/l, VLDL-C 0.31 -0.67 mmol/l and 0.55±0.02 mmol/l, respectively and the atherogenic ratio 0.66±0.03. The data present reference values and mean ± SE for sg and lipid profile parameters in healthy racing horses in Baghdad.

Effect of aflatoxin on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in Toxoplasma gondii infected mice

A. F. M. Al-Taee; A. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 5-9
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46826

This study was conducted for the determination of the combined effect of aflatoxin and Toxoplasma gondii on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in sixty young inbred Swiss female albino mice BALB/C, which were randomly divided into six equal groups; Group 1(untreated control) animals were maintained without any treatment; group 2 were injected intraperitonealy with T. gondii tissue cysts; groups 3 and 4 were fed diets contaminated with 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin respectively; group 5 and 6 were fed 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin and injected with T. gondii tissue cysts. All animals were maintained for 40 days. One ml, containing 100 Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was obtained from brain tissue of naturally infected local breed rabbit was injected intraperitonealy. Aflatoxins (AFs) were prepared through inoculation of rice with Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and were incorporated into the diet to provide the described level of 0.5 and 1 ppm. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken to determine Heterophils/lymphopcytes ratio (H/L), while brain was taken to determine glutathione and malondialdehyde concentration. Results showed that mice injected with T. gondii tissue cysts alone and those groups fed aflatoxin at both rates of 0.5 and 1 ppm were exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in H/L ratio, and malondialdehyde, while there is a significant (P<0.05) reduction on the level of glutathione. The results revealed that aflatoxin could exacerbate T. gondii infection and induce stress through suppression of glutathione and elevation of malondialdehyde concentration and H/L ratio.

Relationship between mycotoxicosis and calcium during preproduction period in layers

T. S. Qubih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 11-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46888

This study was conducted to examine field cases of mycotoxicosis (A flatoxicosis and ochratoxicosis) and their effects on calcium during the preproduction period of 1SA brown pullets. Birds were 12-15 weeks of age. The feed was subjected to analysis for mycotoxin and blood samples were laboratory diagnosed for infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal viruses antibody titer and for determination calcium level. Clinical signs of affected birds were rubbery bone, ruffled feather, paleness and high mortality. Necropsy findings of sick birds were characterized by muscle dehydration, enlarged livers yellowished, kidney enlargement and urate deposition. Histopathological features of liver consisted of capsular thickening hepatocellular necrosis, subcapsular infiltration with inflammatory kidneys cells showed swelling of tubular cells, deposition of calcium between kidney tubules with infiltration of inflammatory cells. ELISA test revealed the presence of 800 ppb aflatoxin and 100 ppb ochratoxin. Normal titers of infectious bronchitis virus and infectious bursal diseases antibodies were recorded. Low blood calcium level of 8.2 mg/dl was registered in the tested blood samples.

Antioxidant status in pregnant ewes vaccinated with Rev 1 against brucellosis

W. S. Al- Khafaji; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 15-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46890

The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the indicators of free radicals and antioxidant activity, represented by malondialdehyde and glutathione peroxidase in the sera of ewes vaccinated with Rev 1 vaccine. The experiment included 28 animals which were divided into four equal groups. Animals of the first and second groups were vaccinated subcutaneously with 2×109 and 2×107 colony forming units (CFU), respectively, whereas the animals of third and fourth groups were vaccinated conjunctively with 2×109 and 2×107 CFU, respectively. Sera were collected monthly for 6 months. Antibody responses were assessed by classical tests (Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests) in comparison with competitive ELISA. The antibody titers were higher and remained for along period in the subcutaneously vaccinated groups with the two doses compared those vaccinated conjunctively. There was a significant increase in serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the 8th week post vaccination in subcutaneously vaccinated groups and during the 12th week in those vaccinated conjunctively. Significant increase of serum malondialdehyde levels occurred during the 4th week in those vaccinated conjunctively and in 8th week in those vaccinated subcutaneously. This study concluded that the route of administration of the vaccine affects glutathione peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde level, which act as indicators of oxidative stress response, more than the vaccine dose.

Incidence of hydatidosis in slaughtered livestock at Mosul, Iraq

M.T. Jarjees; H.S. Al-Bakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46893

A study on the occurrence and seasonal incidence of hydatid cysts of sheep, goats and cattle was carried out during 2008 and 2009 by weekly regular visits to Mosul abattoir and other areas i.e. outside abattoir. All slaughtered livestock were of local breed, of both sexes, originated from various areas of Mosul and were of different ages having non descriptive features. Visual inspection and palpation of the lesions were followed in this study. Of 4800 sheep, 960 goats and 720 cattle were examined, 96 sheep, five goats and four cattle were found to harbour the cysts representing infection rate of 2%, 0.52% and 0.55%, respectively. The lowest seasonal incidence was observed in winter for sheep (3.16%) and goats (1.25%). The lowest level of incidence was 0.16% for sheep and 0% for goats was noticed in summer. However, in cattle no infection was taken place in winter and autumn but 1.11% infection rate was equally seen in summer and spring. The preponderant site of cyst was the liver in sheep (46.8%) and goats (40%). In cattle the commonest location of the cyst was the lung (50%) followed by mixed site of liver and lung (25%) and liver (25%). The results indicated that only fertile cysts were present in the sheep representing 83.33% of fertility percentage. The number of cysts in the infected organs ranged between 1-16, 1-6 and 1- 10 for sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. It can be concluded that only sheep play a major role in dissemination of hydatidosis. However, being anthrozoonotic, potential risk may be increased due to incorrect disposal of infected offal with unhygienic slaughter protocols.

Isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from suspected enterotoxaemia cases in lambs

N. S. Mechael

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 29-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46947

Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens), while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Trypanocidal efficacy of diminazene in diabetic rats

U. S. Chigozie; A. B. Maduka; J. G. Ifeanyi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 33-38
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46950

The experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of hyperglycaemia on the trypanocidal efficacy of diminazene aceturate. Groups of alloxan-induced diabetic rats infected with T. brucei and T. congolense were treated with diminazene aceturate, and trypanocidal effects compared with normal non-diabetic controls. Results showed that the prepatent period was shorter in the diabetic (11.25±1.65 days) than non-diabetic-T. congolense (15.0±1.73 days), and also variations in responses to the trypanocidal therapy between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups were detected. Parasite clearance time did not differ significantly between the diabetic and non-diabetic (43.2±8.89 versus 52.8±8.89 hours in T. brucei and 33.6±5.9 versus 36.0±6.93 hours in T. congolense, respectively). The relapse intervals were shorter in the diabetic than non-diabetic (16 days versus 23 days in T. brucei, and 7 days versus 14 days in T. congolense, respectively). Proportion of relapses was greater in the diabetic- (100%) than non-diabetic-T. congolense (66.7%). We also find parasite species-related differences in susceptibility to the trypanocide, with a higher apparent cure rate in the T. brucei than T. congolense group. We conclude from the results of this study that the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of diminazene aceturate may be diminished in patients with diabetes mellitus. Further study is needed to validate this hypothesis.

Use of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk powder

S. D. Al-Sawaf; O. A. Abdullah; O. H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 39-42
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46952

Thirty five samples were collected from seven types of milk powder in Mosul city markets, and surveyed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Analytical results showed that 82.8% of the samples were contaminated with AFM1. The incidence of AFM1 in Al-mudhish, Angolac, Dielac, Lona, Nido, Melgro and Multi samples were 40, 50, 80, 100, 100, 100 and 100%, respectively. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk powder, 79.3% (23 out of 29) of positive samples were higher than the permissible limits, according to the European Commission (50 ng/kg), whereas 6.8% (2 out of 29) of positive samples were above the prescribed limit of US regulation (500 ng/kg). The level of AFM1 concentration in Melgro and Multi types was higher than Al-mudhish type and it had a low level of contamination, compared with other types of milk powder.

Detection of streptomycin residues in local meat of bovine and ovine

O. A. Abdullah; A. M. Shareef; O. H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 43-46
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46958

From meat retails in Mosul province, forty-five meat samples of local ovine and bovine (23 bovine samples and 22 ovine samples) were collected. The period of collection was during November 2010 to May 2011, by means of multistage random sampling for detection of streptomycin residues. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for detection of streptomycin residues. The results revealed that eleven ovine meat samples (50%) were positive to streptomycin residue, with a mean value 35.06 µg kg-1, while 14 bovine meat samples (60.86%) were positive to residual streptomycin with a mean value 59.56 µg kg-1. From the results, it is clear that all tested meat samples (ovine and bovine) were safe enough for human consumption.

Occurrence of Listeria monocytogens in raw milk of ruminants

B. A. Abbas; G. M. Jaber

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 47-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.46959

The present study was performed on three hundred raw milk samples, 100 each from cows, sheep and buffaloes were collected from different places of Basrah city. 7.3 % of the samples were found to be positive for Listeria spp. Cow's milk was found to be more infected than other animals milk with this bacteria. All bacterial isolates were confirmed as L. monocytogens by colony characteristics, beta haemolysis, cold enrichment procedure, selective media, Anton test, tumbling and inverted pine tree motility and sugar fermentation tests. Most isolates were found to be sensitive to cefotaxine, sulfamethoxazol, chloramphenical and tobramycin. rifampicin was found to have less effect on these isolates. Effects of pH and temperature on bacterial growth were also studied to test the ability of this microorganism to survive in milk under severe conditions. The pH range for growth was from 4 to 9.5. The temperature range was between 4 – 45 ºC.

Study of efeect of eimeeria tenella vaccine attenuated by x –ray wtth using levamisol on pathogenictty in broiler

A. F. AI-Taee; E. G. Zakaria

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 169-183
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46960

This study has been administered to broilers which were given vaccine prepared form sporulated oocyst of E. tenella that attenuated by X-ray (10, 15, 20) K rad, in its 1st day with dose 1×104 oocyt /bird orally. Levamisole was used as an immunostimualant with 15mg/kg- body weight during 4 days after the vaccination. The broilers were divided into 8 groups they were watched during the 1st–2nd weeks after vaccination, as well as clinical signs, mortality rate 5 – 8 days post vaccination and oocyst detection was performed too, blood picture was also performed , Packed cell volum (PCV ) and Diffrential count ( DLC). Challenging of immunized group and 7th group in 22 days was done using the 6×104 oocyst/bird The results neither showed any clinical signs and mortality rate for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th, groups in spite of noticing oocyst in their excrement, mean while the 5th and 6th groups showed milde clinical signs, and blood picture variations between immunized and the sontrol group were noticed.

Effect of ultraviolet and ultrasound on newcastle disease virus

M. Y. AL-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 185-192
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46961

The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on Newcastle disease virus( virulant and vaccinial strains) was studied .Results showed decrease the titer of virulant strain about 1.5 Log 10 and 1.2 Log 10 at254and 366 nm respectively such effect was less on vaccinial strain .Haemagglutination (HA) activity of the same viruses was also studied and showed that HA titer of virulant NDV was decreased 1Log2 when treated at 254 nm and 366 nm , but vaccinial NDV was not affected at 366 nm. The effect of ultrasound on viability of same viruses showed that the titer of virulant NDV was decreased 2.5 Log 10 and 3.5 Log 10 when treated with ultasound at the frequency 14 Ampittute (AM) and 22(AM) respectivly but the vaccinial NDV was less affected .Both viruses were lost their HA activity completely at 22(AM) for one minute .

Preparation of local inactivated hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome vaccine

M. Y. Al-Attar; Th. M. Al-Nima

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 193-199
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46962

Monovalent and Bivalent formalin inactivated vaccine was prepared using two different in pathogenecity local isolates of adeno virus serotype 4 which causing hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome in chicken The efficacy evaluation was carried out by S/C injection of prepared vaccine in 10 days old chickens . Antibodies titer was calculated after 1 and 2 weeks post injection , challenge test after two weeks of injection was performed by the virulent isolates separately and compared with imported monovalent vaccine as positive control . Results showed that the bivalent prepared vaccine was more efficient than monovalent and imported vaccine.

Pathogenicity study of hydropericardium syndrome virus in broiler

M. Y. Al-Attar; Th. M. Alnima

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 201-208
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46963

Pathogenicity of eighteen local viral isolates of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in broiler were studied in 1 & 21 days old age chickens using intraperitoneum injection and oral administration .According to macroscopic and histopathological changes , four isolates were found to be highly pathogenic in inducing pathognomic lesions of HHS than others which were characterized as moderate pathogenic isolates .
The results showed that I/P injection of 21days old chicken lead to histopathological changes in affected organs clearear than other routes of inoculations.

The effect of aflatoxins on the immunological response to hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome vaccine in broilers

S. Y. Albaroody; F. A. Danial; A. Z. Daood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 209-214
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46964

The immunosuppressive effect of affatoxin (AF) on the antibody titer level of broiler chicks vaccinated against hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) virus was studied . Four groups of chicks were used . The first group was vaccinated with HHS vaccine only; the 2nd group was fed AF contaminated diet and vaccinated with HHS vaccine , the 3rd group fed AF contaminated diet and kept with HHS vacceination ; the 4th group was not treated with AF or HHS vaccination and left as a negative control group .
The results showed that there was a significantly higher antibody titer HHS vaccine in the 1st group compared with the 2nd group . The challenge test with Adenovirus showed 100% protection in chicks of the 1st group compared with 80% in chicks of the second group .

Diagnostic study of infection with Schistosoma spp in sheep and cattle in Ninevah Governorate

E. Gh. Suliman; S. S. Aghwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 215-227
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46965

Through the examination of 78 fecal sample of sheep and 52 fecal sample of cattle collected from different region in Ninevah governorate, the percentage of infection with schistosoma eggs in sheep and cattle were 7.69%, 19.23 respectively with significant differences between sheep and cattle, two types of eggs of schistosoma had been identified in sheep they were : S. bovis and S. indicum (first record) while in cattle S. bovis, S. indicum and S.intercalatum (first record) were diagnosed. Infection with S. bovis formed highest percentage in sheep and cattle 83.3%, 70% respectively. The results revealed significant differences between type of infection in sheep with significant difference between the type of infection in cattle, and the single infection formed highest percentage in sheep and cattle 83.33%, 70% respectively. The percentage of infection appeared with high rate in sheep and cattle with aged more than 3 years 9.8%, 40% respectively with significant difference between groups of age in cattle. No significant difference appeared between males and females of sheep and cattle.
The worms of S. bovis were diagnosed in portal hepatic and mesenteric veins of sheep in Akra area(first record) and a number of sheep in this area were died.

Toxicity of sarcocytis gigantea detected From sheep in ninevah governorate

N. S. Al-Hyali; A. F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 229-243
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46966

This study was included the detection of the infection with Sarcocystis gigantean in sheep, the mature cystic stages was appeared oval or cylindrical shaped with a diameter of 7.8 2.8 mm and 1.5 μm thick striped cyst wall. The total rate of infection with the macroscopic type in sheep oesophagus reached 94.8%.
Isolation and precipitation of crude protein extracted from macrosarcocysts of S. gigantea was performed using saturated ammonium sulphate solution. Fractions of this protein (a and b) were isolated by employing Gel Filtration Technique on Sephadex G-50. The molecular weight of these proteins fractions were determined as about 63095 and 27410 dalton respectively using (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis technique.
The toxic effect of b protein fraction was studied in rats peritoneal injection at concentration 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg /kg body weight. These animls experienced acute doxicological nervous signs including tremors, complete and partial paralysis. The highest dose (0.5 mg/kg) of b fraction was the most toxic among the injected concentrations. Blood picture in injected rats revealed a significant reduction in hemoglobin and packed cell volume and increase in total leuckocyte count. Significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes were observed. There was also a significant inhibition in the brain cholinesterase activity in the treated rats.

The effect of methionine supplementation to broiler chicken diets on body weight uniformity and relationship between economical triats

S. A. M. Dabdoub; Th. A. .A. .Azaldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 245-255
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46968

A Total of 180 day old male Cobb broiler chicks were raised, from day old untill 42 day of age to investigate the effect of adding graded levels of methionine (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20%) in comparison with basal diet on broiler body weight, uniformity and the relationship between economical traits and economical efficiency. The birds were equally distributed into four groups , with 45 birds each,and were allocated in three replications.
Highest body weight was found in the chicks group that consumed ration consist in (0.15%)methionine at various ages.This treatment showed similar results for body weight uniformity and relative growth rate, in comparison with the other treatment groups. Feed conversion was significantly altered due to effect of methionine supplementation at (0.15 ,0.20%)levels vs first treatment. Feed intake and liveability were not affected by any level of methionine supplementation.
Economical efficiency of the third group was the best when compared with others. Regression and simple correlation analyses revealed that third treatment showed that relationships among the performance traits was the best at 42 days of age.

Role of Catheterization in Causing Urinary Tract Infection During Surgical operations in Dogs

M. M. H. A-Jammly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 257-267
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46969

This study investigated the role of urinary catheterization in causing urinary tract infection in dogs during experimental surgical procedure in addition to isolation and identification of micro–organisms which causes urinary tract infections (UTI).
Eighteen dogs from both sexes aged between (9 month – 3.5 years) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups each containing 6 dogs. During the surgical operation the dogs were catheterized and urine samples collected under aseptic condition. The urine samples were subjected to various tests; physical, microscopical examinations and bacterial cultivation on various differential media to identify the pathogenic micro – organism.
The results showed that crystals of calcium oxalate (14.2%) and triple phosphate in (7.1%) was precipitated in the urine of dogs that applied laparoscopic cystotomy at which the cystotomy wounds was closed by titanium clips. Also the results showed that E. coli was the most frequent bacteria (28.5%) while other bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Staphylocoocus epidermidis and Corynebacterium spp. was the least frequent (7.1%). Also the results revealed that the chance of UTI increased with prolonged catherization.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Bacterial Causes Urinary Tract Infection in Slaughter Sheep in Mosul City

M.M. Aljemaly; M.M. Zenad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 269-280
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46971

The study included isolation and diagnosis of causative microorganisms of urinary tract infection of sheep slaughter in slaughter house in Mosul.
(66) samples of urine collected from urinary bladder directly by sterile syringe from clinically healthy sheep (one animal suffered from dysuria) from both sex of different ages, followed by antibiotic sensitivity test for isolated bacteria. Urine were examined physiologically and chemically in a percentage of (5-10%) for the presence of pus, red blood cells, epithelial cells In addition of protein, sugar were determined and considered as a primary indicator for urinary tract infection.
Results revealed (34) isolate (51.5%) isolated from (66) samples of urine. The results also showed that Gram positive bacteria were dominants (except Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium renale) than Gram negative bacteria. Corynebacterium ovis with Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest percentage (20.58%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (14.7%) then Gram negative bacteria
E. coli give (11.7%). Pseudomonas spp. (8.8%) and Proteus (2.24%) also isolated Candida albicans in (5.8%).
The results of antibiotic sensitivity of isolated microorganism indicated that Ciprofoxacin and Gentamycin was the most effective while Pencilline and Nitrofuration had no effect.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Prototheca from Bovine Mastitis in AL-Mosul city

S. Y. AL-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 281-294
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46984

This study included the isolation and diagnosis of Prototheca microorganism from milk samples of 80 Cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city , from October 2006 to May 2007 . Prototheca were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics . The study showed that 16 samples ( 20%) were positive to Prototheca from total count included 14 (17.5%) P. zopfii and two isolates (2.5%) P. stagnora . The study show the ability of this microorganism to produce some virulance factors such as : Urease , Esterase , Lecithinase and Lipase . Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that all isolates were resistant to Ampicillin , Amoxycillin , Cephalexin , Neomycin , Streptomycin and Tetracycline , while they showed different percentages of sensitivity to Gentamycin , Polymyxin B and Nystatin.

A study of bacterial agents and lesions on urinary tract in bovine

S. Y. Mahmood; B. Y. Rasheed; M. Sh. Rhaymah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 295-305
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46985

This study was conducted on 50 cattle affected with inflammation of the urinary tract. Urine samples were collected from cattle that showed several lesions following their slaughter. Forty two bacterial isolates were found with a percent of isolation of 84% Escherichia coli constituted 42% of the isolates, followed by Actinobacter lwoffii and Aeromonas hydrophila (12% for each), Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6% for each), and Lactobacillus spp. (2%).
Results of the sensitivity test showed that the isolated bacteria were sensitive to chloramphenicol and highly resistance to penicillin G. The isolates showed variable sensitivity to the other antibiotics.

Comparative study of imidocarb, oxytetracycline 20% and diminazine in treatment of bovine anaplasmosis

K. A. M. AlSaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 307-316
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46986

Thirty local breed cattle (2-5) years old naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale were used in this study, the animals were divided randomly into three equal groups (10 animals for each), first group was treated with Imidocarb dipropionate, intramuscular at a dose rate of (3.5) mg/kg B.W. Second group treated with oxytetracycline 20%, intramuscular at a dose rate (20) mg/kg B.W. Third group treated with diminazine aceturate, intramuscular at a dose rate of (3.5) mg/kg B.W. All medications repeated after (48) hours. Clinical signs, hematological changes, percentage of parasitemia and some changes of biochemical values pre and post treatment used for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy against natural infection with bovine anaplasmosis.
Results indicated that Imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of (3.5) mg/kg B.W., intramuscular, repeated after (48) hours is more effective in the treatment of bovine anaplasmosis in comparasion with Oxytetracycline 20% and Diminazine aceturate.

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. In calves and different water resources

D. A. AL-Sawah; T. I. AL-Alousy; M. A. Kadir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 155-165
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46987

The study was planned to show the prevalence of Cryotosporidium spp. in calves and water sources in Salahaddin governorate.
The study included 137 faecal samples of calves in the villages and indoor husbandry from Al-Ishaky private farm, 87 males and 50 females for period from beginning of July 2000 to end of April 2001. The age of calves was ranging from one month to one year.
Water samples were collected from tap water, panel of Tikrit city, pond water of rain, river water and sewage water.
Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was done by modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Carbol Fuccin Dimethyl Sulfoxide Methods, Direct Immunofluorescent Test was also used in water samples.
The rate of infection in calves was (37.95%); in males (40.2%) being higher than females (34%). The distribution of infection was highest among calves below one month (43.2%) of age. The highest rate of Cryptosporidium was in summer (50%) and the lowest was in winter (18.5%).
In the number of oocysts per liter of filtrated tap water was (0.2 oocysts/ liter), which was lower than infiltrated water of Tikrit planet
(3 oocysts/ liter), pond water (20 oocysts/ liter), river water (6 oocysts/ liter) and farm water (40 oocysts/ liter). In sewage water, oocyst was isolated only in one sample (0.1 oocyst/ liter). There was a strong correlation between turbidity of water samples and number of oocysts detected; as water samples with highest turbidity contained greatest number of oocysts.

Natural occurrence of t-2 toxin in broiler,s feed commodities determined with ELISA

A.M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 167-173
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46988

Two hundred and twenty six broilers feed commodities were collected from different broiler flocks in Ninevah governorate(Iraq), through the period from January 2004 toDecember 2005. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method was used for T-2 toxin estimation. Results showed that, 81.5% of the total examined feed samples were positive to T-2 toxin contamination. Individually these percentages were as follows; 95% for wheat; 87% for corn; 85% for soybean; 74% for barley; and 70% for mixed feed. The range for T-2 contamination was between 8-1200 ppb. Most of the samples (58.4%) had low T-2 toxin natural contamination levels. Thirty two percent of positive samples had medium contamination level, while only 18.6% experienced high natural contamination levels with T-2 toxin.

Prevalence of lice infesting goats in Mosul

T. M. Al-Saffar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 175-181
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46989

The aim of this study is to find the prevalence and diagnosis species of lice infesting goats in different seasons and different areas and farms in Mosul, and to determine the severity of infestation among 450 native goats during a period of one year. The result of the study revealed that 14.2 % of the examined goats harboured lice or their eggs (nits). Among the infested animals it was reported that 17% were considered as light, 38% moderate and 45% heavy degree of infestation respectively. It was found that the sucking lice Linognathus stenopsis was more predominating than the biting one Bovicola caprae (Damalina caprae). It was observed that the highest degree of infestation was in Winter. Mixed infestation was noticed. The clinical signs in infested goats were itching, emaciation, pale mucous membrane, restless and decrease milk production, hair loss or matted and rough haircut.

Etiological study on egg peritonitis of laying and parent stock hens

T. S. Ali; T. S. Qubih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 193-198
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46990

The aim of this study is to diagnose the etiologic agents of egg peritonitis. Sixty one chicks affected with egg peritonitis were examined clinically, pathologically, microbiologically and serologically. The results showed swelling of abdomen redding of skin, and abduction of legs. Necropsy showed peritonitis with presence of blood stained or caseated material.
The results of serology ( ELISA ) was negative for infectious bronchitis, Mycoplasma, Influenza and egg drop syndrome.
The microbiological examination revealed the presence of Proteus vulgaris (3 cases) (4.91%), Staphylococcus aureus (9 cases) (14.75%), Escherichia coli (48 cases) (78.68%) and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (one case) (1.63%).The results of sensitivity test has been discussed.

Possiblity of isolation of inclusion body hepatitis virus in layer hens

H. K. Ismail; F. A. Isihak; A. A. Shamaun

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 199-205
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46991

The aim of this study was isolation of the inclusion body hepatitis virus (IBH) from infected commercial layer hens in Ninevah governorate and identification the pathological effects of this virus. The natural infection of IBH revealed pathognomic basophilic and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nuclei of many hepatocytes of infected chickens. Haemagglutination test of the allantoic fluid show titer 3Log2 of the isolated virus after one passage in the chiken embryos with 1% rats washed RBCs. The experimental infection is done by injection of layers and breeders at 20 weeks age by liver homogenate from infected chickens and revealed the same pathognomic gross and histopathological lesions.

Detection of staphylococcus aureus capsules producer isolated from bovine & buffaloe mastitis

G N Shamoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 193-201
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.62267

This study was done for the detection of capsulated Staphylococcus aureus strains which isolated from bovine & buffaloes Mastitis . 23 ( 57.5 %) & 8 ( 53 %) strains of these bacteria were isolated , 6 (26 %) & 2 (13.3 %) were capsule producing strains, and that 9 ( 39.1 %) & 4 (26.6 %) were slime producing strains, as well as an increase in number of capsules and slim producing strains were observed following growing of these bacteria in culture media containing glucose, milk. The experimentally histo- pathological study revealed presence of capsules in lung sections stained with Hematoxylin – Eosin as a halo area which appears around the bacterial cells . In edittion to a strong positive reaction with periodic acid shiffs.

Clinical study of anestrous in iraqi buffaloes in nineva province

M. A. Rahawy; M. B. Taha; O. I. Azawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 113-124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62471

The current study was conducted on 907 adult buffalo cows, 60 cows suffering from anoestrus located in buffalo breeding farm in Nineveh province during the period from September 2002 to March 2003. The aim of this study was identify the incidence of anoestrus in adults Iraqi buffaloes in Nineveh province. Some biochemical changes in anoestrus buffalo cows were studied including calcium, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, glucose, and cholesterol in blood serum. Different hormonal therapy with supportive treatment were used. Animals included in this study 28 adult buffalo cows suffering from inactive ovaries and divided in to three treated subgroups with control group, each group contain 7 adult buffalo cows, and 32 adult buffalo cows suffering from persistent corpus luteum which divided in to three treated subgroups. with control group, each group contain 8 adult buffalo cows the results of this study show that total incidence of anoestrus in adult Iraqi buffalo cows in Nineveh province was 6.6% and 3.1% due to inactive ovaries and 3.5% due to persistent corpus luteum.
The biochemical Analysis showed blood calcium level increase significantly in (P<0.05) and total protein level decrease significantly in (P<0.05) in adult Iraqi buffalo cows suffering from inactive ovaries while blood calcium level increase significantly in (P<0.05) and cholesterol level decrease significantly in (P<0.05) in adult Iraqi buffalo cows suffering from persistent corpus luteum.
Treatment regime using GnRH with vitamin AD3E and phosphorus salt in adult Iraqi buffalo cows suffering from inactive ovaries showed high response on estrus sign (85.71%) and conception rate (71.5%) followed the treatment of progesterone alone and then GnRH alone respectively. While treatment regime using PGF2 a alone of adult Iraqi buffalo cows suffering from persistent corpus luteum showed high response on observed Estrus (87.5%) and conception rate (87.5%) followed by PGF2 a plus GnRH in three day interval then PGF2 a with Estradiol benzoate respectively. It was concluded that from this study the hormonal therapy or with supportive treatment could be successfully used in anoestrus buffaloes.

Study the percentage of infection with endo and ecto parasites in dogs in mosui / iraq

S.H. Arsalan; E. Daham; Q.T. AL-Obaidi; E.G. Sulaiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 125-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62475

65 dogs from both sexes aged 2 months – 3years old were used in this study, included 42 stray dogs 11 guard dogs, 6 pet dogs and 6 clinically normal dogs served as a control were examined. Clinical signs observed and the study of blood picture. The percentage of infection with eggs and oocysts of endoparasites in stray dogs and guard dogs were 78.57%, 27.27% respectively Eggs of Toxocara canis 40.47%, eggs of Toxascaris leonina 30.95%, eggs of Taenia spp 16.6%, oocysts of Isospora spp 7.1% and Cryptosporidium spp 11.9% were diagnosed in stray dogs. The eggs of Dioctophyma renale appeared 4.76% in faeces of stray dogs. In guard dogs, eggs of Toxascaris leonina 27.27% were also diagnosed.
Examination of skin scraping revealed 100%, 45.45%, 16.6% infection with ectoparasites in stray, guard and pet dogs respectively. The most important ectoparasites observed in stray dogs were Rhipicephalus sanguineus 40.47% Rh. turanicus 30.95%, Ctenocephalides canis 54.76% Heterodoxsus longitarsus 23.8% Demodex canis 30.95%, Sarcoptes scabiei 19.04% and Cimex spp 7.1% while in guard dogs Hcterodoxsus longitarsus 36.36%, Ct. canis 27.27% Rh. sanguineus 18.18%, Demodex canis 9.09%. In pet dogs, only Rh. sanguineus 16.6% was recorded. Mixed infection with different endoparasites and ectoparasites was most common in stray and guard dogs 76.19%, 40% respectively. Conclusion was made that the highest percentage of endo and ectoparasites were in stray dogs.

Role of oxidative strees induced by hydrogen peroxid on intiation and development of atheroslerosis in mature femal rat

E. R. AL- Kennany; E. Y. Al-Khafaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 139-151
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62477

This study was conducted to determine the possibility of 0.5% H2O2 on drinking water, for the induction of oxidative stress status in mature female rats. Moreover, this study deals with the role of this stress in initiation and development of atheromatus lesions in these animals. Oxidative stress has been investigated via tissue malondiadehyde (MDA) & glutathione (GSH) (aorta, heart and liver) as indirect lipid peroxidation index. For atherogenous follow up, light and electron microscopical techniques have been applied.
The result elucidate significant elevation in lipid profile parameters namely cholesterol, Triglycerides TG, Low density lipoprotein LDL-C, Very Low density lipoprotein VLDL-C, atherogenic index and a significant reduction in High density lipoprotein HDL-C, level in all experimental animals. Parallely, this study revealed significant rising in tissue MDA concentration, concomitant with significant depress in tissue GSH level in all studied animals.

Preliminary study on the prevalence of giardia in ruminants in ninevah province

M. SH. Rhaymah; B. A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 153-163
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62480

The study revealed presence of giardia cyst in the feces of animals which was examined at 7%, 4.5% and 5.45% in the direct method for sheep, goats and cattle respectively, while 15.5%, 16.5% and 21.81% in concentrated method respectively at the same animals.
No significant differences recorded in rate of infection between different species of animals, although higher percentage of cyst was eliminate in cattle feces. There was no significant effect of age and type of breeding on rate of infection. However the animals in late stage of pregnancy and early stages of milking eliminated higher percentage of cyst in their feces, especially in goats. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode eggs with giardia was found to be 7.5%, 4.5 and 0 % in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively and with Eimeria; 3.5%, 11% and 5.45, in same animals, respectively. The most obvious clinical signs found were pasty feces mixed with mucous, emaciation and easily detached wool and hair.

CAPABILITY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII TO INDUCE AN OXIDATIVE STRESS AND INITIATION OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS IN CATS EXPERMENTALLY INFECTED

E. R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 165-176
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62483

This study was conducted to explore the capability of Toxoplasma gondii to induce an oxidative stress status via an experimental infection of 12 domesticated cats appear free of natural Toxoplasma gondii infection, by feeding tachyzoites infected mice. Tachyzoites have been isolated from 3 month aborted ewes fetus. The positive results of this infection were achieved by the isolation of oocysts from the fecal matter at 7 days post infection (p.i.), as well as the demonstration of tissue cysts in the brain tissue of infected cats at 14 days p.i. This study was revealed that an oxidative stress status appear at 30 days p.i., clarified by significance elevation of MDA levels in liver, brain ,and aorta tissues of infected cats, concomitant with a significance reduction in GSH concentration in the same tissues. Moreover, the present study suggest the correlation of this oxidative stress with progression of atherosclerotic lesions namely: fatty lesions and fatty proliferative lesions, that appear in the aorta of infected cats at 30 days p.i. on the other side, this study remarks the serum fatty profiles and the gross and the histopathological changes in infected cats.

SECONDARY AMYLOIDOSIS ASSOCITED WITH Salmonella typhi EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION IN WHITE MICE

K. H. Al-Jaboury

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62484

The present paper reported induction of amyloidosis by intraperitoneal injection of Salmonella typhi in white mice. The study was on young mice of 5–6 weeks old, after two weeks acclimatization period, mice were injected intrapritoneally with 0.25 ml of S. typhi suspension containing 2.5 x 108 bacterial cells and sacrificed daily for 28 days.
The amyloid was systemic, secondary in character and organs mostly affected were spleen, kidney and liver, respectively.
It appeared that this is the first report remarks the induction of systemic secondary amyloidosis by intra peritoneal injection of Salmonella typhi in young white mice.

NATURAL CONTAMINATION OF SOME BROILER'S FEED COMMODITIES WITH OCHRATOXIN

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 9-17
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62485

Ninety eight samples of feed commodities (wheat, soybean and corn ) were collected during the period 2000–2004 from various broiler farms showed clinical signs of ochratoxicosis. Feed samples were divided into two equal parts, one for mycological study, for detection of feed commodities contamination with A. ochracous, and the other part for ochratoxin analysis using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mycological results showed that wheat samples show the higher percentage of contamination with A. ochraceus (73%) with log 10 CFU/gm of 2.77. Toxicological analysis shows that wheat samples had the highest rate of ochratoxin contamination (86%) followed by soybean (76%) and then corn samples (70%). Ochratoxin levels in all feed samples were ranged from < 100 ppb to 400 ppb. The importance of ochratoxin in poultry health was discussed.

ISOLATION OF Brucella abortus FROM ABORTED LAMBS IN THE GOVERNORATE OF SULAIMANIA /SAID-SADIC DISTRICT

J. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 19-23
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62486

Brucella abortus was isolated and identified from aborted lambs in the Governorate of Sulaimani /Said-Sadic district. The blood agar, candle jar and 37°C incubator were successfully used. Microbiological and biochemical tests were used for identification of the isolates. Although previous incidence of brucellosis prevalence has been reported serologically in the area but the present study could represent the first attempt for B. abortus isolation, with local available facilities in the Governorate of Sulaimani.

THE CORRECTION FACTOR OF HAIR DENSITY IN THE SKIN OF BUFFALO

M. H. Abdul Raheem; A. M. Elias; N. S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 101-106
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62487

The hair density of the back region in water buffalo was calculated by counting the number of hair follicles in the horizontal sections prepared by conventional paraffin embedding method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin . The calculated hair density was 3.53 hair follicle/mm2 of the buffalo skin. All the hair follicles were of primary type and distributed randomly.
The skin samples showed different variable shrinkage percentage during routine histological technique. The shrinkage percentage of surface area of the stained sections was found to be 21 % of the original value. Thus the correction factor of the hair density was calculated to be 0.79, this leads to conclusion that the actual hair density of the back region of the skin of living buffalo is 2.78 hair follicle/mm2 only .

EFFECT OF COX-2 INHIBITOR, ROFECOXIB, ON EPIDIDYMAL SPERM CHARACTERS AND ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS

F. K. Tawfeek; S. M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 107-115
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62488

The effect of long term administration of cox-2 inhibitor (Rofecoxib) on epididymal sperm characters (male fertility) was investigated in adult male rats by two separate experiments. Rofecoxib was administered orally at two doses 0.35 mg/Kg B.W., and 0.71 mg/Kg B.W. Animals received 0.35mg/Kg B.W. rofecoxib showed a significant increase in weights of head, body of epididymis, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities with a significant decrease in sperm count in the epididymal head and the percentage of live sperms. On the other hand, rofecoxib at a dose 0.71 mg/Kg B.W. caused a significant decrease in the percentage of live sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, and the diameter of seminiferous tubules. It is concluded that the administration of rofecoxib was associated with an unexpected incidence of adverse effect on male rat fertility. However, the future might not look quite as satisfying as at first imagined, because it has become apparent that cox-2 inhibitors dose not simply have a significant role in pain and inflammation it might also work disadvantageously.

THE EFFECT OF LASER AND LASER PHOTOSENSITIZER COMBINATION ON LEISHMANIA TROPICA PROMASTIGOTES IN VITRO

H. S. Al-Obaidi; M. A. Kadir; A. M. A. Al-Sammaraie; G. A. Al-Mula

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62489

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common disease in Iraq, especially in the central part of the country. Several treatments have been suggested for this disease but none is completely effective and without side effects. Several research studies are focused on the development of alternative treatments.
The study was carried out in College of Medicine, Tikrit University, to show the effect of laser and laser photosensitiser (ultrameladinine) combination on Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro, after exposure for 3, 6 and 9 minutes. It was found that exposure to light from 5 mw lasers in the presence of ultrameladinine lead to destruction of L. tropica promastigotes in vitro. The effect of laser and laser photosensitiser was greater than laser light alone. Their effect on the parasite after exposure for 9 minutes was significantly greater than exposure for 3 and 6 minutes.

EVALUATION OF GLUTARALDEHYDE AS DISINFECTANT OF LAPAROSCOPE

E. A. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 123-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62490

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of glutaraldehyde as disinfectant to laparoscope. 30 dogs under going laparoscopy for different surgical intervention, the laparoscope was soaked for 20 minutes in 2% glutaraldehyde before the procedure. After standard skin preparation with 5% tincture iodine. Cultures of the umbilical area, the laparoscope and the peritoneum were taken to document the type of organisms commonly encountered under clinical condition. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as for fungi were taken. The result demonstrated growth of common skin organisms even after skin preparation with tincture iodine. The organisms cultured from the skin and peritoneum were similar but the organisms of laparoscope cultures were different. The study proofed that glutaraldehyde successfully can be used as disinfectant for laparoscope.

A COMPARATVE STUDY OF TWO METHODS OF PROSTATECTOMY IN DOGS

B. T. Abass; M. J. Eesa; L. M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 133-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62491

The present investigation was designed to determine the differences between two methods of prostatectomy in dogs. The study conducted on eight aged, male street dogs of local breed. The experimental animals were randomly divided into two equal groups. The animals were surgically treated by two surgical techniques; first, Complete Prostatectomy (CP), and second, Subtotal Intracapsular Prostatectomy (SIP). The results showed that dogs in group1 underwent urinary incontinence after prostatectomy of normal glands, and one animal died from complications. As compared to that in group 2, the urinary obstruction was not a postoperative complication as appeared from the clinical signs. In conclusion, CP led to a series of complications could lead to death, and is indicated only for those patients with proliferative prosthetic disease and for patients with prostatic neoplasms. While, SIP procedure indicated affectivity, because urethral obstruction and urinary incontinence have not been a postoperative complication, in addition, to the fewer complications occurred, when it's compared with CP.

EPIDURAL INJECTION OF XYLAZINE /NOVOCAIN MIXTURE IN DONKEYS

L. M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 139-143
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62492

This study was conducted on nine adult donkeys from both sexes to determine the ideal dose and efficiency of Xylazine/Novocain mixture for inducing a good and safe epidural analgesia. This mixture was injected between the first and second coccygeal vertebrae. The results indicated that the efficiency of Xylazine 2% at a dose 0.8 mg /kg.BW mixed with Novocain 2% at the dose 0.1ml/kg.BW induced good safe epidural analgesia in donkeys.

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF CROSS LINKED CHITOSAN-POLYURETHANE MESH IN TISSUE REPAIR IN SHEEP

A. A. Al-Obaidi; H. I. Al-Sadi; S. Sh. Hashim; N. H. Markas

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 145-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62493

In the present study, an interpenetrating polymer network (cross-linked chitosan-polyurethane mix) was successfully prepared. It was found that the mixing of 70% chitosan and 30% polyurethane gave the best results as far as the mechanical properties of the network are concerned. Toxicological evaluation of the network was done in 15 rabbits, and it was found to be pathologically non-toxic. The possible effects of the network on the liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles of sheep with clean or infected open wounds were studied through the measurement of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase. In sheep with clean open wounds that were implanted with the network, the levels of the enzymes were 11.04  0.54; 30.83  1.20; 36.37  1.52; and 5.52  0.37, respectively. In sheep with contaminated wounds, the levels of the enzymes were 11.29  0.30; 38.58  1.16; 38.20  1.21, and 6.31  0.46, respectively. Statistically significant differences were not encountered in the values of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase in sheep with clean wounds and those with contaminated wounds. However, the level of aspartate aminotransferase was higher significantly (P<0.01) in sheep with contaminated wounds than in sheep with clean wounds. Histologically, the healing of the clean and contaminated open wounds proceeded through the same processes as described in the literature. Bacterial infection was not observed in any of the wounds that were implanted with the network.

THE EFFECT OF BONE MARROW AUTOGRAFT ON FRACTURE HEALING WITH DESTRUCTION OF PERIOSTEUM AND

M J Eesa; Thanoon M G; Ibrahim S M

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 163-172
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62494

Ten mature rabbits was used in this study. The animals were divided into two equal groups. Femoral mid–shaft fractures were induced, and destruction of both periosteum and endosteum for about one centimeter around the fractured ends was performed. The fractured bone was immobilized by intramedullary pinning. Group 1 considered as control, while group 2 was implanted by sufficient amount of auto–bone marrow at the fracture site. The radiographic results revealed that, the destruction of both periosteum and endosteum leads to delayunion and some percentage of nonunion. While the bone marrow in group two promoted and enhanced the fracture healing.

EFFECT OF ALOE VERA GEL ON EXPERIMANTAL TENDON HEALING IN DONKEYS

E. R. Al-Kennany; A. H. Allawi; Z. T. Abd-Almaseeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 173-180
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62507

This study was conducted to explore the effect of Aloe vera gel on healing of experimentally incised superficial digital flexor tendon in donkeys. Results of this study showed that healing of severed tendon in all experimental animals was through proliferation of fibroblasts and angioblasts and collagen fibers formation, and also presences of newly oriented tendenous tissue like the original tissue in 21 days postoperatively for the animals treated with Aloe vera gel, while this tissue never seen in control group for same period. As well as notice of mature irregular granulation tissue which was still poorly oriented in control group within 21 days postoperatively, whereas the animals in group treated with Aloe vera gel showed mature regular (organized) granulation tissue within 14 days postoperatively. This study proved that Aloe vera gel has ability to accelerated tendon healing through prevent wound infection and protect the tissues from contamination.

CLINICAL STUDY ON FETAL CONGENITAL DEFECTS CAUSING DYSTOCIA IN AWASSI EWES

E. B. Basher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 181-189
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62509

Out of 193 clinical cases of dystocia in awassi ewes were treated, 27 (13.9%) ewes were suffered from dystocia due to fetal congenital defects. Various forms of congenital defects were observed including arthrogryposis 25.9%, brachygnathia and anasarca 18.5% for each, hydrocephalus 11.2% ascitis and dicephalus 7.4% for each, cyclopia, conjoined twins and schistosoma refluxes 3.7 % for each. The defects were occurred more frequently in male lambs (74.1 %) than in female lambs (25.9 %). Prenatal losses were reported in 96.2% of the cases.
Dystocia cases caused by congenital defect were treated by caesarian section (74.1%), manual correction and traction (14.8 %) or by fetatomy (11.1 %). The results indicates increasing the morbidity rate of fetal congenital defects in Mosul at this period, and showed that caesarean section was the best and safest method for the treatment of dystocia caused by congenital defects.

CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PERITONITIS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAUMATIC RETICULOPERITONITIS, RUMINITIS, AND RUMINAL TYMPANITES IN WATER BUFFALOES

K. M. Al-Saad; H I AlSadi; M. J. Eessa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 191-201
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62513

The Objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical and pathological aspects of peritonitis secondary to traumatic reticuloperitonitis, ruminitis, and ruminal tympanites in water buffaloes. Results of this study have showed that cases of acute peritonitis were more frequent than cases of chronic peritonitis. Body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were higher significantly in cases of acute peritonitis than in cases of chronic peritonitis (P0.05) and that these parameters were higher significantly in cases of peritonitis than in control animals. Ruminal motility was higher significantly in acute cases of peritonitis than in chronic peritonitis but it was lower significantly in cases of peritonitis than in control animals. Inappetance, grunting, and scant feces were more frequently seen in cases of acute peritonitis than in cases of chronic peritonitis. Arching of the back, rough coat, dripping urination, disinclination to move, and lying down with care were seen in cases of acute peritonitis only. Loss of body weight was seen in cases of chronic peritonitis only. Decreased milk production was more frequent in cases of chronic peritonitis than in cases of acute peritonitis. The packed cell volume values were higher significantly in cases of acute peritonitis than in control and chronic peritonitis. In contrast, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was higher significantly in cases of chronic peritonitis, and in cases of peritonitis than in control animals. Plasma fibrinogen levels were higher significantly in cases of chronic peritonitis than in cases of acute peritonitis, and in cases of peritonitis than in control animals. The total lymphocytes count and neutrophils values were higher significantly in cases of acute peritonitis than in chronic peritonitis, and in peritonitis than in control animals. The lymphocytes value was significantly lower in cases of acute peritonitis than in chronic peritonitis and in control animals. Histologically, the lesions were in the form of congestion, extensive hemorrhages, and edema of the peritoneal tissue. Thrombosis of some blood vessels, areas of necrosis, and minimal mixed type inflammatory cells were also seen. Erythrocytes were the main consitituent of the exudate and deposits of hemosiderin were visualized in areas of hemorrhages.

Effect of some antioxidants on blood picture and antioxidants status in roosters exposed to oxidative stress

A. A. Hassan; M. S. M. S. Al-Ma; atheedi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 55-61
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67441

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Vitamin E 600 mg/kg diet, Vitamin C 450 mg/kg diet and sodium selenite 0.5 mg/kg diet in adult white Leghorn male chickens (30 weeks), which were concomitantly exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (0.5%) supplemented with drinking water for 6 weeks on blood picture. Blood samples were collected at (0, 3, 6) weeks of treatment. Hydrogen peroxide caused a significant increase in the total leukocyte count, heterophils percentage and heterophils /lymphocytes ratio (stress index) accompanied with a significant increase in liver malondialdehyde level associated with significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, lymphocyte and esoinophil percentage. It also caused a significant decrease in liver glutathione on the 6th week of the treatment compared with control group. The antioxidants with hydrogen peroxide caused a significant decrease in the total leukocyte count, heterophils percentage and stress index accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde level in liver tissue compared with hydrogen peroxide alone and control group, beside that a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, lymphocyte, esoinophil percentage and liver glutathione level compared with hydrogen peroxide alone which returned to control group values. In general, treatments with Vitamin E, C and Sodium selenite reversed the adverse effects produced by hydrogen peroxide on certain physiological parameters in adult male chickens.

Prevalence and distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis antibodies in dogs in Mosul City

D.M.T. Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 63-67
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67443

The purpose of the current study to investigate of visceral leishmaniasis antibodies in blood of dogs. One hundred and fifty six samples of blood of stray and domestic dog blood samples of different ages and sexes and from various regions of Mosul city were collected. The study began from July to August 2010. The area of the study (Mosul city) was divided geographically in to two main areas i.e. right and left coasts of Mosul city. Also, another subdivision was followed in which each major areas was divided into six administrative parts, having other residential quarters. A qualitative membrane based immunoassay (rK-39) was followed for detection of antibodies of visceral leishmaniasis. However additional conformation of the parasite was done by blood smears and impressions smears obtained from the liver and spleen of the sacrificed dogs. The finding showed that visceral leishmaniasis antibodies were recovered in the dogs of southern and south eastern parts of Mosul city representing a total infection rate of (14.1%). However, infection rate was higher in the dogs of left coast (16.66%) than that in the right coast of Mosul city (11.11%). It can be concluded that high prevalence rate was found in the southern and south eastern parts of Mosul city.

The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

Y.J. Mousa; F.K. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 69-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67444

The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50) of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m.), respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

Effect of vitamin C on blood picture and some biochemical parameters of quail stressed by H2O2

A.F. Abdulmajeed; H.A. Alkarad; S.Y. Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 77-82
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67445

This study was carried out to investigate the Vitamin C protective effect against the H2O2 – induced oxidative stress effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters of female quails (Coturnix coturnix).120 sexed female quails were reared from 21-56 days. Randomly the birds divided into 4 groups (30 birds/group) (2 replicates) as follows: 1st group: T1 (control): reared on standard ration and tap water.2nd group: T2 (H2O2 group): reared on standard ration and tap water supplemented with 0.5% H2O2. 3rdgroup: T3 (Vitamin C group): reared on standard ration supplemented with 300mg/kg ration and tap water. 4thgroup: T4 (H2O2 + Vitamin C): reared on standard ration supplemented with 300mg/kg ration and tap water supplemented with 0.5% H2O2. Results revealed that Vit. C supplementation improve female quails blood picture, this effects were adversive to the H2O2 effects, Vit. C causes a significant increase in lymphocytes % and a significant decrease in hetrophils and hetrophils: lymphocyte ratio (stress index), also a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as a significant increase in serum protein when compared with the effect of H2O2 – induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, oxidative stress causes a negative effects on blood picture and some serum biochemical parameters, and Vit. C supplementation reduces and reverses the H2O2 effects.

Neurobehavioral changes associated with chronic treatment of omega-3 in rats

Y. Z. Saleh; F. A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 83-89
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67448

This study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic use for 2 month with omega-3 on the level of neurobehavioral and motor activity in the open field. The study showed an effect for different doses of omega-3 on the nervous system and behavior when drainage drug by mouth, that are easily hand to deal with the rats dosage with 10, 50, 250, 500 mgkg of body weight. Rats in doses 10, 50, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg recorded a significant decrease in number of crossed squares and the number of rearing comparison with the control group. Pocking test recorded significant increase in the number of times introduction of head in the holes compared to the control group in doses of 50, 250, 500 mgkg of body weight, a dose of 1000 mgkg showed a prolongation in the time required to avoid animal high edge, with a lower score swimming and stretching in a period of rotation in the negative geotaxis test compared with the control group, while the rest of the doses did not show any significant difference compared with control. In test of tonic immobility response all the doses recorded a significant decrease in the stillness and freeze for rats movement, compared with control group. We concluded that omega-3 has beneficial effect on the level of neurobehavioral and motor activity in the open field activity in addition to development cognitive behavior of animals, except dose 1000 mgkg Shaw some behavioral difference compare with control group.

The effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis on the relative weights of internal body organs and jejunum tissue of broiler chicks

A. A. T. AL-Ani; Z. T. AL-Dhanki

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 91-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67449

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis isolated from broiler crops on villus high and crypts depth of jejunum tissues and relative internal organs weight of broiler chicks (Ross 308). Chicks were subdivided into four treatments: the first treatment was considered as control, and other three treatments were treated by inoculating the chicks with 0.25 ml once weekly for (7 week) with normal saline (second treatment); enrofloxacin (third treatment; and liquid culture containing 7.1 × 108 colony forming unit/ml from B. adolescentis (fourth treatment). The results showed that there was a significant increase (P≤0.01) in the villus high in bifidobacteria treatment compared with control and antibiotic treatment, and significant increases in crypt depth of Lieberkuhn in bifidobacteria treatment compared with antibiotic treatment at 1st week of age. At the 2nd week bifidobacteria treatment significantly increases (P> 0.01) in crypt depth of Lieberkuhn and villus high compared with all treatments, and the same significant increases was happened at the 4th treatment in bifidobacterai treatment compared with all treatment in villus high and but only with antibiotic and normal saline treatment in crypt depth of Lieberkuhn. The relative weight of internal organs was not affected by bifidobacterai treatment except the percentage of duodenum weight to its long at the 2nd week in the bifidobacterai treatment compared with normal saline treatment.

Using species-specific PCR technique to detect Toxoplasma gondii in broiler chickens

R.A. Al-Sanjary; T.H. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 53-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67452

Two groups of broiler chickens were used in this study. One was reared under typical conditions at the animal house of Veterinary Medicine College/Mosul University- Iraq, while the other group was reared under common commercial farm conditions. Fifty and 80 birds from the two respective groups were sacrificed at 49 days of age for detecting Toxoplasma gondii by using Species-specific PCR technique. Results of Latex agglutination test indicated, principally, that 29.3% and 49.2% of the serum samples were positive for the birds of both groups, respectively. Titer figures ranged between 1:20 to 1:320 where the highest value was 1:160 (39.3%) and the lowest was 1:20 (5.8%). Confirmation of 38 and 64 serum samples, using Latex agglutination test was performed by PCR technique, from the two respective groups of chickens. Of those, 8 samples from the college birds and 35 from the commercial farm birds were confirmed positive by giving band of 133 bp, according to specific primers designated on gene B1.Based on these results, pursuing the PCR technique is considered, so far, a most sensitive method for Toxoplasma gondii detection. Also, positive PCR results are counted on as an early marker for reactivation and useful means in monitoring therapies.

Comparative morphometric study of shank bone in the tom (Meleagris gallopavo) and local cock (Gallus banikaval)

S. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 57-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67453

The study was carried out on 20 legs of ten adult clinically and healthy local and Tom were obtained from Mosul local market, were divided into three groups; the first and second groups were subjected to gross feature regarding to shape, position, relationship of tibiotarsal and fibula in both birds also the length and diameters of shank bone while third group study morphological of muscles, blood and nerve supply of leg. The purpose of this study, this part of the limb is popularly known as the (drum stick), the bird in lowering its body flexes knee and hock joints and this passively tenses these tendons of leg which clamp the digits about the perch, and that is the much longer than the femur and, in spite of importance study to parameters of leg are more economic to choose breed of fertilization depend on the measurement, the outcome of this investigation may served as a guide for successful study of domestic birds in Iraq. The results include in both birds, the leg is consist of tibia fuses with tarsal element, forming tibiotarsus and fiblula articulates with the femur that in contrast to mammals. In Tom the tibia has two cnemial crest in proximal extremity and the distal extremity has tendinal groove, but in local cock it has one cnemial crest of proximal extremity, and it has two tendinal groove in the distal extremity, while hock joint in the Tom and local cock is an intertarsal joint that unites the tibiotarsus with the tarsometatarsus but the stiff joint is similar to that seen in mammals. The mean length of tibiotarsal in Tom 17.99±0.44 cm and the mean length of tibiotarsal in local coke 11.74±0.31 cm, the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in Tom 3.02±0.0021 cm proximal part, 2.21±0.005 cm middle part, 1.94±0.0021 cm distal part, but the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in local coke 2.86±0.048 cm proximal part, 2.02±0.067 cm middle part, 1.51±0.0022 cm distal part. While the mean length of fibula in Tom 11.62±0.21 cm and the mean length of fibula in local coke 7.27±0.32 cm, the mean diameter of fibula in Tom 1.51±0.0021 cm proximal part, 0.81±0.0033 cm middle part, and 0.33±0.0043 cm the distal part,also the mean diameter of fibula in local coke 1.12±0.0025 cm proximal part, 0.51±0.007 cm middle part, and 0.23±0.0054 cm distal part. Tendon of muscles of shank bone in Tom generally ossification but remain that tendon in local cock. Also cranialis tibialis muscle has two head, femoral head is usually smaller than the tibial head and gastrocnimeus muscles is composed of three part into two birds which passes through the planter aspect of the tarsometatarsal joint, as soon as flexor digitorium muscle of both species can be grouped into three morphological level (superficial intermediate and deep), the muscles in turkey are very clearly distinguished are read deep color than it is rose color in local cock, blood, nerve supply and venous drainages of the shank bone in both birds by cranial tibial artery is passage with cranial tibial vein and common fibular nerve.

Comparative study of the auricle and external acoustic meatus of the cattle and buffalo

S. Al-Sadi; A. A. Hasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67456

The present work was design to study the anatomical features and radiographic appearance of auricle and external acoustic meatus of cattle and buffalo, collected from (12) sample of heads were used in this study, there were equally divided into three groups: first group to study the shape, position and relation of cartilage, muscles and ligament of auricle in both animals, second group to study the measurements of external acoustic meatus, and the third group study morphological and radiographical of external acoustic meatus in both animal, the study revealed that the auricle is a flapy flashy appendage attached to the side of the skull by muscles and ligaments, the auricle is funnel shape, distally is wide open, but more proximally, it is rolled up to form a tube that bend medially to be connected to the external acoustic meatus, the auricle in both animals is composed of three cartilage: the part auricular, scutiform and annular cartilage also auricular muscle and ligament which support the external ear. The result of this study shows that intrinsic auricular muscles is more developed in buffalo, while the greater parts of the extrinsic auricular muscles are developed in both animals. The present work shows that the frontoauricular muscles are distinguish into two parts in buffalo and cattle on the other hand the interscutularis muscle thin fibers and attached with scutuloauricularis prefunds muscle in buffalo, also the parotidauriculares narrower and thicker in cattle, but a ribbon -like muscle thin and wide in buffalo. The external acoustic meatus begins where the rolled up part of the annular cartilage narrows and ends, the meatus has cartilaginous and osseous parts it is lined with skin the study provided that acoustic meatus about 5.667±0.0816 cm of length in cattle and 6.500± 0.126 cm in buffalo, the aim of present work is to report more detailed information about the auricle and meatus in both animal for value importment can easily examined by the speculum the shortness of the meatus should be courses of the risk of injuring of the tympanic membrane and to be able to pass the otoscope tube through the external meatus and to recognize the eardrum when it is seen, to know the surgical anatomy of auricle and acoustic meatus and to know the relationship of vessels and nerve that must be avoid during surgery and to be able to recognize all parts of the temporal bone on radiographs.

Effect of Gundelia tournefortii on some biochemical parameters in dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic mice

O. H. Azeez; A. E. Kheder

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67458

The aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Gundelia tournefortii on some biochemical parameters in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic mice. Male albino mice were induced hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic by daily injection of dexamethasone 1 mg/kg of body weight intramuscularly (i.m.), the mice randomly divided into five groups (6-8 mice in each group). The group 1: served as negative control group; the group 2: injected with dexamethasone at dose 1 mg /kg.b.w.i.m and served as positive control group; the groups 3, 4, 5: treated with extract of G. tournefortii at doses: 75, 150, 300 mg/kg.b.w. orally respectively companied with injection of dexamethasone 1 mg/kg.b.w.i.m. All treatment were once daily for 22 days. Dexamethasone treatment lead to significant increase in levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride, and significant decrease of body weight, without any effect on level of total protein. G. tournefortii extract treatment at doses: 75 mg/kg.b.w. resulted significant decrease levels of glucose, and body weight. Beneficial effect were seen when mice treated with G. tournefortii at dose of 300 mg/kg.b.w. that lead to significant decrease in levels of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol. These results indicate the usefulness of G. tournefortii extract as hypoglycemia and hypolipidemia in dexamethasone treated mice.

Oral imipramine and intravenous xylazine for pharmacologically-induced ejaculation in donkeys

U.T. Naoman; A.J. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 81-83
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67461

The aim of this study is to evaluate using chemical method by oral imipramine and intravenous injection of xylazine for semen collection from donkeys in a field condition. Five mature male donkeys were used in this study weighting 120-150 Kg, aged 2-4 years, kept in the animal house of the Veterinary Collage, University of Mosul. Semen collections were performed by administration of a combination of imipramine hydrochloride 3 mg/kg. BW orally then 2 hours later, intravenous xylazine hydrochloride was injection as 1.1 mg/kg BW then semen was collected in ballistic tube. A total of 29 ejaculates from 30 trials were collected successful with a successful rate up to 96.6%. Semen characteristics of these donkeys were volume 60.1±2.9 ml, individual motility 53.5±2.0%, sperm concentration 60.2±1.7×106/ml sperm abnormalities 9.5±3.3%, live sperm 57.2±4.5% and PH 7.3±1.8. It could be concluded that, chemical method could be used successfully for semen collection from donkeys.

Reproductive performance improvement in primiparous lactating Holstein cows by different hormonal treatments

T. M. Al-Hamedawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 85-87
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67464

This study was aimed to evaluate different hormonal treatments during early postpartum period on reproductive efficiency on 42 primiparous Holstein cows in the experimental farm of college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, aged 3-3.2 y. during the period from 2010-2012. These cows were divided randomly into four groups according to hormonal treatment at day 50 postpartum. The 1st group included 11 cows and was injected with GnRH 0.0126mg/IM, the 2nd group (10 cows) injected with eCG 1000 IU/IM, the 3rd group (11 cows) administrated by hCG 1500 IU/IM and the 4th group (10 cows) without treatment as a control group. The results of this study revealed that the responsive cows (estrus behaviors) were 10 (90.9%), 8 (80%), 9 (81.8%) and 9 (90%) in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th group respectively and these results were recorded superior significant (P<0.01) for group 2 compared with group 1 and 3 related with duration from initiation of estrus, but no significant differences (P<0.01) between all groups about services per conception and number of conceived animal while the days open and calving interval was recorded significant differences (P<0.01) between the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups compared with control group (4th group). It could be concluded that using hormonal treatment which indicated to produce improvement in certain parameters of reproductive performance provided early post partum breeding.

Effect of induced epilepsy on some biochemical parameters in female rats

J.S. H. Ali; L.I. Matty; S.S. Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 89-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67474

The activity of cholinesterase and some biochemical parameters of blood such as glucose, cholesterol and phospholipids were estimated in 52 epilepsy induced females of Wister albino rats. Animals of this experiment were divided into two groups, group (I) regarded as control and group (II) administrated subcutaneously by pentylenetetrazole 100mg/kg and divided in to three sub-groups according to the time of samples collection 3 hrs, 24 hrs and 1 week. The results revealed that epilepsy induction caused a significant inhibition of serum cholinesterase activity 3 hrs after induction while in the brain, the activity of cholinesterase was significantly increased after 24 hrs Serum glucose level was significantly elevated after 3 hrs and 24 hrs of induction, total cholesterol and phospholipids were not changed. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that epilepsy caused significant changes in cholinesterase activity in brain and serum in addition to the glucose level in the serum.

Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats

R.S. Al-Naemi; Q.H. Abdullah; S.A. Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 93-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67475

Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water) on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group). Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2) included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2) in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2) included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3%) in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats). Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats).induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC), serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-Isoprostane) were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC) in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C) were valuable in reducing this stress.

Misoprostol treatment of dystocia due to ringwomb in Awassi ewe: a case report

I.Y. Ibrahim; E.S. Hussain; E.H. Lazim; O.I. Azawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 101-102
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67479

Two years old Awassi ewe was brought by the owner to the clinic of the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul and he claimed that his animal had dystocia 12 hours ago. Fetal fluid was escaped since 3 hours ago. On clinical examination, the ewe was at term, as denoted by mammary changes and relaxed edematous vulva. The ewe was in a standing position and restlessness due to abdominal discomfort, without any abdominal contractions. Vaginal examination indicated that the cervix was dilated about 1 finger and the fetal membranes ruptured. No any medications were previously given to the ewe in the near past.

A serological study of brucellosis in camels south of Kirkuk, Iraq

M. Yawoz; S. E. Jaafar; A. I. Salih; M. H. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 105-107
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67484

A study of the prevalence of antibodies to camel brucellosis has been carried out in the south of Kirkuk city during March 2011. A total of 66 camels (6 male, 60 female) involved in this study with age between 6 months to 22 years. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein and the sera samples were screened by using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). The sera that were positive by using RBPT have been tested again by using the 2-Mercaptoethanol (2ME) test. The results of this study revealed that two camels from 66 camels (3.03%) were seropositive for brucella antibodies in South of Kirkuk city.

Synergism of the analgesic activities of tramadol with α2 adrenoreceptor agonist xylazine in mice

G. A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 109-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.67485

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antinociceptive interaction between tramadol and xylazine. The antinociceptive effect of intraperitoneal (I.P) administration of the drug alone or in combination was evaluated using the mouse hot-plate test. Administration of tramadol in fixed dose (20mgkg) I.P with different doses of xylazine (0, 2, 4, 8) mgkg I.P significantly referred synergism of the antinociceptive effect of tramadol depending on the dose of xylazine. There was an increased the antinociceptive maximum possible effect (%MPE) from (27.08%) to (85.4%). The effective dose that produce 50% antinociceptive (ED50) were evaluated for each drug alone or in combination. The present study found that the administration of tramadol and xylazine markedly reduced the median effective dose (ED50) of both drugs for antinociceptive effect in mice. The result of this study demonstrated that there was synergism (super-additive) interaction between tramadol and xylazine.

Seroprevelance study of Rift Valley fever antibody in sheep and goats in Ninevah governorate

O.B. Saleh Aghaa; M.S. Rhaymah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 53-61
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82778

The aim of this study was to detect the sero- prevalence of Rift Valley Fever virus antibodies in sheep and goat in Ninavah Provence, The study was included Examination of 368 serum samples, 184 samples for each species of animals (Ewes and female goats (Does), Pregnant, Aborted and lambs or kids 1-2 weeks old) in different areas Ninavah from October 2012 to February 2013. The samples were examined by using competitive ELISA test and measured the level of blood protein, total and direct bilirubin and estimation of some liver enzymes The results of study was revealed that the total percentage of seropositive samples to the c-ELISA was 2.99% (11/368 samples), divided to 1.08% in sheep (2/184) and 4.89% in goats (9/184) and 2.17% from the sample was doubtful. The highest ratio from seropositive was in aborted female goats 72.73% (8/11), while the ratio was equal between aborted ewes, pregnant ewe's and pregnant female goats was 9.09%. There was no positive samples in lambs or goat kids 1-2 weeks of age. There was significantly increased in total protein in serum of seropositive animals compared with control group.

Genetic parameters of some economic traits in Arabi ewes

S.F. Al-Dabbagh; A.K.Mohammed; R.K. Abdulla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 63-66
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82779

Data were analyzed of Arabi ewes flock (153) within productive years 1990-1999 to estimate the overall mean and genetic parameters which are heritability, repeatability, genetic and phenotypic correlations for fertility, litter size, ewes weight, lambs birth weights, milk and wool yield for this breed. The overall mean for fertility, litter size, ewes weight, lambs birth weights, daily milk yield and greasy fleece weight were 70.07%, 1.14, 50.24 kg, 4.52 kg, 0.59 kg and 1.67 kg respectively. Heritability estimates were low- moderate ranged (0.09-0.45). Repeatability estimates were low-high ranged (0.10-0.56). Genetic and phenotypic values of correlation between the traits were all highly significant (p≤ 0.01) except for the genetic and phenotypic correlation between birth weight and both daily milk yield, fertility, phenotypic correlation between greasy fleece weight and both fertility, litter size were non significant.

A role of the sires and dams in the hermaphrodite phenomenon linked with polled Damascus goat breed

M. Roukbi; Kh. Al-najar; K. Fatal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 67-74
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82780

The selection for polled character as preferential in Damascus breed leads to spread homozygous individuals for the polled gene and polled intersexes and consequently further economic losses in this breed. It’s very important to study the genetic origin, the role of sirs and dams in the development of intersexuality linked with hornlessness, and evaluate some other effects in the excess of the intersexes in caprine herd. To perform this work data of 52 intersexes issues from mating 19 polled bucks with 12 horned and 37 polled goats in Humeimeh research station, belonging to General commission for agricultural scientific research, were collected and analyzed by mean of Chi-Square (SAS, 1998). The results showed the statistical effect of sires (P≤0.007) and the unstististical effect (P≥0.05) of dames on the development of polled intersexes in Damascus goat breed. The number of kids intersexes were repeated 10, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 for 1, 2, 2 and 1, five and eight sire number respectively. Whereas the number of kids intersexes were repeated only 2 and 1 for 3 and 46 goat number respectively. The sex of the kids, kidding type and horned goat character have all highly significant effect (P≤0.001) and this because intersex cases issues of single births and twin birth: twin to male, twin to female, and triple births: twin to male and female, and twin to tow males respectively were repeated 17, 18, 14, 2 and 1 respectively. Also, single births, twin births and triple births were repeated 17, 32 and 3 respectively. Cases of intersexuality issues from horned and polled goats were repeated 14 and 38 respectively. It was concluded the important role of hornlessness genetic and multiple births in the development of polled intersexes in Damascus goat breed.

The effect of semen collection method and level of egg yolk on capability of dilution and storage of buck semen

N.N. Dhaher; D.M. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 75-80
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82781

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group). Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%). Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL), the value of the average velocity (VAP), the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL), and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH). Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects of the semen collection method on ability of dilution and storage of buck semen, and using of artificial vagina and 10% of egg yolk is recommended for buck semen dilution and storage.

The relationship of the hard ticks in transmission of some Haemoprotozoa in sheep of Baquba city

E.M.H. AL-Karkhi; A.M. AL-Amery; A.A. Faraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82782

The results showed high infection rates by protozoa (Theileria spp, Anaplasma spp) 51.85% and 44.44% respectively in sheep that was coincident with high infestation rate of ticks, while the low infection rate was 6.66% and 3.33% respectively was coincident to high rates of animals without ticks infestation with a significant difference (P< 0.05). The salivary gland of hard tick females of the genera Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus showed that infected with structures resembles to the developmental stages of the blood protozoa with infection rates 73.33% and 57.14% with a significant difference (P< 0.05).

Pulmonary lesions of buffaloes slaughtered in Mosul area

M.A.M. AL-Qathee; E.R. AL-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 87-93
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82783

The current study was conducted on 100 lung samples collected from slaughtered buffaloes at Mosul city, for identification of the causes of pathological lesions. The isolated bacterial includedEscherichia coli 41.25%, Aeromonasveronii 11.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8.75%, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp 6.25% for each one, Streptococcus pneumoniae 5%, Bacillus spp. 3.75%, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonashydrophila, Pasteurellamultocida, Mannheimiahemolytica, Actinomyces spp. 2.5% for each one, Proteus vulgaris, Actinobacillus spp. 1.25% for each one. Parasites that were isolated from encountered including hydatide cyst 97.29% and Fasciola hepatica 2.7%. Various types of pneumonias were the buffaloes included, chronic fibrinuspleuropneumonia, embolic pneumonia, chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, suppurative bronchopneumonia, fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia and granulomatous pneumonia.

The study of using effective microorganisms (EM) on health and performance of broiler chicks

Dh.M.T. Jwher; S.K. Abd; A.G. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 73-78
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82784

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous EM supplementation to broilers on the performance, immunological and histological status of broilers. A total of 60 unsexed day old broilers (Ross 308) were assigned randomly in two equal groups (treated and control groups 30 birds 15/each replicate) reared on controlled system for 5 weeks. Ten ml/ liter of EM solution was only added to drinking water of the treated group (T2). Blood and performance parameters included body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. As well as estimation of differential leucocyte count. Immunologic criteria involved measurement of relative weights of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius of necropsied birds. The results showed a positive significant effect of EM on the body weight of the treated group which was clear during the 3rd to the 5th week of the trial. There was significant difference in feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency between the two groups. However, the latter parameter had the most notable significance. Increased lymphocyte percentage, increased jejunal villus height and crypt depth as well as increase in goblet cell count were observed in the treated group.

Serological diagnosis of FMD in sheep in Basra by ELISA test

W.M. Muhammed Saleh; S.A. Hasso; F.A. Abdulla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 79-84
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82785

This study was performed to detect the antibodies against the virus-infection- associated antigen (VIAA) in previously diseased and healthy sheep in Basra. The test is valuable in epizootiological surveys because only infected animals with foot and mouth disease virus will give positive reaction without detection of the virus serotypes. 241 sheep sera were collected from 13 suspicious infected sheep flocks with FMD from two major areas in Basra (Abulkhaseeb and Alzubair). All these samples were examined by ELISA test to VIA antigen. It was found -by ELISA- that 71.9% of the total tested sheep sera build specific VIA antibodies against FMD virus, and that 91.7% of the clinically infected sheep gave positive result and that 66.8% of the clinically non-infected sheep were negative. The higher rate of seropositivity in both Abuelkhaseeb and AL-Zubair areas was in the age between 3.5 – 4.5 year (80%) and (81.8%) respectively. The high prevalence of seropositivity to VIA could be due to sub clinical infection or to carrier state and the disease in sheep mild and go un-noticed but important because of transmission to cattle.

Microscopic study of the submandibular salivary gland of adult African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse -1840)

E. Ikpegbu; U.C. Nlebedum; O. Nnadozie; I.O. Agbakwuru

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 85-89
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82786

The study was carried out to provide the basic histology of submandubular salivary gland in the giant pouched rat, as there is dearth of information of its microscopic architecture in available literature. This becomes more important as the possible use of this species of rodent is considered as a future laboratory animal of choice over the Winster rat because of its bigger size and possibility of the giant pouched rat domestication as a ready source of animal protein. Hence the need to understand the digestive biology to help animal nutritionist in feed formulation. The histology revealed the presence of both serous and mucus secretory acini. Some mucus cell presented serous demilumes. Myoeithelial cells were seen around secretory cells and the intercalated ducts. The serous gland region with more relatively profuse intralobular ducts was larger in size than the mucus gland region. The intralobular ducts of intercalated and striated ducts were lined by simple cuboidal and simple columnar cells respectively. The excretory duct was line by stratified cuboidal cells. The large serous glandular region reflects need for more enzymic action in the oral cavity while the mucus glands will help produce mucin that will lubricate the digestive tract. This study for the first time documents the normal histology of submandibular salivary gland in this species, hence filling the knowledge gap that will help further investigative research especially the role of myoepihelial cells in secretory glands tumours.

Comparison of two jejunal anastomosis techniques in dogs treated preoperatively with dexamethasone

A.S. Al-Qadhi; A.M. Al-Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 91-96
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82805

The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of steroidal antiinflammatory drugs that given before surgery on two intestinal anastomosis techniques in dogs. Thirty-two adult local breed dogs were equally and randomly divided into 2 groups: group 1: consist of 16 dogs underwent apposition End-To-End jejunal anastomosis using simple interrupted suture technique and divided this into 2 subgroups: subgroup A: consist of 8 dogs treated preoperatively for 15 days with dexamethasone at a dose of (0.1ml/kg) given I/M. Subgroup B: control group consists of 8 dogs not treated with dexamethasone. Group 2: consist of 16 dogs underwent inverted End-To-End jejunal anastomosis using continuous Lumbert suture pattern and divided this into 2 subgroups: subgroup A: consists of 8 dogs treated preoperatively for 15 days with dexamethasone at a dose of (0.1ml/kg) given I/M. Subgroup B: control group consist of 8 dogs not treated with dexamethasone. The result showed the adhesion at anastomosis site with omentum was more severe in the group one when compared with the group two. The degree of stenosis rate was lower in group one after 7 days of operation (22.7±8.2) while the degree of stenosis rate was higher in the group two after 15 days (54.9±4.1). The anastomotic bursting pressure was significantly lower in the all steroidal subgroups at 7 and 15 days compared with the control subgroups.

Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis virus and it is relation with avian influenza virus (H9) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum from different geographical regions in Iraq

A.H. Al-Dabhawe; H.M. Kadhim; H.M. Samaka

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 97-101
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82811

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry cause acute respiratory infection and serous economic problems in Iraq and many other countries all over the world. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of these diseases in commercial chicken flocks in different geographical region in middle part of Iraq by using qPCR. Tracheal swabs and tissue specimens from trachea, lung and kidney were taken from 38 different cases from commercial broiler chicken flocks in (Najaf, Hilla, Muthana and Theqaar governorates) in the period from November 2010 to June 2011, all these flocks were showed respiratory symptoms and mortality about 20-90%. The results showed that 92.1% of samples collected from these flocks were infected with IBV, 20% of samples were infected with IB alone and 45.71% of samples with IB combined with both GM and AIV subtype H9 and 25.71% of samples were positive to both IBV and AIV(H9). No samples were positive to AIV (H9) or MG alone. Because of importance of respiratory diseases as a most common conditions noted in commercial flocks in Iraq and no previous study detecting this pathogens by molecular techniques, this study come to detect and confirm the diagnosis of this pathogens by qPCR as new technique used in this field in Iraq.

High performance liquid chromatographic determination of diclofenac sodium in plasma of the rat

Z.S. Hamad; B.M. Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 103-107
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82815

A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of diclofenac sodium in rat plasma. The assay was performed after liquid-liquid extraction with 1M orthophosphoric acid and a mixture of hexane:isopropyl alcohol. Chromatographic separations were performed on C18 stationary phase with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: deionised water: orthophosphoric acid (45:54.5:0.5,v/v) as mobile phase with final pH of (3.5). Analytes were detected at wave length of 276nm. This method was validated for specificity and linearity with a correlation coefficient, r=0.99.

A survey of some ovarian abnormalities responsible for sterility in Damascus goats

M. Roukbi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 109-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82818

A survey of some ovarian abnormalities in 13 Damascus goats with normal to masculinized genitalia, aged 1.5 to 6 years is made up in the purpose to determine some types of disorders affecting the ovaries in light of their morphological findings referenced in obstetrics and gynecology literatures. The results showed persistent follicles and cystic ovarian disease in phenotypically females, epidermal neoplasms, gonads dysgenesis and dysgenesic gonad tumors in Shami goats polled intersex goats, similar to ovarian tumors in women.

Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma in an Ewe: Case report

E.R. Al-Kennany; M.A. Qathee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 115-118
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82821

Cauliflower, hemorrhagic, necrotic, and ulcerated mass located on the right of an ewe maxilla was diagnosed as gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC). It was recognize microscopically by identifying malignant epithelial cell arranged as keratin pearls or various degrees of differentiation toward keratinocyte.

Vaginal fibrosarcoma in bitch: a case report

E.R. AL-Kenanny; O.H. AL-Hyani; M.Th. AL-Annaz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 119-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82822

A nine year–old wolf bitch was admitted to the surgical section of veterinary clinic teaching hospital in Mosul with abnormal mass occupying relatively the vulvar opening. According to the case history of owner, the bitch was suffered from varying degree of difficulty during parturition due to presence of this mass that showed during and after parturition. Appetite and all body health condition were normal. Clinical examination revealed presence of mass like tumor attached to the vaginal wall with numerous nodules or small growths originated also from wall of vulva near to large mass. The large growth was protruded completely through the vagina without any vaginal prolapse. After general anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the mass was surgically removed. Histopathological sections were revealed presence of fibrosarcoma which represented by arrangement of cells that have features of malignancy like darkly staining nuclei (hyperchromasia). The mass was diagnosed as a well-differentiated fibrosarcoma.

Effect of Mycofix on immune response of Newcastle vaccine in broiler chickens

R.A. Al-Jubori; M.Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82851

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Mycofix in elevating the immune level also to know the mycofix effect on maternal immunity and to know the effect of giving booster dose of Newcastle disease vaccine in 14 days old on Newcastle disease vaccine, also to know the mycofix effect on body weight, two hundred one day old Ross broiler chicks 308 have been used divided into four groups. The 1st and 3rd groups did not vaccinated to evaluate the maternal immunity. While the 2nd and 4th groups vaccinated with ND vaccine at one day of age, ELISA and HI tests are used to for detecting the antibodies in all groups. Results of the our study showed that Mycofix acted to prolong the period of maternal immunity against ND vaccine in 3rd group comparison with 1st group which not treated with Mycofix, and also the results showed that ELISA test was more accurate than HI test, Where as 2nd and 4th groups showed positive response in both groups but it was significantly higher in 4th group that treated with mycofix comparison with 2nd group, Where as giving booster dose acted to elevate the level of antibody against ND in both groups but the level of antibody was significantly higher in 4th group comparison with other groups along all days of study as a result of adding mycofix in addition to vaccination with booster dose, Results also showed positive response of mycofix which appeared as significantly elevation in live weight average in the groups that treated with mycofix comparison with (control groups) that did not treated with mycofix.

Protein bands of the cuticle of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Boophilus microplus using electrophoresis technique

L.Y. Khalil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 9-11
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82852

In this study by using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis different bands of cuticular proteins of engorged female ticks, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Boophilus microplus, was clarified six different bands of proteins with molecular weights (182, 68, 67, 66, 57, 56 KDa) of H.anatolicum anatolicum while any band of proteins in Boophilus microplus was not separated because it dissolved quickly in electrophoresis solution. The cuticular protein determinants of H.anatolicum anatolicum and B. microplus were 4.7 mg/ml, 1.3 mg/ml, respectively. It may be concluded that protein bands of cuticle could be used as one of taxonomic parameters of ticks.

Using fenugreek seeds powder as a feed additive in rations of Sharabi local cows and its effect on some hematological and biochemical parameters

A.K. Nasser; Q.Z. Shams Al-dain; N.Y. Abou; A.B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82854

This study was conducted on cows farm/Al-Rashedia station, Section of animal resources, department of agricultural researches, Nineveh.Nine Sharabi dairy cows at same weights, production season and calving data were divided into three groups. The fenugreek seed powder was used as feed additives and added to control group (basal ration) at level 50 or 100 g/cow/day for 2nd and 3rd groups, respectively, while the 1st group was left on basal ration only. Cows were fed individually on basal ration as 2% of live weight and according to developing of body weight and milk production during six weeks. Results showed that percentages of lymphocytes and acidophil, and levels of total protein, globulin and glucose were significantly increased, while percentage of neturophil, cholesterol and blood urea were significantly decreased as fenugreek seed powder was added to basal ration at level 50 or 100 g/cow/day as compared to first group (basal ration), while collection blood periods had insignificant effects on all hematological and biochemical parameters. The adding of fenugreek seed powder to Sharabi dairy cows rations had improved some hematological and biochemical parameters

Using fenugreek seeds powder as a feed additive in rations of Sharabi local cows and its effect on milk production and chemical composition

A.K. Nasser; Q.Z. Shams Al-dain; N.Y. Abou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 21-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82855

This study was conducted on nine Sharabi dairy cows at same weights (390±35 kg) and production season (second and third) and cows during first month of calving which were chosen from Sharabi cows farm, Al- Rashedia Station, Department of Agricultural Researches, Nineveh. They were divided into three groups. The fenugreek seed powder was used as a feed additives to the basal ration at a level 50 or 100 g./cow /day for 2nd and 3rd groups, respectively, while the1st group was left as a control ration. Cows were fed individually on basal ration according to developing of body weight and milk production during six weeks, milk production and chemical composition were measured. The results indicated that the amount of feed intake was significantly (P≤0.05) increased for 3rd group, also the normal and adjusted milk yield, fat percentage, value of ration /kg normal milk and milk adjusted were increased significantly (P≤0.05), also the cost for production of one kg of milk was reduced mathematically for 2nd and 3rd groups as compared to those in the 1st group. In conclusion, using 100 g of fenugreek seed powder per cow per day had improved milk production and fat percentage of milk for Sharabi cows.

Pathological effects of the anabolic steroid sustanon on the rat testes

E.R. Al-Kennany; E.K. Al-hamdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 27-33
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82856

This study is designed to investigate the pathological effects of sustanon which is a type of anabolic androgens in different doses on testes of rats. The experiment included 100 rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats to each group. The first group is considered as a negative control given diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly, while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. The animals were euthanized on the periods 15, 30 and 60 day then samples of testes were taken and put in Bouin's solution and then placed in buffered neutral formalin 10% for histopathological section. Pathologically all treated groups showed gross and histopathological changes. Grossly Testis, showed bilateral atrophy. Histopathologically there was testicular degeneration with loss of normal architecture,presence of dead sperm in lumen of tubules and there were inflammatory cells and edema especially in a day 60 after treatment and these changes continued even after stopping treatment for 30 days. It has been concluded from this study that sustanon at the doses 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight for periods of 15, 30 and 60 days had side effects on testes and these effects were progressive and were observed even after 30 days of stopping the drug administration.

The use of ultrasonography for early detection of pregnancy and measurement of some foetal pattern in Damascus goats

M. Roukbi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 35-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82857

This study was conducted using ultrasonographic imaging of real-time B mode ultrasound system equipped with (7.5) MHz linear array traducer for the early diagnosis of pregnancy during breeding season 2011-2012 in a flock of 255 Damascus goats (multiparous=202, nullparous=53) in Humaimeh research station belonging to General Commission for agricultural scientific research (Damascus-Syria), aged between 10 months and 7 years naturally mated; thus the day of insemination by the buck was considered as day 0 of gestation. Also, this study include fetal measurement on 85 (multiparous=63, nullparous =22). Ultrasonography was performed principally transabdominaly (TA) and completed transrectaly (TR) without any preparations for verification of negative results. The examination by TR and TA examination revealed 98.4% of does were pregnant, with accuracy in detecting of pregnancy for positive and negative cases 97.3% and 80% respectively. Transrectaly (TR) examination allowed confirmation of reported negative results and recognition of some positive results (false negative) and thus correction of (TA) results by monitoring fluid-filled (GS) in the uterus or cotyledons or fetal structures. Concerning fetometry, the correlation between gestational age (27-86 days) and placentomes diameter was positive (R=0.83), but middle for vesicules diameter and bi-parietal diameter (R=0.43; R=0.42 respectively), and poor (R=0.05) for crown-rump length. Also, the use of 7.5 MHz linear array traducer for transabdominaly examination was found to be efficient, reliable for early recognition of gestation and different fetal measurements between 35 and 126 days of gestation.

Pathological study of experimental infection with Enterococcus faecalis in quails

M. G. Al-hamdany; E. R. Al-kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 45-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82859

This study was carried to isolate and identificate of Enterococcus. faecalis from small intestine and cecum of quails by culturing on differential and selective media. The concentration of E. faecalis suspension was fixed for experimental infection. Quails divided randomly into four groups, the first group considered as control group, the other groups injected with 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension as following: second group 1X108 CFU, the third group injected with 1X109 CFU, and the forth group injected with 1X1010 CFU. The clinical signs and pathological changes of heart, liver and kidney were observed at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after infection. The results showed identification of E. faecalis after culturing and isolation of it. The gross lesions represented by opacity of pericardium, heart hypertrophy and liver infarction, histopathological lesions include beginning of endocarditis, severe fatty changes with localized recent thrombus and severe necrosis in liver, and cell swelling of epithelium lining renal tubules and apoptosis in kidney. The histopathological changes were more severe at 3 and 7 days post infection. This study concludes that quails have a strong defense and immune mechanism despite the appearance of pathological changes with high concentrations of bacterial suspension which cause death in other animals such as mice and rats, also E.faecalis possesses the ability to induce apoptosis.

Use of a LaserCyte® for the complete blood count in dogs with oncohematological disorders

A. Gavazza; G. Lubas; D. Maccari; M. Bizzeti; B. Gugliucci; M. Giorgi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82860

The reliability of complete blood counts (CBC) obtained by LaserCyte® were evaluated in 41 dogs affected by malignant lymphoma (29 cases), leukemia (8 cases) and miscellaneous blood disorders (4 cases). A total of 89 CBCs were performed. Different degrees of anemia, leukocytosis, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis were detected. Results provided from LaserCyte® were compared with those from HeCo VET C® impedance cell counter, manual leukocyte differential counts and reticulocyte counts by the regression coefficient (r). The LaserCyte® cell counter provides reliable results for diagnosing and monitoring onco-hematological disorders, in part due to the provision of alarm codes that indicate when a review of the stained blood smear is necessary. The only unreliable CBC parameter was eosinophil count.

Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

A.A. Al-Juboori; N.K. Kamat; J.I. Sindhu

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82861

The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis), the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67%) in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%), Enterobacter spp. (15.00%), C. pyogenes (10.00%), Micrococcus spp. (5.00%), Pasteurells spp. (5.00%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%). Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

Effect of formaldehyde vapor on the blood constituents of male rabbits

A. Al-Sarraj; A. Al-Habity

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 15-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82864

The present experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of formaldehyde on blood constituents of rabbit males, Twenty four adult males were randomly subdivided into 3 groups (I, II, III) and exposed to vapour of 10% FD (12 ppm) in cages for the following periods: 2, 4 and 6 months; beside, 8 rabbits were exposed to vapour of distilled water as a control group. Blood parameters examination showed no morphological changes, but with a significant increase in lymphocytes and esonophils percentage. Significant decrease in neutrophil, red blood cell (RBC) and platelets counts was detected. The present study concluded that formaldehyde of such concentration and exposure time have an effect on blood constituents of rabbit males.

Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in sheep and goats in Erbil city, Iraq

J.M. Kader; Z.A.Y. Al-Khayat

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 21-23
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82947

Sera from (259) sheep and (88) goats from Erbil city were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by using latex, MAT, and ELISA. By using latex test, 75 (25.4%) sheep and 25 (28.4%) goats were seropositive. By testing the latex seropositive sheep serum by both MAT and ELISA the distribution of both positive and negative results were as such respectively: 63 (84%), 12 (16%), 11 (14.7%), 64 (85.3%). Using both MAT and ELISA for testing the latex seropositive goats serum, the distribution of both positive and negative results were as such respectively: 21 (84%), 4 (16%), 3 (12%), 22 (88%). There was no significant difference between the results of ELISA vs. MAT.

Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

K.F. Dizaye; B.O. Alberzingi; S.R. Sulaiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82948

Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle) and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function). Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

Adaptation of infectious bronchitis virus in primary cells of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane

M.H. Mohammed; M. Hair-Bejo; A. Zahid; A. Alazawy; E.A. Abdul Ahad; M.F. Hasoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 33-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82949

The susceptibility of the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells to infectious bronchitis virus was evaluated after twenty consecutive passages in chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells. Virus replication was monitored by cytopathic observation, indirect immunoperoxidase, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At 72 hours post-infection (p.i.) in third passage, the cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding up of cells, monolayer detachment, intracytoplasmic brownish colouration was readily observed by immunoperoxidase from 24 hours p.i in third passage, and at all times the extracted viral RNA from IBV-infected monolayers was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Tissue culture ineffective dose50 (TCID50) was used to measure virus titration performed on primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells and the titre in twenty passage was 108.6 TCID50/ml. The results obtained in this study suggested that the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells can be used for adaptation infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and may be considered a step forward for the use of these cells in the future for IBV vaccine production

Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara cattle: carcass yield and composition

I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin; S.A. Babiker; O.A. Elkhidir; H.A.A. El-Bukhary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 39-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82950

Sixteen heifers and an equal number of bull calves of western Baggara type were used to study the characteristics of carcass and wholesale cuts at Kuku Livestock Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan. Each of the two sex groups was subdivided into 4 subgroups of 4 animals. All the animals were fed, ad libitum, a similar complete diet for 16 weeks from 4 November 2002 to 24 February 2003. Bulls carcass had significantly (P< 0.05) greater proportion of forequarter than that of the heifers, whereas heifers carcass had significantly (P< 0.05) greater proportion of hindquarter than that of the bulls. Heifer’s carcass had more primal cuts proportion than that of bulls, though the difference was not significant. Bulls carcass had significantly (P< 0.001) greater muscle proportion and significantly (P< 0.01) lower fat proportion in the forequarter than in that of heifers. Bone weight proportion of the heifers carcass forequarter was lower than that of the bulls, though the difference was not significant. Similarly hindquarter of the bulls carcass had higher proportion of muscle and bone, though the differences were not significant while the heifer carcasses hindquarter fat proportion was significantly (P<0.01) higher compared with that of bull carcasses. No significant differences were found in the yield of wholesale cuts weight as % of carcass weight other than the neck, chuck and blade and rump. The former two cuts were significantly (P<0.01) heavier in bull carcass, while the rump cut was significantly (P<0.05) heavier in heifer carcass. The proportion of muscle weight of the cuts as % of carcass weight was generally higher in all cuts except in the shin and rump cuts obtained from bulls as compared with that of heifers. On the other hand heifers gained higher proportion of fat in all carcass cuts as compared with that of bulls. Bulls had significantly (P<0.01) higher proportion of neck muscle and significantly (P<0.001) very high proportion of chuck and blade muscle and neck bone than that of heifers.

Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara bulls and heifers: quality attributes and chemical composition

I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin; S.A. Babiker; O.A. Elkhidir; H.A.A. El-Bukhary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 45-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82951

Fourteen samples of L. dorsi muscles were taken from western Baggara cattle, one sample from each of seven bulls and seven heifers randomly selected for slaughter at the end of an experimental feedlot feeding which lasted for 16 weeks at Kuku Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan, to study sex effects on meat chemical composition and quality attributes. Moisture content of beef was higher in bulls meat than in heifers meat. Protein and ash content were significantly (P<0.001) higher in bulls meat, whereas fat content was significantly (P<0.001) higher in heifers meat than in bulls meat. Cooking loss of bulls meat was significantly (P<0.001) lower and water-holding capacity was also significantly (P<0.01) lower in the bulls meat than in heifers meat. Bull’s meat colour had low lightness (L) and high redness (a) and yellowness (b), as determined by Hunter Lab. Tristimulus colorimeter, as compared with heifers meat. Sensory panelist scores were higher for colour darkness and flavour intensity and lower for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of bulls meat as compared with heifers meat.

Qualitative assessment of imported frozen fish fillets in Sulaimani markets

Z.K. Khidhir; H.O.M. Murad; E.D. Arif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82952

This study aims to determine the quality of frozen fish fillets sold in Sulaimani city markets a total number of (64) sample of frozen fish fillets belonged to 4 foreign trademarks were collected from different parts of Sulaimani markets. The samples were subjected to physical and chemical tests to determine their quality and suitability for human consumption. The proximate chemical analysis referred to presence of significant differences in moisture, fat and protein content among the four trademarks except for ash content. While the physical indices showed that White fish fillets recorded the lowest thawing and cooking loss which in return recorded the highest WHC. Chemical indices showed that the pH mean values of Myanmar and Flander mark were significantly differed (P<0.05) than Hasson and White fish fillet, Although, the results of FFA recorded no significant differences among the trademarks, and Flander mark recorded the highest PV and TBA among the other which made it significantly differed than them and White fish fillet recorded the lowest, still, they were within the international standard limits. Where, the results of TVN values recorded no significant differences () among the inspected marks. All obtained results referred to the validity of these fish fillets for human consumption.

The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

N.M. Abdulrahman; H.J.H. Ameen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 57-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82953

The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g). The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein) prior to the feeding trials for 21 days. Five experimental diets were used and Spirulina replaced fishmeal protein from the standard diet at 0% (T1), 5% (T2), 10% (T3), 15% (T4) and 20% (T5) levels. Bacterial total account in rearing water and the bacterial total count in carp intestine for the third treatment was higher significantly as compared to other treatments, which is the conclusion of this study.

Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings fed with yeast

N.M. Abdulrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 61-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82954

This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5%) for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg) of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio). The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks) in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram) were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

S.K. Majeed; M.A. Ramadhan; W. Monther

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 65-70
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82959

The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous) on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

A case report of Gastrothylax crumenifer incidence in sheep in Kashmir Valley

T. Ahmad; M.L. Reshi; M.Z. Chesti; S. Tanveer; Z.A. Shah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 71-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82965

A total of 655 sheep were examined during 2008 to establish seasonal infection caused by Gastrothylax Crumenifer. The sheep were chosen from different areas of Kashmir valley, but the parasite G. Crumenifer was found throughout the year with prevalence 49%. Prevalence increased in the rainy and post-monsoon seasons and decreased slightly in winter and summer.

Effect of ration wetting in productive and physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature

D.Th. Younis; S.Y. Abdul Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89334

The study aimed to identify the effect of ration wetting with water contained mixture of probiotic, Potassium chloride and Vitamin C in productive and some physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature. Four hundred unsexed quails (one day old) on litter in semi opened house. Proper environmental condition was available and the house minimum and maximum temperature was about 25-40C. Birds distributed randomly into four treatments each with four replicate (25 birds/ replicate).Two rations. Starter and finisher were used and water and diets were supplemented ad libitum until age of marketing (42 days).The experimental treatments were as follow: T1 reared on standard ration (control) without wetting T2, T3 and T4 ration supplemented with 25, 50 and 75 ml water contains mixture of 6 gram probiotic, 3 mg potassium chloride and 150 mg Vit. C/kg ration, respectively at the time of feeding. Statistical analysis of data showed a significant increase in live body weight, weight gain of birds fed wetted ration compared with control and significant improvement in feed conversion ratio in T4 and no significant differences between treatments in feed consumption, dressing percentage, mortality rate, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, liver glycogen concentration, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and a significant decrease in serum glucose, glycogen concentration in heart tissue and ALT, AST concentration.

Effect of using different management systems for feeding on testis dimensions and sexual behavior in Awassi rams

Kh.H. Sultan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 7-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89335

This study was conducted on 15 Awassi rams (aged 35 month) with average weight 78.57 ± 0.24 kg to evaluate the effect of using different systems of feeding on body weight, testis dimensions, sexual behavior, testosterone and estrogen concentrations in Awassi rams. The rams were randomly assigned into 3 groups (5 rams / group) and treated for 3 months as following: 1st group: T1 (control): rams was rationed once daily, 2nd and 3rd groups was rationed twice and four times daily respectively. Body weight, Scrotal circumference (Sc) and testis dimensions were measured, the rams were subjected for sexual behavior test at the end of study by using of 3 ewes in estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results showed that body weight was increased significantly (P≤0.05) in T2 at 3rd month of study, also Sc increased significantly in T2 and T3 as compared with control, also results showed a significant increase in Sc in T2 and T3 in 3rd month as compared with 1st month of treatment, while increased significantly the right and left depth of testis in T2. The most sexual behavior parameters were improved significantly (P≤0.05), kicking, number of serving were increased significantly in T2 , while jumping without serving, jumps for first serving, time for first jump were decreased significantly (P≤0.05) in T2 and T3, also time for first serving is decreased in T2 as compared with other treatments. Testosterone concentration increased significantly in T2 at 2nd and 3rd month of treatment, while estrogen concentration decreased significantly in T2 at 3rd month of treatment. In general, the results of this study showed a significant increase in body weight in T2 which reflected in some of testis dimensions and improvement in sexual behavior parameters with increase in testosterone concentration at 3rd month of treatment.

A comparison of some physical traits of Iraqi sheep wool

S.F. Al-Dabbagh; H.R. Sabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 15-18
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89336

This study included analyzing data recorded of wool produced bales from Awassi, Karadi and Arabi sheep distributed in Mosul region, north and south of Iraq respectively for two years 2011 and 2012. Randomized samples were taken from these bales for dipped wool before shearing and raw wool (not dipped) to study percentage of clean wool (CW), vegetable matter (VM) and fiber diameter (FD). The results revealed a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01) for the breeds and status of wool on these three traits, a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) for productive year only on (FD), and a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01) for wool status on both (CW) and (VM). No significant effects were noticed for the interactions between the three studied factors on the traits except for the interaction of productive year × wool status which affected significantly (P≤ 0.05) on (CW) and (FD).

Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq

E.D. Hadi; E.G. Suleiman; Q.T. Al-Obadi; S.H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 19-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89337

The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. appeared higher in animals aged less than one year. High percentage of infection with Giardia spp. appeared in the females of cats and dogs were 28.12%, 17.5%, while the high infection rate with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. appeared in males of dogs and cats were 50%, 60% respectively.

Anatomical, histological and histochemical study of the eye of snake Hemorrhois ravergieri

E.Kh.H. Al-Khalefa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 25-36
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89338

The aim of present study was to determine the anatomical and histological structure as well as some histochemical aspects of the eye in Hemorrhois ravergieri snake by using the light microscope. The results show that the eye was spherical and located at head sides. Histologically, the sclera composed from collagen fibers located between it fibroblasts and pigment cells. The cornea divided in to peripheral cornea and central cornea, from the special results that appeared in the central cornea was the appearance of the tertiary spectacles on its external surface. The lens was spherical, translucent and didn't contain a pigment cells in its surrounding. The Uvea composed from Choroid, Ciliary body and Iris. The Choroid composed of connective tissue contained collagen fibers, blood vessels and pigment cells. Ciliary body appeared concave in its middle and give a few folds. While, the Iris connected to Ciliary body and it straight toward the lens and it convex toward the cornea. The retina appeared duplex and it composed from eight layers and two membranes. The photoreceptors layer contained one type of rods and two types of cones that were the single and double cones. From the distinct results that appeared in the retina of this snake that the appearance of blood vessels which supplied the retina, this mean the retina in this snake was vascular, and the vitreal vessels that lined also appeared. Also, from the distinct and strange results that appeared in the retina of this snake was appearance of strange vascular structure which may be a Supplemental nutritive device.

Genetic evaluation for milk production, the weights of kids at birth and weaning for dairy Damascus goats

K. Fattal; Kh. Elnajjar; M. Roukbi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 37-42
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89339

The Objective of this research, study the performance on Shami goats of the studied traits.which include milk production kg, and litter size weight at birth and weaning kg were 270.24±67.24, 8.42±0.53 and 23.98±2.94, respectively. The value of the litter size number at birth and weaning, age and weight at first insemination, the values were 2.98 ± 0.04 and 2.20 ± 0.19, and 46.73±0.57/kg and 19.24±0.26/ month, respectively. Determine the effect of some genetic factors and non genetic (year of birth, parity, kids sex, age and weight at insemination) of the studied traits. And estimate some genetic parameters (heritability and genetic correlation) of the studied traits Statistical analysis was made of the studied traits 10knowledge of the genetic and environmental in fluencies in it. Duncan has been used to separate the means of the factors affecting the studied traits. And also use the animal model to estimate the genetic parameters. Estimates of heritability for milk production traits and litter size weight at birth and weaning were 0.14, 0.08, 0.20, respectively. Reached values of genetic correlations between the production of milk and both of the litter size weight at birth and weaning -0.17 and -0.01, respectively. While the genetic correlation between the litter size weight at birth and at weaning was 0.09.

Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris) and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river

M. Roukbi; M. Al-Saloum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 43-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89340

Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010), aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris) belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research which included an incubating in Colchicine medium (0.06%) for 2.5 -3 hours. Fishes were chopped and placed in hypotonic 0.4% KCl solution for 30 min. Afterwards, tissues were fixed in fresh Carnoy solution (3 parts methanol: 1 part glacial acetic acid). Cell suspension was dropped onto slides, dried and then stained in 4% Giemsa solution. Chromosome spreads on microscope slides were examined and several metaphase plates were selected and photographed. Chromosomes of fish studied were grouping into series, i. e., meta-submetacentric and subtelocentric-acrocentric elements, and aligned serially from the larger to smaller, karyograms were constructed and chromosomal formulas and the number of arms were established, as following: Cobitis taenia: 2n=50=14m/sm+36t/st (NF=64), Nemachilus tigris: 2n=50=12m/sm+38t/st (NF=62), Gambusia affinis (female): 2n=48=1m+2sm+45t/st(NF=51), Gambusia affinis(males): 2n=48=2m+46t (NF=50(.

A comparison of phenotypic performance of wool physical properties in Awassi ewes

S.F. Al-Dabbagh; N.Y. Abbo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89341

Data from two different animal stations were recorded on two flocks of Awassi ewes. Data were analyzed for two productive seasons 2010 and 2011 years to estimate wool yield, Physical Properties and the phenotypic relationships between them. The results revealed a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01) for the flock on all wool properties except for fiber diameter (FD). and a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01) for year on clean fleece weight (CFW) and clean wool (CW), and a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) on vegetable matter (VM) and (FD). Interaction of flock × year had a highly significant effect (P≤ 0.01) on (CFW), (CW) and (VM), and a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) on greasy fleece weight, staple length (SL), fiber length (FL) and (FD). Phenotypic correlation between wool traits in both flocks were mostly highly significant (P≤ 0.01) between positive and negative ranged from -0.200 and 0.490, -0.203 and 0.498 for the correlation between (CW) and (VM), and between (SL) and (FL) respectively. With a significant correlation (P≤ 0.05) -0.113 and 0.098, -0.155 and 0.099 between (VM) and (FD), (CFW) and (FD) respectively. While the rest were non significant.

Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on kidneys in rats

I.A. Ali; H.J. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 55-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89342

The aim of this study was to investigate the histolopathological effect of doxorubicin on rat kidney tissue. The drug was administrated by rats at the dose of (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) mg/kg intrapertonial every (84) hr for the three weeks and the doses of (1, 2, 3) mg/kg intrapertonial every 84 hrs for six weeks. The animals were scarified after 48 hr. of last injection. The study revealed congestion, thrombus, blood vessels hemorrhage, vaculation in the cells of glomerular tuft and tubular, tubuo-interstitial degeneration, tubular casts. The injury score revealed significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules in the animals that received 5 mg/kg of doxorubicin for three weeks and also significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules of the animals that received 3 mg/kg of doxorubicin for six weeks as compared with control animals. We concluded that the doxorubicin has histopathological effect on kidney.

Improvement of the Shami goat semen quality by adding bovine serum albumin

O.I. Azawi; O.J. Salman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 63-67
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89343

The present study was aimed to improve the quality of Shami goat semen diluted with Tris diluent by adding bovine serum albumin. In the current study, six male goats were used. Semen was collected using artificial vagina of one ejaculate per week of every male included in this study. This study was performed during the breeding season from 1 10 2012 to 1 12 2012. In this study, two semen diluents were use first; Tris- fructose- egg yolk 2.5% and second Tris - fructose - 2.5% egg yolk with 1% of bovine serum albumin. Diluted semen samples were cooled gradually and stored at 5 ° C. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined every 24 h of storage to 144 h. These tests includes the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility using a computer-aided sperm analysis. These results showed that the addition of bovine serum albumin with egg yolk to semen of male goats led to improved qualities of semen significantly (P<0.05) including the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility. It could be concluded from the results of the current study, the possibility of storing goat semen for more than six days with alive sperm of more than 50% and the percentage of the progressive motility of more than 40% when adding bovine albumin serum to dilute goat semen at 1% level and this result has not reached by any previous study.

Effect of effective microorganisms on some biochemical parameters in broiler chicks

S.K. Abd

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89463

This study was conducted to investigate the potential effect of effective microorganisms (EM) on some biochemical parameters which includes; glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels in addition to the levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broilers. 50 One day-old unsexed broiler chicks were randomly assigned in to two treatments (25 chick/pen); control group (T1) and treatment group (T2) which supplied with 1% EM (10 ml/litre) to the drinking water for 5 weeks of age. Results showed that inclusion of 1% EM significantly increase blood glucose (P<0.05) and lower cholesterol but the triglycerides decrease was insignificant in (T2) than those of (T1). On the other hand (AST) increased significantly (P<0.05) in (T2) as compared to the (T1). It can be concluded from this study that EM supplementation may have some beneficial effect by lowering cholesterol and triglycerides on the other hand it may cause some tissue damage as indicated by increasing levels of (AST), these results need to be studied using different types and doses of EM.

The pathology of aorta of quails experimentally infected with Enterococcus faecalis

M.G. Al-hamdany; E.R. Al-kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 5-10
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89464

Isolation and identification of Enterococcus faecalis from small intestine and cecum of quails were done by culturing on differential and selective media. The lesions of aorta in quails experimentally infected with isolated bacteria were examined. Quails were divided randomly into four groups, the first group considered as control, and the other groups inoculated itraperitoneally with 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension of 108 CFU (2nd group), 109 CFU (the 3rd group), and 1010 CFU (the 4th group). The pathological changes of thoracic and abdominal aorta were recorded at 3, 7, 14 and 21 post infection days which include hyperplasia of endothelial cells with intensive localization of fatty vacuoles (foam cells) in intimal and medial layers of aortas with the proliferation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) accompanied by fragmentation of elastic fibers. These lesions were more severe at 14 and 21 post infection days. We concluded that E. faecalis possesses the ability to induce fatty degeneration in aorta indicating primary lesions of atherosclerosis in quails.

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in aborted ewes by using different immunologic tests in Duhok governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq

L.T.O. Al-Barwary; F.B. Mikail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 11-15
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89465

This study was conducted to investigate the anti-toxoplasma antibodies titer (IgG and IgM), in aborted ewes in different localities of Duhok Governorate. The study was carried out in the laboratory of post graduated study, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Duhok University from October 2010 to April 2011. Four hundred and ninety-six (496) serum samples of aborted ewes (98, 144, 152 and 102 were obtained from Aqra, Duhok center, Shikhan and Zakho, respectively). Latex Agglutination test (LAT), Modified agglutination test (MAT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were used for the aforementioned purpose. The over all prevalence of toxoplasmosis was (83.3%), and the rate was different in different localities such as Aqra (86.7%), Duhok (89.6%), Shikhan (74.3%) and Zakho (84.3%) using LAT. Out of 413 sera, sample which were confirmed positively LAT (67.31%) were positive for Toxoplasma by MAT (have had IgG type of antibody) and 149 (36.08%) sera gave positive reaction by IgM ELISA test (have had IgM type of antibody). The result revealed that the rate in different age groups was statistically different and the rate was 90.38% in age group <4 year and 75.42% in age ≥ 4 years applying LAT.

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in Iraqi cat

M.S. Albadrany; A.M. Alhasan; L.M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 17-20
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89466

The aim of this study was to standardize laparoscopic nephrectomy and to study its effects on body status and survival possibility on 8 healthy domestic cats from both sexes. Their age were ranged between 1-2 years. The laparoscopic nephrectomy was easy and feasible by using laparoscopy thermocautery tool. The right kidney was removed in all animals. Time consuming, success of operation and post-operative complications were dependent to support this study. The obtained results of the current study showed short time consuming 30±1.6 min. Procedures were successfully done with mild complications. Laparoscopic thermocautery indicated as an efficient tool for cutting and controlling bleeding at the same time. In conclusion, the use of thermocautery for laparoscopic nephrectomy in cats was feasible and exhibited efficient tools for cutting and securing vessels of the kidney, but the tool had a drawback by producing smoke with in abdominal cavity that partially obscuring the laparoscopic vision.

Seroprevalence of antibodies to toxoplasmosis, brucellosis and chlamydiosis in abortive sheep in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

I.I. Al-Dabagh; B.M. Jasim; M.T. Jarjees

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89467

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify the antibodies of toxoplasmosis, brucellosis and chlamydiosis in Nineveh governorate-north of Iraq. Sera from 100 sample of sheep aborted from any reason were randomly collected. The results showed that 32.8%, 56% and 11.2% were positive for toxoplasmosis, brucellosis and chlamydiosis respectively. Percentage of identified and unidentified agents causing abortion were 63% and 37% respectively. First of occurrence of abortion was the most common in the unidentified pathogen (27 cases), however, the repeated occurrence of abortion was almost caused by toxoplasmosis which was 19 cases. Stillbirth was found to be the commonest in brucella infection as compared with other months of abortion or other pathogens causing abortion. Chlamydiosis were the first record in this region. The findings of the current work indicated that toxoplasmosis and brucellosis was widely prevailing and may be the cause of sheep abortion in northern Iraq.

Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

B. Al-Mufti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 27-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89468

The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females) of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

Pathological effects of anabolic steroid (Sustanon®) on liver of male rats

E.R. Al-Kennany; E.K. Al-Hamdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89469

The present pathological study on the male rats aims to investigate the effects on liver tissue induced by repeated administration of three doses of sustanon for four periods. The experiment was done on the 100 adult male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats in each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Blood was collected in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for measurements liver function tests ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferas) enzymes. Then the animals were dissected to take samples in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for histopathological examination, then 5 rats were lefted in each group in the diet and water for 30 days after last treatment for examination the above mentioned parameters. The results revealed the presence of significantly increasing of liver enzyme activation represented by ALT and AST at level P<0.05 compar