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Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences (IJVS) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1988. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. A double-blind peer reviewing system is also used to assure the quality of publication. IJVS publishes original articles, review papers and case reports in the field of veterinary science. This...
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Molecular analysis of ompA gene Pasteurella multocida Indonesia local isolates

A. T. Soelih Estoepangestie; Arini Rahmi Dewi; Suwarno Suwarno; Didik Handijatno; Rahaju Ernawati; Wiwiek Tyasningsih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 211-216
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125934.1191

The aim of this research was to analyze ompA molecular gene of Pasteurella multocida buffalo isolate and bovine isolate from Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia and Katha strain isolate from hemorrhagic septicemia vaccine. Determinant of P. multocida local isolates ompA gene amplification sequencing PCR then conducted to see the sequence of nucleotide sequences of ompA gene. The results of PCR amplification showed an amplicon of 559 bp of all isolates. The homology analysis result of the isolates ranged from 93 - 100% with 13 P. multocida isolates from GenBank, and phylogenetic tree analysis shows that buffalo isolate was closely related to Katha strain, Iran, India and China isolate. Whereas bovine isolate far enough with buffalo and Katha strain isolate. Nucleotide sequences were compared to amino acids then by the method of Kolaskar and Tongaonkar antigenicity predicted antigens in P. multocida. B cell epitope predictions from local isolates and Katha strain were found in five peptides QVSPVFAG, IPELALRVEYQ, GQSVYVPEVVSKT, LKSASVAVAG, and ANYLVAKG.

The effect of stocking density and the application of Nitrobacter as ammonia decomposer in aquaponics system of Clarias gariepinus with water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica)

Adinda Septyasari Taragusti; Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 217-222
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The P0 and P1 contain of 30 fish in each aquarium; 35 fish in P2; 40 fish in P3; and 45 fish in P4. The control group (P0) were treated without Nitrobacter administration and the other 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters studied were SGR, SR and FCR of African catfish in different aquarium with different stocking densities. This research also studied the growth of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) also water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Histopathological alterations of male and female reproductive systems induced by alloxan in rats

Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 223-226
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126626.1351

The objective of this study is to determine the histological effects experimentally induced by injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg B.w. on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration in testis include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells and paucity of sperms in the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. The histological alteration of female reproductive organs includes disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.

Prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals: An interplay between seasonal predisposition and dietary imbalance

Khan Sharun; K. M. Manjusha; Rohit Kumar; A. M. Pawde; Yash Pal Malik; Prakash Kinjavdekar; S. K. Maiti; - Amarpal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 227-232
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126662.1358

The present study was aimed to record and analyze the prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals like cattle, buffalo, horse, goat, sheep, dog and cat presented at RVP-TVCC, Indian Veterinary Research Institute. A total of 777 cases were reported during the academic session starting from April 2018 to March 2019 from Bareilly and its surrounding regions. Incidence were highest among ruminants 92.92% comparing to other domestic animals 7.08%. Among the different animal species, caprine were found to be the most affected, followed by buffalo and canine. A positive correlation was noted between the occurrence of obstructive urolithiasis and the season with maximum number of cases being reported during the winter season December - February. The female to male ratios in urolithiasis affected animals were 1:81, 1:75 and 1:22 for buffalo, goat, and dog, respectively indicating higher occurrence in male animals. Majority of the goat 67.89% and buffalo 84.80% presented with obstructive urolithiasis were also found to be fed exclusively with a grain rich diet that are excess in phosphorous thereby contributing to urolith formation. The role played by behavioral changes associated with different seasons and the dietary status of the animal plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. Such an interplay between the season and the dietary imbalance will lead to higher incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals.

Study the effect of cloned pET-32a(+) plasmid by Lysostaphin gene against Staphylococcus aureus

Jalal Yseen Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 233-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126698.1362

Lysostaphin is a protein zinc metalloproteinase, extracted from Staphylococcus simulans, which disrupting peptide layer of S. aureus. In this study, Lysostaphin gene was detected in the S. simulans isolates. The molecular weight of the Lysostaphin gene is 750 bp. We were used the pET-32a(+) plasmid to cloning lysostaphin gene which transformed to competent rubidium chloride E. coli DH5α for producing the lysostaphin protein. The lysostaphin protein from this gene which isolated from S. simulans, then used the expression of used to killed S. aureus, which has the thick layer of wall that is the very difficult bacteria response to treatment. The result was reported succeeded pET-32a (+) plasmid to expressed lysostaphin gene and gave lysostaphin protein with high quality and quantity. As well as the result was appeared the high accuracy of his tag method in protein extraction and purification, and the quality and quantity more than other studies.

A survey of chewing lice of some raptors in southern Iraq, with remarks on prevalence and occurrence

Alaa Hatem; Mufid Abou Turab; H.K. Abdul-Zahra; Muhammad Muhammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 239-244
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126717.1365

This study was conducted to isolate and identify the chewing lice from some raptors in Basrah, Thi-Qar, and Missan provinces located in south of Iraq. Samples of birds were collected from January to December 2018. The survey was accomplished with a total of 87 raptors belonging to five species, sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, lesser kestrel Falco naumani, kestrel Falco tinnuculus, and black kite Milvus migrans. Totally 58 of 87 birds were infested with chewing lice, the overall prevalence was 66.67%. Five chewing lice species were identified: Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Degeeriella fusca, Degeeriella rufa, and Laemobothrion maximum. All these specieswere identified in Iraq for the first time. D. rufa was recorded the highest prevalence in all raptors with 28.74%, whereas C. platystomus was the lowest 10.34%. As for the prevalence of bird’s species, the highest percentage was recorded in kestrels and black kite with 71.43%, while sparrow hawk was the lowest 53.85%. Some notes about ecology and occurrence of the chewing lice were reported.

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and histopathological changes in muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the Iraqi rivers

Basim Al-Mayahi; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa; Shahbaa AL-Taee; H.H. Nahi; Mohammed Adnan; M.A. Al-Salh Al-Salh; B. Al-Mayahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 245-249
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126748.1368

The aim of this study is to evaluate the contamination status of Iraqi rivers in the north of the Tigris river (Tikrit city) and the middle region of Euphrates (Babylon Governorate). In this study As, Zn, Fe, Pb, and Cu in the muscle tissue of carp fish were measured. The results show that the concentration of arsenic in the fish muscles in the middle region was 425.05 ppm higher than its concentration of about 192.25 ppm in fish muscle in the Tigris river with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Which it causes histopathological changes characterized by Zenker necrosis in skeletal muscle and infiltration of inflammatory cells with edema additional to edematous dermatitis. Other heavy metals in fish muscle were less than in fish muscles which agreement with the international legislation limits. Also, there were positive correlation ships between Zn and Pb and between Cu and Zn. While negative correlation has been detected between arsenic and both (Pb) and(Zn). This study is concluded that the accumulation of heavy metals causes histological changes in fish muscle provides an opportunity to assess fish health as well as information on possible health hazards coming from their environment.

Using Schiff base method for protecting amino acids and modified in vitro method for measuring rumen protected amino acids

MITRA mazinani; Abbas A. ِNaserian; Brian Rude; Abdoulmansur Tahmasbi; Reza Valizadeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 251-255
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126756.1371

The goal of this study was to modify three steps method for measuring protection rate of amino acids which has smaller size than nylon bag pores. To prepare the protected amino acids by the Schiff base method, each of the essential amino acids (methionine and lysine) in the aqueous solvent were brought to isoelectric pH and then reacted with the same molar ratio of aldehydes the reaction was refluxed for 30 minutes to 6 days (depending on the type of aldehyde used). The three-step in vitro method was used to estimate rumen insoluble protein in the rumen. In the manufacture of protected amino acid ligands, compounds with methionine amino acid had higher efficiency than lysine compounds and also glutaraldehyde ligands showed higher production efficiency compared to benzaldehydes. The glutaraldehyde lysine ligand showed the lowest release after 2 h of incubation in the rumen medium. At time 4 the methionine benzaldehyde ligand had the lowest release. Benzaldehyde had the lowest release at time 6 and 8. According to the results of this table, Lysine benzaldehyde had better resistance to different phases and methionine benzaldehyde had the lowest release rate compared to the other ligands. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the use of chemical methods to protect amino acids can be applied.

Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 257-262
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Prevalence and molecular investigation of caseous lymphadenitis among the slaughtered sheep at Duhok Abattoirs; experimental infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in rabbits

Nawzat Issa; Rezheen Fatah; Zanan Taha; Muhammad Hussen; Kareem Kareem; Handren Hamadamin; Zirak Najeeb; Bahroz Ahmed; Hivi Hameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 263-270
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126772.1377

Caseous lymphadenitis is a chronic infection caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis that affects the lymphatic system, resulting in abscesses in the lymph nodes and internal organs. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of caseous lymphadenitis among slaughtered sheep in Duhok abattoirs, Duhok, Iraq and to investigate to what extend rabbits can develop caseous lymphadenitis just like that in sheep. A total of 1052 carcasses of sheep were randomly selected (939 males and 113 females) and carefully inspected for detection any suspected caseous lymph adenitis. The isolated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from lymph nodes of sheep carcasses were identified by PCR before used in in vivo infection in rabbits. Data revealed that the prevalence rate of caseous lymphadenitis was at 1.9% among the slaughtered sheep and the prevalence rates were higher in females and older ages than that of males and younger ages, respectively. Experimentally infected rabbits developed various clinical signs were ranging from in inappetence to sudden death, mainly during first week of infection. Histopathologically, the infected rabbits developed caseous lymphadenitis and pyogranuloma after a time point of 10 days post-infection. Liver, spleen and lymph nodes of infected rabbits showed caseo-necrotic foci with multiple micro-granulomas with presence of thick pyogenic membrane infiltrated with leukocytic cells; these findings are strictly resemblance to that reported in sheep. The obtained preliminary data of using rabbits as an animal model is promising which will enhance a better understanding the pathogenesis of caseous lymphadenitis in animals.

Evaluation of blood, biochemical and biological effects of microalgae Chlorella and germinated barley powder as a source of prebiotic on common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Havan Sleman; Nasreen M. Abdulrahman; Nazenine Hassan; Hevar HamaSalih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 271-277
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126788.1378

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chlorella and germinated barley powder on the hematological and biochemical parameters of (Cyprinus carpio L.). An experiment was designed with five treatments; Groups included T1: Diet without any supplement (Control), T2: adding 5 % Chlorella/ kg diet, T3: adding 10 % Chlorella / kg diet, T4: adding 10 % germinated barely / kg diet, T5: adding 20 % germinated barely/ kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the hematological and Immunological parameters were measured. The results revealed that supplementation of Chlorella and germinated barley in diets in which T4 were higher significantly in each of hemoglobin and red blood corpuscles. T1 was significantly higher in the control. A different significance observed in each of Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH). Significant variants observed in differential WBC count in T2 and T4 and Monocytes %, a significant difference seen among the treatments in each of Lymphocytes % and Granulocytes %. Significant differences occurred by adding the Chlorella and germinated barely in each Total protein, Alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), Albumin and Globulin among treatments. A significant difference observed in the Hepatosomatic index and Gillsomatic index, T5 with 20 % germinated barely was differ significantly in each of Spleensomatic and Kidneysomatic Index. Based on the results, supplementation of Chlorella and germinated barley in diet can play a role in effecting on some blood and biochemical parameters.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chlorella and germinated barley powder on the hematological and biochemical parameters of (Cyprinus carpio L.). An experiment was designed with five treatments; Groups included T1: Diet without any supplement (Control), T2: adding 5 % Chlorella/ kg diet, T3: adding 10 % Chlorella / kg diet, T4: adding 10 % germinated barely / kg diet, T5: adding 20 % germinatedbarely/ kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the hematological and Immunological parameters were measured. The results revealed that supplementation of Chlorellaand germinated barley in diets in which T4 were higher significantly in each of hemoglobin and red blood corpuscles. T1 was significantly higher in the control. A different significance observed in each of Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH). Significant variants observed in differential WBC count in T2 and T4 and Monocytes %, a significant difference seen among the treatments in each of Lymphocytes % and Granulocytes %. Significant differences occurred by adding the Chlorella and germinated barely in each Total protein, Alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), Albumin and Globulin among treatments. A significant difference observed in the Hepatosomatic index and Gillsomatic index, T5 with 20 % germinatedbarely was differ significantly in each of Spleensomatic and Kidneysomatic Index. Based on the results, supplementation of Chlorellaand germinated barley in diet can play a role in effecting on some blood and biochemical parameters.


Evaluation of the thermal effect of LTE 2600 MHz (4G) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure: Thermographic study on rats

Ali S. Al-Chalabi; Rana Asim; Hasliza Rahim; Mohamed F. Abdul Malek

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126787.1379

Exposure to LTE 2600 MHz microwaves is increasing very fast as new technologies and become accessible worldwide, and the smartphones being the main source of these waves. The aim of this study is to assess the thermal effect of 4G signals on rats. Forty adult Albino rats were used throughout the study, assigned as control and exposed groups, equally. Rats were kept in Plexiglas cages with intermittent exposure to LTE mobile-phone like signals at an average of 2h/day for up to 30 continuous days with SAR value of 0.982 W/kg. Infrared images were snapped immediately after the end of the exposure time, then one hour, two hours, and four hours later at a rate one collection/week during the study. IR images were analyzed by FLIR Tools software. The results exhibited variation in reflected skin temperatures in the exposed group compared to control images. Furthermore, the analysis of collected data revealed significant variations over the course of the study compared to the first week. The rise in skin temperature observed in response to exposure in the first week, which decreased gradually increased exposure and this drop in reflected skin temperature was significantly related to amount of exposure. The study concludes that the LTE 2600 MHz exposure under controlled laboratory conditions has a thermal effect on the rats.

Detection of Trichomoniasis in cattle in Nineveh province

Wasan A. Alobaidii; Qaes T. Alobaidii; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 287-290
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126790.1380

The current study was conducted on the detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in vaginal mucus of infected cows using conventional polymerase chain reaction technique (cPCR) in Nineveh province, Iraq. A total of 87 vaginal mucus samples were collected randomly from the vagina of Heifer cows of different ages (2-4, >4-6, >6 years old) and stages of pregnancy with different clinical status (early embryonic death, pyometra, abortion and healthy animals once) by washing cow’s vagina using artificial insemination pipette, DNA extraction of T. foetus was done from vaginal mucus samples, cPCR was attempt using TFR3 and TFR4 primers, Results indicated that 11 cows (12.6 %) were positive for T. foetus. The clinical status of cows demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.05) a higher percentage of Early Embryonic Death at (6.9%) compared to pyometra, abortion, and healthy cows. Furthermore, the percentage of T. foetusinfection was significantly (P<0.05) elevated among cows (>2-4 years old) at (8%) compared to (>4-6 years old) and (>6 years old) cows. This study concluded that T. foetusinfection was an elevated percentage of infection in cows with early embryonic death and in cows (>2-4) years old. This study is the first detected T. foetus in cattle in Nineveh province.

Histopathological and some biochemical effects of platinum drug on the liver and kidney of pregnant mice Mus musculus and their embryos

Baidaa A. barwarei; Hanan S. Sadoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 291-300
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126793.1382

The current study was done to investigate the effects of two doses 3and 6 mg/kg B.w. of the Platinum drug on the structure of the liver and kidney of pregnant mice, and embryos in addition to the weight of the mothers', embryos ,'maternal liver and kidneys, as well as some biochemical parameters, were established. For this study, thirty pregnant mice were used, divided into three groups (10 mice/group) as follows; group I (control group); animals were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with distilled water on the days 7th, 12th, and 17th of gestation. The other both groups II, and III were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with the selected doses above of the Platinum at the days 7th, 12th, and 17th of gestation, respectively. Microscopically, maternal and fetal' liver sections of group II revealed vacuolation, swelling, apoptosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion, degeneration, and presence of the extramedullary hematopoietic cells, respectively. Previous lesions were increased in group III. Maternal and, fetal kidney sections of group II revealed degeneration, expansion of Bowman's space, inflammatory cells infiltration into interstitial tissue, and blood capillaries congestion. However, the previous lesions showed more severity in group III. The drug caused a reduction in the body weight of the mothers, selected organs, and embryos. Biochemical assessment of the maternal serum AST, ALT, and ALP levels showed an increase in both experimental groups II and III, but to varying degrees. Moreover, both groups II and III showed an increase in the levels of the maternal BUN and, urea. Whist, group III showed a significant increase of the creatinine compared to the control group. In conclusion, using anticancer drugs during pregnancy will harm both mothers and fetal organs. The risk of these medications represents their ability to cross the placenta and enters the fetal body. Therefore, the drug may affect the formation of the fetal organs. The drug also alters the regulatory antioxidant mechanism in the maternal body during the treatment duration. The drug should be used under medical follow up.

Change in acetylcholine activity and some blood parameters in adult sheep dipped in deltamethrin

Aydin S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 301-304
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126813.1385

The aim of this was to elucidate the effects of deltamethrin dipping on acetylcholine activity in serum and some blood parameters of sheep. The study was conducted on forty adult sheep dipped in deltamethrin in concentration of 1:1000L of water. Venous blood samples were collected from each animal before and after dipped. There was significant inhibition in the acetylcholine esterase in all subjected animals after dipping. Mean values of hematological investigations showed a significant rise in the number of total leucocytes (leukocytosis) with significant decline in hemoglobin concentration and Red cell indices in all dipped animals after dipping in deltamethrin when compared with mean values obtained from the same animals before dipping. Conclusion of our results revealed that poisoning with deltamethrin affects blood parameters through the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase.

Role of alpha lipoic acid in protecting testes of adult rats from lead toxicity

Bara N. Al-Okaily; Haidar F. Murad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 305-312
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126814.1386

The current study was conducted to investigate the role of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) against testicular toxicity- induced by lead acetate (PbAc) in rats. Four groups of adult Wistar albino rats (8 for each) were intubated daily for 56 days as follows; control (C)received dislled water; lead acetate at dose of 5mg/kg b.w (T1); ALA at dose of 60mg/kg b.w (T2) and and group T3 received both of PbAc + ALA at the same doses of above. Blood samples were collected at 0, 28 and 56 day of the experiment, then the sera were collected for determination of testosterone(T) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). At the end of the experiment, body weight, testes weight and epididymal sperm parameters was studied. Furthermore, histo-morphometric and histopathological study changes were examined. The results revealed a significant decrease in testes weight to body weight ratio, serum testosterone, sperm concentration and motility, diameters of seminiferous tubules, height of seminiferous epithelia and number of Leydig cells, moreover the results showed a significant increase in serum FSH, dead sperm and abnormal sperm morphology in group T1 when compared with the other groups. Comparing to lead acetate treated rats, group T3 showed an improvement at the level of the studied parameters, accompanied with mild congestion in the interstitial tissue with a marked developing proliferation of spermatogenic cells, as well as presence of mature spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to lead acetate showed an amelioration of all reproductive parameters near to normal values due to the antioxidant effects of ALA and the histological changes of the testes confirmed such change in serum parameters and the beneficial role of ALA.

Study on the post-partum disorders and their relationship with the reproductive performance in Iraqi cow-buffaloes

Mohammed Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 313-317
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126771.1387

This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of various postpartum disorders on subsequent reproductive performance in Iraqi cow buffaloes. The data were collected from 172 buffaloes within private dairy buffaloes herd. In this study, the diagnosis and treatment of the affected cases with postpartum disorders (Retained placenta, puerperal metritis, uterine prolapse and vaginal prolapse) contributed in the data collection based on the parity, calving time and reproductive parameters (days to first estrus, open days, service per conception, intervals between estrus and calving interval). Cow buffaloes were divided according to their postpartum disorders into 5 groups: first group (healthy), second group (retained placenta), third group (puerperal metritis), forth group (uterine prolapse) and fifth (vaginal prolapse). The results of this study showed that a total of 74.42% of the cow buffaloes had normal post-partum and open days 121.9 days with resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 77.41 days, increased incidence of G2, G3, G4 and G5 were 9.88, 6.97, 6.97, 5.23 and 3.48%, respectively. Open days were significantly longer in buffaloes in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 compared to healthy group. In conclusions, early postpartum disorders manifested by increased days to first estrus, calving interval, days open and service per conception were longer than healthy cases in the Iraqi cow- buffaloes.

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies in meat juice of beef

Raafat Shaapan; Nagwa I. Toaleb; Eman H. Abdel-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 319-324
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126829.1390

Toxoplasmosis is an important worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. Infected cattle meats is considered a serous cause of human toxoplasmosis. Here, this study assesses the infection with Toxoplasma gonddi (T. gondii) in cattle using meat juice samples from diaphragmatic muscles collected at the slaughter. An in house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) followed by immunoblotting were developed on the meat juice (fluids) using tachyzoites of locally isolated T. gondii strain. The comparative analysis of the results of the tested juice samples showed an excellent agreement between the in-house indirect ELISA and LAT test in the positive and negative of meat juice. Relative sensitivity was higher for ELISA on diaphragms fluids random samples 80.39%, for the LAT test was 68.6%. Immune-reactive bands of T. gondii local strain Ag with naturally infected meat juice were 116, 83, 65, 30 and 23 KDa. The obtained results concluded that the development of an effective ELISA test to be used in for detection of toxoplasmosis infection of slaughtered cattle in large-scale would be exactly valuable, since the important role that beef plays in epidemiology of T. gondii, in particular the hazard of transmission to human and food safety.

Molecular detection of rfbO157, shiga toxins and hemolysin genes for Escherichia coli O157: H7 from canine feces in Tikrit and Mosul cities, Iraq

Karam M. Abdulrazzaq; Maher S. Owain; Hala M. Majeed; Osama H. Hazim Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 325-329
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126831.1392

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is considered as an important pathogen of diarrhea in adult dogs and puppies because it contains virulence genes. The study objective was to the molecular detection of the rfbO157 encoding the O-antigen specific for E. coli O157: H7,shiga toxins and hemolysin genes of E.coli O157:H7 in feces of dogs that collected from different regions in Tikrit and Mosul cities, Iraq. One hundred fecal swabs were collected from pet and K9 dogs including (72 dogs with diarrhea, and 28 without diarrhea). All the Collected swabs were cultured in the nutrient and MacConkey agars, Then the suspected colonies were cultured in the EMB agar. Metallic sheen colonies were cultured by using the chrome agar. All bacteriological identified isolates were enrolled by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results of this study showed that 7(9.7%) of 72 dogs suffered from diarrhea were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that contained the rfbO157 gene (n= 6), carry stx1 gene (n= 3), carry stx2 gene (n= 3), and hlyA gene (n= 1). On the other hand, 2 (7.1%) of 28 dogs without diarrhea were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that contained the rfbO157 gene (n= 1), stx2 gene (n= 1), and hlyA gene (n= 1). In conclusion, dogs can be a significant reservoir for pathogenic E. coli O157:H7, particularly dogs with diarrhea.

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infections in cattle in Kirkuk province

Mohammed Y. Nooraldin; Shaheen A. Jaafar; Abdulmuniem I. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 331-334
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126832.1394

Neospora caninum was identified as a coccidian parasite as in 1988, before that date it was misclassified as Toxoplasma gondii based on structural similarities. The aim of this study was to determine theseroprevalence of N. caninum in cattle in Kirkuk Province. A total of 185 cattle serum samples were collected randomly. Data about ages, gender and abortion history of females were recorded. Serum samples were examined by using ELISA as a screening test for the detection of anti- N. caninum IgG antibodies of past infection. Results showed that 53 (28.6%) cattle were seropositive infected, with significantly higher seropositive infection of age group >2 years in comparison to other age groups 94.3%. The distribution of N. caninum of total infected cattle showed that the seropositive infection in females were 47(88.7%), which was more than males 6 (11.3%) with a highly significant difference. There were 22(48.8%) aborted cattle out of 47 infected cattle with N. caninum with no significant difference in comparison with the healthy group.

The role of clove (Sygnium aromaticum) oil as anaesthetics compound for abalone (Haliotis squamata)

Norma Fanni; Fuquh Shaleh; Muhammad Santanumurti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 335-342
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126824.1396

Abalone is one of aquaculture commodity that has a high value including in Indonesia due to its price, taste and nutrition content. Unfortunately there is problem in abalone’s transportation process which caused stress and even death. Clove oil can be used as anesthetic agent for abalone to obtain a high survival rate because of its eugenol content. This research tried to evaluate the the effect of clove oil as anesthesia agent to determined induction time, survival rate and oxygen cosumption in H squamata. This study used an experimental method and used a completely randomized design with treatment concentration of clove oil solution were 0.5 ml/L (A), 0.7 ml/L (B), 0.9 ml/L (C), and 1.1 ml/L (D) which each treatment was repeated three times, and calculated the value of the abalone (H. Squamata) survival rate after maintenance for 14 days. The results of the study showed that the survival rate of abalone seeds obtained in the treatment with the concentration of 1.1 ml/L (D). In the treatment also showed the fastest induction time with 96.67 seconds. The lowest oxygen comsumption rate in this study was treatment D with concentration of 1,1 ml/L. It could be concluded that using clove oil with concentration of 1.1 ml/L as anasthesic compound for abalone showed effectiveness in induction time, survival rate, and oxygen consumption rate.

Association between clinical and subclinical mastitis and reproductive performance of cows at Nottingham dairy centre

Zeravan A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 343-350
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126843.1398

Clinical and subclinical mastitis regarded as important diseases causes a reduction in reproductive performance in dairy cows in the UK during the last decade. This study was aimed to assess the association between clinical mastitis, subclinical mastitis and the reproductive performance of cows. Data from 184 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were collected. Binomial logistic regression used to determine the incidence rate of clinical mastitis and subclinical mastitis between parity, calving year and seasons of the year. Linear mixed model used to determine the effect of clinical and subclinical mastitis on reproductive performance. The association between clinical or subclinical mastitis and the probability of a cow to get pregnant at 1st, 2nd or 3rd service was evaluated using binomial logistic regression. The same model used to illustrate the probability of a cow getting pregnant from 30-60 days postpartum or 61-90 days postpartum. The incidence of clinical mastitis was different between calving years (P<0.01). Cow with clinical mastitis or subclinical mastitis had longer calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval (P<0.05). Cows clinical mastitis had a lower rate to get pregnant within 20-30 days postpartum compared to healthy cows (P<0.05). Cows with higher somatic cells count, (especially cows with greater than 399,000 cells/mL of milk), had a higher number of services compared to cows with a lower number of individual cow somatic cell counts. The study concluded that both clinical and subclinical mastitis have a relationship with a reduction in reproductive performance in high yielding dairy cows.

Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle farms in Egypt

Yassin K. Hamed; Essam Nasr; Mohamed Fahmy Azooz; Hassan Mohamed Youssef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 351-359
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126850.1399

A cross-sectional study was carried out from November, 2015 to April, 2018 to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors of BTB using the comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test on 5327 dairy cattle in 16 dairy herds in mid-delta, Alexandria Road and Upper Egypt districts. Questionnaires used to collect data on herd size and management. The herd and individual animal prevalence at cut-off ≥4mm were 68.75% (95%, CI: 46 to 91.4) and1.67% (95%, CI: 1.3to 2.1) respectively. The individual prevalence was significantly associated with age, breed and different location of farms and density of cattle in yard. On herd level, history of BTB in the farm, management practices, raising of different species in the same facility and newly purchased cattle are important risk factors for BTB. The postmortem examination of positive reactors revealed 66 (85.71%) out of 77slaughtered cattle with visible lesions and 11(14.29%) with non-visible lesions. Bacteriological examination revealed 74.24% (49/66) from visible lesions and 9.09% (1/11) from non-visible lesions were Mycobacterium bovis. The indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA) results revealed 31(40.26%) showed positive result including 29 (93.6%) visible lesions and 2(6.4%) nonvisible lesions. In conclusion, the prevalence high in herds with poor management condition, raised different species in the same facility, had previous history of BTB infection and purchased new animals. At animal level Holstein breed, 3-6 years age, kept in high density and located in mid- delta district were at higher risk to be reactor to comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test.

Determination of the lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of lead chloride and its accumulation in different organs of Gambusia affinis fish

Amal A. Al-Kshab; Omamah Q. Yehya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 361-367
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126853.1401

In the present research, mosquito fish Gambusia affinis have been exposed to lead chloride during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in order to evaluate the lead chloride lethal 50 (LC50) concentration and the Its residue in certain organs of fish. Usage of the EPA computer software based on Finney Probit Analysis method has been statistically tested for the data collected LC50 values of G. affinis if 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were found to be 59.4, 55.9, 51.1 and 49. 0 mg/L, respectively. LC50 decreased as mean exposure times. 20 fish were placed in each concentration of four sublethal concentrations 20 and 25 mg/L for two acute periods 24 and 96 hours as well as 10 and 5 mg/l for chronic periods 15 and 30 hours. The testes were carried out as three replications, the accumulation of lead in various fish organs was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The finding revealed that the accumulation of PbCl2 on different organs of G. affinis be time dependent fashion and Pb-content in organs increased significantly time dependent at chronic exposure as compared as acute- exposure.

Effect of aqueous rosemary extract on some sexual hormones in male rats with high thyroxine level

Fouad Z. Hamza; Nabeel M. Al-Sharafi; Sumayah F. Kasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 369-373
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126872.1404

The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the high level of thyroxine affects on each of the luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) of rats and to estimate the potential effect of the administration of aqueous rosemary extract and propylthiouracil against testicular toxicity induced by levothyroxine in male rats. Negative control group rats were treated with distilled water. Three groups of male rats were treated subcutaneously with 0.5 mg/kg levothyroxine for 12 days: Since day 13th to the 24th day of the experiment first group was regarded as a positive control group that received distilled water, the second group was given propylthiouracil at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.wt, and the third was given aqueous extracts of rosemary 10 mg/kg b.wt. The results revealed that treatment with aqueous extract of rosemary lead to a significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone while a highly significant decrease in testosterone, FSH, and LH levels in serum revealed after treatment with propylthiouracil. Thus, it can be concluded that the effect of propylthiouracil and rosemary aqueous extract resulted in dialectical hormonal results in which the favor was to propylthiouracil.

Investigation of gcat gene and antibiotic resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from hemorrhagic septicemia’s cases in fish farms

Zanan M Taha; Shaaban Tayar Sadiq; Warheen Aziz Khalil; Kaheen Yusif Muhammad-Ali; Hayam Salih Yosif; Hozan Nizar Shamil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 375-380
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126876.1405

The significance of Aeromonas hydrophila concerning hemorrhagic septicemia in aquaculture farms production in Duhok province, Iraq was investigated. Antibiotic-resistant profiles of isolates were also investigated with 8 antibiotics. Bacterial isolates were identified by using morphological and biochemical tests and confirmed molecularly by amplification of gcat gene. Out of 25 examined fish, only 19 fish were harbored A. hydrophila. Twenty-four A. hydrophila strains were isolates from 100 organ samples. Ninety-six percentages of the isolates were resistant to each of the imipenem and gentamicin, followed by doxycycline 92%, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 88%, norfloxacin 58% and ceftriaxone 33%. None were resistant to levofloxacin. Eighty-eight percentages were multiple antibiotics resistant. The high isolation rate of A. hydrophila in our study indicates that this species was the major cause of the outbreak in hemorrhagic septicemia’s cases in our area affecting carp farms and the high rate of resistance should be considered as these isolates can serve as a resistance source for human being during food series and make a great challenge for their therapeutic opportunity.

GnRHR gene polymorphism and its correlation with semen quality in Buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis)

Karima Gh. Mahmoud; Abdelaziz M. Sakr; Sally R. Ibrahim; Ahmed S. Sosa; Mahmoud H. Hasanain; Mahmoud F. Nawito

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 381-386
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126886.1407

Fresh semen from fifty bulls was evaluated for ejaculate volume, individual motility, concentration, lives sperm and abnormalities as well as acrosome integrity. Bulls were classified according to semen motility into two groups; good and poor. DNA was extracted from semen of both groups, then the PCR followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques were performed for mutation detection in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene through multiple sequence alignment. The results showed that the percentages of sperm motility, sperm concentration and live sperm, were significantly higher in good than poor semen quality bulls. However, semen volume, percentage of acrosome integrity and abnormalities did not differ between good and poor. The PCR amplification of 240-bp fragment and the results of SSCP appeared a genetic polymorphism with two patterns. Pattern I was seen in all good bulls, with incidence of 100%. Pattern II appeared only in poor semen quality bulls with a frequency of 31.25%. The sequence analysis of the PCR product for the two patterns showed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a transversion base substitution mutation at positions 20 (T/A) and 193 (A/T). The GnRHR gene could be used as a genetic marker related to semen quality in buffalo due to the good semen bulls had a unique pattern.

Does Baclofen induce changes in testicular histology and seminal fluid analysis in rat?

Luma I. Al-Allaf; Omar N. Sultan; Basma S. Saad-Allah; Wahda M. Al-Nuaimy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 387-396
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126894.1411

Baclofen has a central acting effect, so clinicians have been utilized it chiefly for treating the spasticity of spinal origin. Nowadays, off-labeling use of baclofen with high doses is frequently increased. Despite of the extensive research studies on the effectiveness of baclofen, the reports on its histological effects on testes and on sperm parameters we insufficient. This work aims to assess the histological influences of baclofen on rats' testes and on several sperm characteristics after administration for 8 weeks. Twenty-two male rats at age of peripuberty (8weks) that were categorized into two groups. Group I (control group) includes 10 rats which were gavaged with 1 ml/day of distilled water daily. Group II (baclofen's group) includes 12 rats which were received baclofen 14.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks via gavage. At the end of the designed work, euthenization was done and the testes were excised from each rat, the epididymis samples were obtained and prepared for examination under light microscope. This study revealed that rats that were administered with 14.5mg/kg/day of baclofen for 8 weeks showed changes in the sperms parameters with several testicular histological alterations in their sections in comparison with those of controls. The percentage of the live sperms of rats (baclofen's group was lower than that of control group). Features of sloughing inside seminiferous tubules' lumen are frequently seen among these sections with mild decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules. Evidence of decreased Johnsen's scores (spermatogenic index -SI) was noticed in some sections, and decreasing of the frequency of seminiferous tubules that possess spermatozoa was obviously noticed. Moreover, disorganization of seminiferous tubules is shown in these sections. In addition, sections of rats of baclofen group revealed features of necrosis of seminiferous tubules, presence of degenerated spermatogenic layer, features of apoptosis, and presence of gaps in the seminiferous epithelium of degenerated tubules. Different alterations of sertoli cells as vacuolation, and detachment sertoli cells are noticed in sections of rats that were administered with baclofen. The chronic administration of rats with 14.5 mg/kg with baclofen induced effects on sperm parameters and testicular histology. however, the testicular histological alterations were more obvious. Further works are needed to clarify mechanism that stands behind these effects.

Detection of CTX-M gene in extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bovine milk

Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 397-402
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126909.1412

Extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) have emerged recently as the main cause that facilitates the spreading of antibiotic resistance worldwide. Due to its composition and nutritive values, raw cow milk is vulnerable to bacterial contamination from different sources, especially ESBL-E. Accordingly, present study aimed to detect the ESBL-E in the raw milk of healthy cows. 80 raw cow milk samples were collected from unorganized farms and cows belong to individual owners and investigated for the presence of ESBL-E with the main focusing on CTX-M type. The bacterial isolation was performed using selective MacConkey agar plus cefotaxime (MC+), while PCR was used to confirm the species of the isolated bacteria and presence of CTX-M gene. The results showed that 28.75%(23/80) samples were ESBL-E positive and distributed as following, 82.61%(19/23) were pure E. coli isolates, 4.35%(1/23) was pure K. pneumoniae isolate and finally, 13.04%(3/23) were mixed of both E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Moreover, the total number of positive ESBL-E was 26 isolates with the majority of them were belong to E. coli and recorded 84.61%(22/26), while K. pneumoniae was recorded less 15.39%(4/26). Additionally, the CTX-M gene was successfully identified in all ESBL-E positive isolates by using PCR, including E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. The results of this study assert the importance of raw cow milk as a potential source of ESBL-E that might be transmitted to humans.

Epidemiological and molecular study of Rotavirus infection among human and animal in Karbala and Basrah provinces

Faten K. Aldawmy; Hazim T. Thwiny; Hassan M. Abo Almaali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 403-410
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126997.1428

This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of rotaviruses in Karbala and Basrah provinces, the genetic reassortment of human and animal rotavirus strains and the novel strains. Rotaviruses were detected by Immunochromatography Test (ICT) then the positive samples were tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using specific primers to VP7 gene, this gene is responsible for VP7 antigen which is responsible for stimulation the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies. The VP7 gene was implemented in rotavirus vaccine of Iraqi immunization program. The RT PCR results showed that 56.3% (27/48) of samples positive in children under five years of age in Karbala province while Basrah province revealed 58.5% (31/53) positive samples in children whereas samples taken from calves revealed 43.1% (22/51) and 45.5% (25/55) positive samples in Karbala and Basrah provinces respectively. The sequencing of human and animal samples revealed that there was genetic reassortment between human and animal strains while in comparing with international strains there was closely related with Indian and Pakistani human strains. Necessarily for further bioinformatics studies are needed to study the genetic alterations with viral proteins analysis of rotavirus.

Age-related anesthetic effect of ketamine in the chickens

Yaareb J. Mousa; Muna H. Alzubaidy; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127100.1458

Little works of literature studied the anesthetic effect of ketamine in different ages of broiler chickens, hence this study intended to examine these alterations in chickens at different ages. The doses of ketamine that causes hypnosis in 50% of the chickens (hypnotic ED50) were 7.90, 7.90 and 6.80 mg/kg, intramuscular (IM) at 10, 20 and 40-day-old chickens, respectively, whereas the doses that resulted in analgesia in 50% of the chickens (analgesic ED50) were 12.92, 12.92 and 6.50 mg/kg, IM. The onset, duration and recovery from ketamine hypnosis were in an age-dependent manner and significantly longer at 40-day-old, although the depth and sensitivity of chickens to ketamine hypnosis rises as the age advancing forward. Ketamine analgesia is more effective at 40-day-old. There are neurobehavioral deficits, according to the age of chickens when injecting ketamine in a subtle dose of 1 mg/kg, IM. The concentrations related to alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), tested in the serum, reveal that the 40-day-old chicken group differs significantly from 10 and 20-day-old chicken’s groups which all treated with single ketamine dose (25 mg/kg, IM). In conclusion, the present work discovered that ketamine’s efficacy, including hypnosis, analgesia and neurobehavioral activity will be increased as the age is progressing, suggesting that the veterinarians need to take it into account when preparing the dose regimen of ketamine anesthesia for different ages of animals.

Morphological and molecular identification of Parabronema skrjabini of camels (Camelus dromedary) in Najaf province

Haider H. A-Fatlawy; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127101.1459

The current study was conducted during the period from September 2019 to December 2019, the number of examined samples 150 abomasums isolated from males 127 and females 23 to identify the species of Parabronema skrjabini that infected one-humped camel slaughtered in Al-Ashraf Najaf slaughterhouse. The microscopic examination of the worms was properties compared to other worms of the digestive system, and then confirmed using genetic markers with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the use of sequencing and phylogenetic analysis technologies relative to those that are predominant in world regions registered in the Gene bank. The results of the microscopic examination showed that Parabronema skrjabini distinguished by a red color, females are curved dorsally and longer than males with a vertically curved and head features that resemble a horseshoe for both sexes. The number of infected samples is 53 (35.33%) and the non-infected samples 97 (64.64%). The highest rate of infection during December month 63.41%. On the other hand, the prevalence rate has been reported 65.21% females and 29.92% males with significant differences. In this research, PCR technique was used the molecular examination with the selection of the highest DNA samples, which were 10 samples to determine the alignment range according to the ITS2 gene, all samples were well suited to primer in length 783 bp and confirmed the diagnosis of these nematodes.

A study of the gastrointestinal parasites in awassi sheep and surrounding environment

Dhyaa M. Jwher; Maan T. Jarjees; Aqeel M. Alshater

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127174.1478

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence gastrointestinal parasites in Awassi sheep and the contamination of surrounding environment in ten different locations of Nineveh governorate, during March up to June/2018. A total of 781 of different samples including 231 fecal, 192 soil, 188 feed and 170 water samples were investigated for the detection of ova and oocysts. Traditional parasitic techniques were followed in the study. The results showed that fecal samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts 30.63, 9.09, 14.28% respectively. Soil samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts at 21.35, 10.93, 44.79% respectively. Feed samples declared that contamination with nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts were 22.34, 26.06, 51.59%, respectively. Examination of water troughs examined, showed that nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts were occurred at 14.11, 8.82, 31.76%, respectively. It concluded that parasitic infection in sheep could attain from different sources, and every effort should be applied to reduce the contamination.

Investigation of the principal vectors of abortive diseases in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius)

El Aid Kaaboub; Nassim Ouchene; Nadjet A. Ouchene; Ali Dahmani; Imene Ouchtati; Asma Haif; Djamel Khelef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126914.1415

One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) are important source of meat, milk and leather production for humans in southern Algeria. Camel livestock farming is confronted with several obstacles, including abortive diseases which can be transmitted mainly by ticks. The study was carried out in Ouargla region, South Algeria, between January and December 2017. The objective of this study was to identify ticks in camels and to study the relationship between camel abortion rate and the presence of different species of ticks. A total of 350 camels (including 171 males and 179 females) was used in this study. Ticks were searched on the entire camel body (head, neck, hump, abdomen, forelegs, back legs, and tail area). Results showed that 215/350 (61.4%) camels were infested by ticks including 137/171 (80.1%) and 78/179 (43.6%) males and females, respectively. A total of 46/179 (25.7%) camel females had aborted and all these were revealed infested by ticks. A total of 298 ticks was collected including the following species Hyalomma dromedarii (90.9%), Hyalomma impeltatum (5.37%) and for the first time in Algeria, Amblyomma variegatum (2.35%) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.34%). H. dromedarii was the most frequent (p<0.001). The study showed that the dromedary was highly infested by ticks. The presence of ticks in all aborted female camels certainly indicates their important role in one-humped camel abortions in Algeria. The identification of tick-borne abortive agents in camels is important in order to establish an effective abortion control plan.

Novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the prolactin gene of Awassi ewes and its role in the reproductive traits

Tahreer M. Al-Thuwaini

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126973.1423

This study was conducted to determine the genetic variation of the prolactin (PRL) gene in 5' flanking region and its role with several reproductive traits in Awassi sheep. One-hundred six Iraqi sexually mature and healthy Awassi ewes that aged between 2 and 2.5 years were included in this study. Ewes were classified into two the main divisions: ewes producing twins and ewes producing single offspring. Two genotypes (AA and AT) were observed in Awassi sheep. While genotype AA was detected in Awassi ewes that produced twins, genotype AT was detected in ewes that produced a single offspring. The sequencing reactions identified nine SNPs in the prolactin gene at the 5′ flanking region in Awassi sheep, differing from the prolactin reference sequence (GenBank accession number X16641.1). Genotype AT possessed one single nucleotide polymorphism SNP substitute comparison with the AA genotype in Awassi ewes. The association analysis revealed that the AA genotype is characterized by significantly higher levels of the progesterone concentration, twinning ratio, fecundity, and prolificacy than the AT genotype. In conclusion, a new SNP (g.1209 A>T) was discovered within the ovine flanking region which potentially influences prolactin gene expression. These results showed that the genotype AA associated with high prolificacy of Awassi sheep may be used as a selection criterion for improving the reproductive performance of Iraqi Awassi sheep.

Anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in Sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus

Hamid H. Hamid; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126976.1424

The current study conducted to investigate the anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in sparrow hawk accipiter nisus. By using an optical microscope and histological stains. Anatomical results showed that the cornea composed of two parts, the peripheral cornea and the central cornea, and there was variation in corneal thickness according to the anatomical region. Histologically, the cornea consists of five layers. The first layer of the central cornea consists of non- keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue composed of four rows of cells. Whereas, Bowman's membrane appeared clear and thicker on the dorsal side than on the ventral side. The corneal stroma consists of collagen fibers arranged in three secondary layers within the stroma. The corneal stroma also distinguished by the presence of fibroblast cells, which randomly distributed among the collagen fibers. The Descemet membrane appeared clear and equal in thickness between the dorsal and ventral sides. The endothelium tissue appears in the form simple squamous epithelia. The histological structure of the cornea root seemed similar to its formation in the central cornea. Still, it characterized by the presence of pigment cells spread in the stromal corneal root. Among the distinct results that appeared in this study is the presence of blood vessels spreading in the root of the cornea. The study concluded that the anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in this bird distinguished by some specialties that contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the function of the cornea in this bird.

Impact of breed, sex and age on hematological and biochemical parameters of local quail

Abdullah Fathi Abdul-Majeed; Saeb Younis Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126960.1432

The current work aimed to study the normal values of some hematological and biochemical criteria of local quail and the effect of the breed, sex, and age on them. Two hundred quail (100 birds belong to each of white and light brown feathers local breeds), they were randomly distributed at 1st-day-age into 5 replicates, 20 birds/ replicate for each breed, and the study continued till the age 84 days. The results of the current study had revealed that the breed and the age, each alone did not significantly affect the physiological and biochemical parameters in this study, whereas the sex factor affects significantly most of the study parameters. The males were highly significant as compared to the females in the following parameter values: red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocytes%, basophils%, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity. While the females were significantly higher to the males in mean corpuscular volume, lymphocytes%, triglycerides, total protein, globulin, and alanine aminotransferase activity. In conclusion, the sex of the bird alone and its interaction with breed and age had the greatest impact on the hematological traits.

Molecular characterization of extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dogs

Ihsan M. Ahmed; Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh; Dhyaa M. Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127032.1441

Shepherd dogs have been implemented in the transmission and distribution of many threatening pathogens. The presence of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli (ESCR E. coli) in dog feces can constitute a significance risk to human health due to transmission of antibiotics resistance from dogs to humans, other animals and the surrounding environment. Therefore, in this study, phenotypic and molecular characterization of fecal ESCR E. coli were investigated in shepherd dogs accompanied sheepherders in urban areas. Sixty-seven fresh fecal samples were collected from shepherd dogs from different regions of Mosul city. Bacteriological examination of ESCR E. coli was done using MacConkey agar with cefotaxime followed by subsequent PCR confirmation of the CTX-M gene using specific primers and molecular characterization using specific primers directed to CTX-M-1, 2 and 9 groups. The results of bacterial examination showed successful confirmation of ESCR E. coli which has been isolated from fecal samples of shepherd dogs 58.2% (39/67). In addition, detection of CTX-M gene was confirmed in 53.7% (36/67) of E. coli isolates. Furthermore, molecular characterization of CTX-M gene revealed the presence of only one genotype belongs to CTX-M-1. However, both of CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 genotypes were not detected in this study. This study concluded that shepherd dogs have an essential role in carrying and spreading of ESCR E. coli especially in urban regions.

Seroprevelance of schmallenberg virus infection as emerging disease in cattle in Iraq

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127071.1454

Schmallenberg virus is an emergent disease which infect cattle, sheep and goats which cause loss of condition, diarrhea, and abortion in pregnant animals, so this study was conducted to detect the antibodies in imported calves by using cELISA, so 400 blood samples was collected calves in different ages and healthy status in a period between October 2018 to September 2019 in Nineveh province, the investigation of specific antibodies was done by competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay, the results showed that the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus in imported calves was 21% (84 positive from 400 samples), high prevalence of infection in the animals more than 6 months to 1 year old 11.5% when compare with animals less than 6 months of age 9.5%, high incidence of infection in animals suffer from various clinical signs 17% and the healthy apparent animals recorded low prevalence of infection 4%, samples which collected in spring months recorded high prevalence of infection 7.5% while the lowest prevalence of infection with the virus recorded in winter months 2%, with significant variance in spring and summer months compared with other seasons, in conclusion this study was conducted that schmallenberg virus is newly emerge in Iraq and this study is firstly recorded this virus in cattle in Iraq.

Epidemiological Analysis for medical records of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Mosul during 2017 to 2019

Mohammad O. Dahl; Omar Kh. Hamdoon; Obaida N. Abdulmonem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127141.1468

This analysis aimed to (i) report diseases of animals received at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Mosul between years 2017 and 2019, and (ii) examine whether its records can be used in studying the factors associated with different diseases. In this analysis, medical records of 1,280 cases examined and diagnosed at the internal medicine section and/or clinical pathology laboratory were used. Odds of diseases as a function of different factors were modeled using conditional logistic regression. Results revealed that the number of cases was increased in 2018-2019 compared to the previous academic year. The minimum number of cases was received in autumn, and the maximum was in summer. The most received cases were from areas located at the south inside Mosul city. The most received cases were generally gastrointestinal disturbances, blood parasites, and respiratory infections. Skin affections were also frequently received. Modeling diseases in ruminants indicated that blood parasites infection were higher in old ages compared to younger, greater in spring, summer, and autumn compared to winter, and more in city countryside compared to its inside. Gastrointestinal parasites infection was greater in old ages compared to younger, higher in summer compared to autumn, winter, and spring. Respiratory infections were higher in young animals compared to older ages, and greater in summer compared to autumn and spring. Enteritis of different causes was higher in young animals compared to older ages, and greater in winter compared to summer. In conclusion, records of this hospital are useful for studying animal diseases.

Impact of heat treatment on the antimicrobial residues in raw goat's milk

Dhary A. Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127137.1469

Although antibiotics are valuable drugs for treatment of bacterial and some parasitic infections, their presence in animal products have a potential public health hazard. This study investigated antibiotic residues in goat raw milk and thermal effect on residues. Samples were collected randomly from different farms and retail outlets in Erbil city from January 1st to June 30th 2019. The residues were detected by disc diffusion assay against Bacillus subtilis bacteria on Muller Hinton agar. The occurrence rates among milk samples was 14.9%, also these residues in the samples was 13.5% and 16.4% in farm samples and retail store samples, respectively. No significant differences were found between sampling sites (farms vs sale points). Regarding the seasonal variations, spring was found to be associated with gradual decrease in antibiotic residues frequency in milk. Boiling for 5 minutes was the most effective treatment (among pasteurization and microwave heating) that inactivated antibiotic residues in 57.7% of positive samples. Such occurrence rate of residues is alarming and require authorities to observe and validate the quality of raw milk introduced to markets for consumers. Further evaluation of antibiotic stability period in raw milk is highly recommended.

A cytopathological study of the role of liver impression as a diagnostic tool in pigeons

Zahra A. Al-Noayme; Ayman A. Al-Alhially

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127170.1477

The aim of the current study is to investigate any pathological changes which affect local pigeon liver by using liver impression and providing data base for the results of cytological and morphological features of hepatic impressions of local pigeon also to Study the relation between cellular contents and bacterial profiles at those impressions for that purpose about 20 birds of local pigeon were used in current study. the result showed presence of including heterophil 21.53% monocyte 1.52%, eosinophil 1.04%, basophil 0.01%, macrophage 4.01%. RBC 31.9% and vacuolated hepatocyte 4.94%. We also recorded presence of undifferentiated cells0.19% bacterial infection and parasite infestation of blood protozoa represented by presence of plasmodium parasite inside red blood cell in 4 samples out of 20 samples, G+ Staphylococcus and streptococcus and G- Bacteria coccobacilli as a bacterial. Bacteria including Staphylococci, Streptococci and Coccobacilli were noticed with in different densities between sections, the protozoal parasite as Plasmodium infestation were also detected in 20% of samples We concluded that, the hepatic impression give a diagnostic tool to aim in final diagnosis for inflammatory diseases in pigeons, in addition this impression give a primary idea about bacteria and parasitic infection that can be present in infected pigeons

The relationship of hematological parameters with adaptation and reproduction in sheep; A review study

Tahreer M. Al-Thuwaini

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127253.1490

Sheep possess desirable characteristics for farmers such as resistance to disease, good acclimation to environmental fluctuations, and endurance to extreme weather. This may, in part, be due to hematology characteristics and various types of hemoglobin that interact differently to external changes; displaying various reproductive ability in certain environmental conditions. This review aims to investigate the effect of hematology parameters and hemoglobin types on the adaptation and reproductive performance of sheep. Hematological parameters are useful tools for the detection of adaptation and physiological traits of these animals. The reproduction of sheep has depended on the ability of each type and breed to acclimate to different environmental conditions. In addition, hemoglobin types have also been correlated with the environmental adaptability and physiological traits of sheep. Thus, the present review provides useful information on the association of hematology parameters and hemoglobin types in sheep with adaptation and reproductive performance, and could be used as vital tools that help in determining the species or breed of sheep that are more adapted to certain environments or have more reproductive potential.

Pathological lesions of acute sodium chloride toxicity in common carp: Case report

Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Asel M. Rahawe; Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Ahmed M. Farhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126917.1417

Sodium chloride (NaCl) have a major impact on fish farming, as it used to disinfect fish and their eggs, in contrast using NaCl in high dose can cause life threating toxicity with high mortalities in Cyprinus carpio. We aimed in current report to introduce for specialist in fish culturing and farmers a typical acute NaCl toxicity by presenting pathological lesions. The histopathological lesions composed from sever degenerative and necrotic changes in gill filaments with destruction in blood vessels and hyperplasia in secondary gill lamella. In conclusion, using NaCl in high uncalculated doses can cause significant pathological changes that lead to 100% mortalities in Cyprinus carpio.

Pathological and biological effects of treatments with lambda-cyhalothrin in rabbits

Assia BOUMEZRAG; Houari HEMIDA; Fadhela Amina BOUMEZRAG; Fadh SMAIL; Sekhou CISSE

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126977.1425

Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide, which is widely used to control a large variety of agricultural pests throughout the world as well as in Algeria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LCT exposure on body weight, hematological and blood biochemical parameters and to evaluate histopathological changes in some organs. Twelve (12) healthy local rabbits with a mean body weight of 1.8 kg were divided into three groups of four each: First group was kept as control (CTRL), second group (LCT 10) and third group (LCT 20) were given oral LCT at 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w, respectively three times a week for 25 days. The results showed no significant difference in mean body weight between groups. Blood analysis revealed no significant variation in hemogram between LCT-treated groups and control group. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P˂0.05) in total cholesterol content and glucose in LCT10 and LCT20, respectively. Total protein increased significantly (P˂0.0001) in LCT 20 group. While a very high increase (P˂0.0001) in the activity of asparatate aminotranferase (AST) was recorded in both treated groups, no change was observed in the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). LCT treatment exhibited severe histopathological changes in liver, kidney, lung and brain. It is concluded from the study that LCT produced serious toxic pathological alterations and metabolic dysfunctions in rabbits.

Comparative histological and histochemical study of the ileum in two different birds

Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127046.1447

This study aimed to know the comparative histological structure and histochemistry of the Ileum in two birds that are the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and the Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) using histological stains and histochemical techniques. The results showed that the Ileum wall in the two birds is composed of the histological layers that make up the rest of the gut wall, with many differences between them. The villi appeared in Turkey in various shapes, longer and more numerous than in the Cockatiel. The villi lined with a simple epithelial tissue in the two birds, containing the goblet cells. Lieberkuhkn's crypts under the villi appeared in the two birds and had spherical secretory, and some secretory units contained the enteroendocrine cells. The Muscularis Externa appeared distinctively in Turkey than in the Cockatiel, and it was of three sublayers while in the Cockatiel from two sublayers. Histochemical results showed medium to a strong positive response to the epithelial tissue to AB pH 1, AB pH 2.5, PAS techniques while a weak positive in the intestinal glands to these techniques, with varying degrees between the two birds. While the response was positive for BP technique in the epithelial tissue and negative in the glands, as well as the same response appeared for the SB technique. The current study concluded that the Ileum structure in the two birds is identical with histological and histochemical differences that are appropriate to the nature of each bird's food.

Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from broiler carcasses in Mosul city

Omar H. Sheet; Saba A. Hussein; Aamer Y. Al-Chalaby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127052.1451

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is deemed as one of the main pathogens in human and animals. S. aureus can produce various toxins that usually implicated in food poisoning. S. aureus could possess the mecA gene, which is the principle cause of β-lactam antibiotics resistance, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Broiler’s meat is worthy food for humans, but it may expose to contamination with MRSA during the poultry processes in the slaughterhouse. The current study aimed to assessment the spread of S. aureus and MRSA in the broiler carcasses via detection the nuc and mecA gene and their resistance to different antibiotics. Fifty skin swabs were taken from the broilers carcasses, during their processing in poultry slaughterhouses that scattered in various districts in the Nineveh Governorate during the period between January to April 2020. The results showed that S. aureus was recovered in broiler’s skin swabs at a percentage of 66% (33/50) which confirmed by nuc gene, while MRSA isolates constitute 40% (20/50) of all S. aureus isolates, and distinguished as MRSA by their possessing mecA gene. All MRSA isolates were resistant to Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Methicillin, and Ampicillin/Cloxacillin antibiotics. The present study stressed on the reduction as much as any possible source of broiler carcasses contamination with S. aureus including MRSA during and post poultry processing, through applying high levels of hygienic conditions in all poultry processing premises to attain high standards of sustainability and public health standards.

Experimental study on the effect of toxin fractions isolated from hydatid cyst fluid of sheep on the cardiac muscles of mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Ilham A. AL-Saleem; Afrah Y. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127124.1463

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hydatid cyst toxin fractions in mice. Fifty male mice were divided into five groups with 10 mice for each group the first group as control the second group was injected with toxin fractions at the concentrations 25Mg/ml PBS, the third group are the mice that injected intraperitoneally with toxin fractions at the concentrations 25Mg/ml PBS and treated with vitamin E at the concentration of 40 mg/ 100 g of feed, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 1 ml of raw fluid and the fifth group was injected intraperitoneally of 1ml of row fluid with the vitamin E at the concentration of 40 mg /100gm feed. The mice were sacrificed after 15 and 30days post injection, specimen of heart are fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histological techniques. The histopathological changes in cardiomyocyte were edema, infiltration of mononuclear cell and thickening of blood vessels wall with congestion in it. The results confirm that the toxin fraction have more effect than the raw fluid and that there is the regeneration effect of vitamin E on hydatid cyst cardiomyocyte.

Comparative antinociceptive effect of aspirin and aspirin nano particles in semisolid formulae in mice

Labeeb H. Al- Alsadoon; Maha T. AL-Saffar; Ghada A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127138.1467

Aspirin are commonly used analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic drug in medicine, oral route is the most common one for drug administration as a result it will produce different adverse effects like peptic ulcer, nephropathy, and thrombocytopenia even with low and continuous therapeutic dose, so the alternative topical route is preferable with minimal adverse effects and effective concentration.Therefore, in the present study was to investigate whether the antinociceptive property of aspirin would enhance if used aspirin as nanoparticles after preparing it in several forms (gel, cream and ointment). Thirty-two healthy male mice weighing 30-35 gm. were used in the present study. The animals were divided as a randomized design. Each mouse was treated topically. All drug concentration of aspirin was prepared using gel, cream and ointment as vehicle and topically application on fore and hind paw of experimental animals. Pain was induced by application of hot plate for assessment of latency of pain stimulus. Time from placement to jumping or hind paw licking was recorded as latency of response. The result showed that the median effective concentration (EC50) for analgesic effect of aspirin (gel, cream, and ointment) were 0.848, 0.958 and 1.00% respectively while these EC50s were decrease when used nanoparticles aspirin (gel, cream and ointment) to 0.72, 0.657, and 0.701% respectively. In conclusion, topical applied of aspirin will produce effective therapeutic antinociceptive effects in mice although gel preparation produce a better response followed by cream, then ointment due to pharmacokinetic properties. Also nanoparticle preparation will produce superior response in all forms, whether Nano aspirin is prepared in gel form, cream or ointment.

Molecular and serological typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes currently circulating in Egypt

Maryam M. ِbd El-Rhman; Sayed A. Salem; Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid; Diea J. Abo El-Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127327.1495

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease affects all cloven- hoofed animals. The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiological situation of FMD in Egypt during 2017 and 2018, based on antigenic and genetic characterizations of FMD virus (FMDV). Thirty oral epithelia were collected from vaccinated animals (14 native cattle and 16 water buffaloes) showed clinical signs of FMD in four Egyptian governorates having outbreaks. In all collected samples the antigen detection was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the genetic characterization was done by using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were constructed for genetic characterization. The obtained results of FMDV antigen detection ELISA indicated that 50% of the examined samples were positive for FMDV and serotyped as serotype O 40%, serotype SAT2 33% and serotype A 27% respectively. RT-PCR confirmed the results of FMDV antigen detection by ELISA. Six amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for viral protein 1 (VP1) of FMD. Results demonstrated that genotype O was related to East Africa-3 (EA-3) topotype with 12.7% difference from vaccine strain O-IRN-8-2005-Pan-Asia-2. Furthermore, genotype A clustered into Asia topotype with 6% difference from vaccine strain A-IRN-1-2005. Meanwhile genotype SAT2 in 2018 was related to VII topotype but it was in close relation with strains isolated from Libya in 2012 with 94.3% amino acid identity that differ from the previously circulated SAT2 since 2012 and recorded recently in Egypt. The presented results confirmed the circulation of a new topotype of serotype SAT2.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Immunolocalization of decorin, a small leucin-rich proteoglycan, in the normal and injured horse tendon

Othman J. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127017.1436

The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of decorin in normal and the injured equine cadaver limbs. The study was carried out using superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) samples harvested from equine cadaver limbs. Randomly assigned left or right equine distal forelimbs were collected in normal (7 - 14 years old ± 2.86 SD) and injured (6 - 16 years old ± 3.64 SD) SDFT. Small pieces of approximately 5 x 5 x 3 mm were collected from normal and the injured areas at the mid-most metacarpal regions and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at room temperature. They were routinely prepared for H&E staining in order to confirm whether they were normal or injured. Then they were prepared for immunological assay, the primary and the secondary antibodies were prepared in a standard ratio. The results showed that the distribution of decorin was varied between fascicles and the interfascicular matrix (IFM), and the latter showed greater intensity than the fascicles. The injured tendons showed up-regulation of decorin, it was intensively expressed in all the cases of injured tendon, particularly fascicles showed significant up-regulation when compared to the normal tendon. It was concluded that decorin was varied regionally, and the injured tendons presented a significant up-regulation.

Effect of plasma isolated Orexin-A on the regulation of metabolites in male rats

Rana F. Jasim; Thikra A. Allwsh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127001.1429

This research includes the isolation and purification of Orexin-A from the plasma of healthy human via various biochemical techniques, it was proposed the therapeutic role of orexin on hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation and it has been suggested to study the effect of isolated orexin A on the metabolism of lipids and glucose in normal and hyperlipidemic rats, a high level of orexin-A had been found only in second peak (B) isolated by gel filtration chromatography (using Sephadex G-50) and showed (34.5) fold of purification, also, the effect of isolated orexin-A on some clinical parameters had been studied in normal and hyperlipidemic male rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with orexin-A at a dose of 1μmol/kg of body weight/day for one month. The results, obtained before treatment and after two and four weeks of treatment, had been showing a significant decrease in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, malondialdehyde and hyperinsulinemia, while there was a significant increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal and hyperlipidemic rats. It was concluded that orexin-A had an important role in regulating the metabolism of glucose and lipids, treatment of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, and decreasing lipid peroxidation in normal and hyperlipidemic rats.

Levels of disaccharidases in the brush border membrane of equine small intestine

Miran A. Al-Rammahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 197-201
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125778.1152

The disaccharides, consisting of sucrose, lactose and maltose, are hydrolysed into monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose) by intestinal brush border enzymes: sucrase, lactase and maltase. The aim of this study to investigate changes in the brush-border membrane carbohydrate digestive enzymes. From intestinal mucosal scrapings of equine, brush border membrane vesicles were isolated. The results showed that sucrase, maltase and lactase are present in the equine small intestine. The activity of all three enzymes is highest proximally (in the duodenum and jejunum) and lower in the ileum. There was considerable variation between individual horses, however the majority showed highest disaccharidase activity in the jejunum, with some showing highest activity in the duodenum. Sucrase activity is highest in the jejunum and duodenum and lower in the ileum. Maltase activity is similar in all three regions, but slightly higher in the jejunum. Lactase activity is low in all three regions of the small intestine, slightly higher in the equine jejunum and duodenum than ileum. From this study, we can conclude that the equine small intestine digests disaccharides by the brush-border associated disaccharidases sucrase, maltase and lactase. Levels of sucrase and lactase are comparable to other species, but maltase is much higher.

Fetal anomalies in prolonged gestation in Awassi ewe: A case report

U. T. Naoman; B. D. Al-Watar; E. H. Lazim; E. K. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 195-197
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153849

This report was described the observation of five types of congenital anomalies with a Hydramnios Syndrome in prolonged gestational (6 months) three years old awassi ewe bearing an abnormal fetus for first time, ultrasonography revealed signs of pregnancy with numerous small cotyledon, high amount of bright turbid fluid (Hyper-genic), with no signs of heart beat and small abnormal ribs. Vaginal examination indicated that complete closure cervix with pale mucous membrane.

Effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) barks of root and stem (alcoholic extract) on the viability and fatty acids content of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro study

R. S. Al-Juwary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153848

The present study was aimed to determine the scolicidal effect of stem and root alcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) on the viability and fatty acids content of Ecinococcus granulosus protoscolices. The study elucidate the scolocidal effect of both stem and root extracts. Its seemed that the scolocidal effect of root extract was higher than that of stem extract ie. LC50 and LC90 of stem extract were 5 and 9 mg/ml respectively while LC50 and LC90 of root extract were 3 and 8 mg/ml respectively. GLC analysis of E. granulosus protoscolices was stated presence of nine fatty acids esters, which were Lauric (C12:0); Myrisitic (C14:0); Palmatic (C16:0); Stearic (C18:0); Archidic (C20:0); Behenic (C22:0), which were saturated fatty acids, and Oleic (C18:1); Linoleic (C18:2); Linolenic (C18:3) which were unsaturated fatty acids. Treating E.granulosus protoscolices with LC50 of pomegranate stem bark was showing slight and swing effect on fatty acid content, while treated the protoscolices with LC50 of root bark were resulted in obvious increase in short length fatty acids like Lauric, Myrisitic and Palmatic in compare with control group. In contrast the long chain fatty acids concentration like Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic were decrease.

Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital

L. J. Shaebth

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153847

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and16SrRNAgenes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153846

Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results of the collections show that all the dogs, which were the subject of this survey, are infested by ticks during the period between March and August in different areas of the northeastern of Algeria. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the predominant tick species. It has been observed with a frequency of 88 % in the area of El-Tarf, 100 % in Souk-Ahras, 95 % in the Tébessa region and 72 % in Guelma, (average of 89 %). Climatic conditions seem to play the essential role for this distribution of ticks. The other tick species collected are: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Hyalomma anatolicum. The latter were present with very low a proportion, which gives them the appearance of accidental parasitism in dogs. Rhipicephalus sanguineus has significant infestation intensity in spring and summer, peaking in August in the semi-arid region (Souk-Ahras). In humid regions (El-Tarf), the peak of infestation recorded by this arthropod is in April. The second aspect of study of the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus shows the seasonal nature (Spring-Summer) of the brown tick of dog.

Molecular identification of new circulating Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum from sheep and goats in Duhok governorate, Iraq

Shameeran Ismael; Lokman Tayib Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126330.1298

Because there was no such study done on identification of tick species by PCR technique in in Duhok Governorate, therefore present study was done to identify tick species by using molecular study by using of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. About 1000 ticks were collected from both sheep and goat, form Duhok Governorate including: Barwaria, Zakho, Sumeil, Mangeshik, Sersing, Shekhan and Akre, between May and June 2016, between April and June 2017. The result found during this study were six species under two genera of the hard ticks were identified by molecular study and sequencing including: three species were under the genus Hyalomma and three species were under the genus Rhipiciphalus that infect small ruminants in Duhok governorate from these species a new species under the Hylomma genra (Hyalomma asiatium asiaticum) with accession number (MN594484), was first time reported in Duhok governorate. Also phylogenetic tree was constructed depend on the 16S rRNA.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Lambing and mortality rate in Ouled-Djellal sheeps in Tebessa region-Algeria

M. Douh; C. Aissaoui; A. Hicher; S. Abdelmajid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 267-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153863

The aim of this work is to study lamb births and mortalities in Algerian sheep Ouled Djellal breed distributed in different zones of Tébessa region, which is divided according to bioclimatic stage, staff in livestock and area agricultural vocation, into four distinct zones: northern (A, B), middle (C) and southern zone (D). During two years 2015-2016, birth numbers (BN) and mortality rates (MR) of 355 sheep flocks were recorded using a questionnaire. Concerning BN the total number was 21244 lambs representing a mean 59±31 per flock. No significant differences between the birth means of C and D (75±28 vs 83±30) were registered. Birth mean was significantly higher (P<0,05) in B (40±17) than A (29±10), when comparison with C and D, the births of A and B were highly significantly (P<0,001). According to (BN) the studied region were classified into 3 zone groups: (a) with high lambing rate (C, D); (b) with medium lambing rate (B); (c) with low lambing (A). In regard to mortality rates, the total rate was 24±6%. The (MR) in A (27±5%) was significantly higher (P<0,05) as compared to other zones (B) 24±4%, (C) 23±7% and (D) 22±4%. However, no significant differences between B, C and D were revealed. According to the results of (MR) the studied region was classified into two groups: (a) with low MR (C, D), (b) with high MR (A, B). Our result showed that zones influence the (BN) and (MR) in Tébessa region, and southern zones especially D seems the appropriate to practice breeding of Ouled Djellal breed.

Commercial oil of Nigella sativa as growth promoter in lambs rations

S. El-Naggar; J. A. Abou-Ward; A. Y. El-Badawi; A. M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 199-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153850

This study aimed to investigate the impact of supplementing different levels of Nigella sativa oil in rations of growing lambs. In a feeding experiment lasted 90 days, 18 growing Ossimi lambs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided by weight into three equal groups (6 animals each). Individual animals in all groups were fed a uniform total mixed ration, offered at 3% of body weight, where the first group was without supplement (R1), while Nigella sativa oil was supplemented at 0.1 (R2) and 0.2% (R3) of dietary DM. Results indicated that additions of N. sativa oil didn’t influenced feed intake, but it increased average body weight gain and feed efficiency. Nutrients digestibility values and dietary nitrogen utilization were higher with N. sativaoil rations than control. Ruminal fermentation parameters showed comparable pH values among groups at 0, 3 and 6 hrs. of feeding. Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower and TVFA concentration was higher for animal fed R2 and R3 rations than control. It’s concluded that N. sativa oil could be added at 0.2 % of the daily feed as a natural growth enhancer of lambs.

Some insights of novel COVID 19 virus: structure, pathogenicity and immunity aspects

Ammar M. Al-Aalim; Mohammad A. Hamad; Ali A. AL-ledani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 287-293
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126898.1408

COVID- 19 is highly infectious disease where the first infected case reported in Wuhan city-China, then it was spread worldwide. The causative agent belongs to novel enveloped single linear positive-sense stranded RNA Coronavirus, which is also called SARS-CoV-2 and has an affinity to lung cells. The genetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that this novehtm hgn l strain may be developed from the animal. origin by recombination between a bat SARS-like CoV and a coronavirus of unknown origin. The ability of rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus from person to other is similar or even more than to other human viruses like influenza or plague leadding to be announced as a pandemic by WHO in 2020. The mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 increased day by day and this led the scientists to search ways to control the virus. Most of the deaths in aged patients may be due to immune response complications where 70% of patients showed lymphopenia. This review, provided some details about structure, pathogenicity and immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The facts in this review lead to suggest that in most cases the death in SARS-CoV-2 may occur via loss of systemic inflammatory response control which leading to lung injury followed by pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure, hence the death especially in old patients. In concluding the early effective control of both innate and adaptive immunity may be the critical. key factor in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

Study of the relationship between the production of milk and some of its components with the growth of lambs in two breeds of Iraqi sheep

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163172

A total of 1116 records Awassi ewes and 432 of Hamdania ewes were collected and which belong animals resource department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors in milk production and some of its components from birth until weaning. The results showed significant effects (p≤0.05) for the breed and highly significant effects (p≤ 0.001) for the year, mother's age, sex, and type of birth in the daily milk production. There was a highly significant effect of year in milk fat, protein, and lactose. same there was a significant effect for age at weaning on birth weight, and highly significant effects for the breed, year, age of dam, sex, type of birth, and age at weaning on birth, weaning and weight gain from birth to weaning. The highest value for repeatability was 0.398, 0.309 in Awassi ewes for weight gain and in Hamdani ewes for daily milk yield respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between protein and lactose in Awassi ewes 0.507 and 0.410, and in Hamdani ewes 0.641 and 0.157 respectively were highly significant.

Comparative study of some local therapeutics for endometritis in cows

M. B. Taha; E. B. Basheer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2008, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5721

The present study was conducted on 57 local breed cows suffering from various degrees of endometritis. The clinical examination included visual examination of vagina supported by uterine palpation per rectum; the laboratory examination included the bacterial isolation from the uterine swabs and histopathological examination of the uterine biopsies. Animals were randomly divided in to three groups of 15 cows each and 12 cows were considered as a control group received no treatment and observed for three consecutive estrous cycles. The first group was treated with a mixture of oxytetracycline (4 g) and tylosin (2 g), second group was treated with cephquenome sulfate 0.5 g, and the third group was treated with lugol's solution (30 ml) 2 %. These treatments were applied as a single intrauterine infusion and the clinical recovery was evaluated at the next estrous cycle by considering the absence of abnormal vagina discharge as an indicator of clinical recovery. Cows that showed clinical cure were inseminated artificially and the pregnancy diagnosis was preformed at least 75 days after insemination by rectal palpation. Retained placenta was the most important predisposing factor of endometritis 50.8 %, results of the bacterial examination demonstrated that E. coli was the most prevalence bacteria (27.4 %). Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy showed a high incidence ratio of chronic endometritis (42.1 %). Results of the treatment showed a higher response and conception rate in the second group (using of cephquenome) 73.3 % and 63.3 %, respectively, followed by first group (using mixture of oxytetracycline and tylosin) 60 % and 55.5 %, respectively, then the third group (using of lugol's solution) 40 % and 50 %, respectively. The lowest cure and conception rates were observed in the control group 25 % and 33.3 %, respectively. This study pointed out a positive relationship between the nature of the vaginal discharge and each of the bacteriological and histopathological examination and revealed the importance of the early treatment of endometritis especially using of cephquenome sulfate.

Diagnosis of causes of suppurative arthritis in sheep in Mosul, Iraq

Q. J. Khaleel; M. M. H. Al-Jammly; S. H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2009, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5730

The prevalence of suppurative arthritis in one hundred sheep from both sexes and different ages were studied. Aspiration of synovial fluid from knee joint of animals showed signs of lameness with reluctant to move in addition to decrease in the body weight and loss of appetite. Physical and bacterial examination of the synovial fluid was revealed green color, turbid and containing pus. Mucin clot showed difference in degree of clotting, and increased number in leukocyte, neutrophile but decreased in lymophocytes and monocyte. The result showed that Streptococcus dysagalactiae was predominate 61.1% while Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the less 5.5%, also the result showed that all the strains were more sensitive to the Ciprofloxacin. This study is considered to be the first attempt to isolate bacteria from Sheep joints in Mosul-Iraq.

A statistical study to evaluate the initial weight for fattening in local calves

N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2008, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 69-73
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5664

Data of twenty one local breed bull calves (Sharabi and Janoubi) were collected from previous work for this study, their ages ranged from 8-18 month with initial live body weight of 125-300 kg. They were fed for 100 days period a standard ration which consisted of 60:40% concentrate to roughages ratio and contained 12.4% crude protein, 19.9% crude fiber and 2.2 Mcal/kg ME. Feed was offered at 3% of live body weight. Calves weights were sorted out into three groups, according to their means of body weight and were 140, 210 and 280 kg. The first group of calves had a significant increase daily gain more than the other two groups and were 1200, 850 and 830 g, respectively. Also, feed conversion rate of the first group was better than the other two groups, and were 6.2, 8.9 and 9.9 kg. ration/1 kg weight gain, respectively. Cost of feeding to produce one kg of weight gain in the first group was more efficient than the other two groups, and were 1860, 2670 and 2970 I.D., respectively. No differences were found in carcass traits among the three groups of calves. The results of this study suggest that it is better to choose local bull calves at live weight less than 200 kg for fattening purpose, to obtain more economical benefit.

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

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