About Journal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences (IJVS) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1988. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. A double-blind peer reviewing system is also used to assure the quality of publication. IJVS publishes original articles, review papers and case reports in the field of veterinary science. This...
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Monitoring of Antibiotic Residues among Sheep Meat in Erbil City and Thermal Processing Effect on their Remnants

Dhary Alewy Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 217-222
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125814.1161

The occurrence of antibiotic residues in meat is considered a serious hazard to public health. This work was conducted to survey the occurrence of antibiotic residues among lamb meat and mutton in Erbil city. The effect of thermal processing on residues was also addressed. From July to December 2018, a total of 280 samples were collected from butcher shops in Erbil city and analyzed microbiologically in plates pre-inoculated with Bacillus subtilis by direct and extraction methods. The overall occurrence of antibiotic residues was (10.4%) and (13.2%) according to direct and extraction methods respectively. The highest occurrence rate was detected in December (22.2%). In terms of thermal processing, cooking for 45 minutes totally deactivated antibiotic residues against the challenged bacterium. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotic residues among sheep meat in Erbil city is high and their persistence is easily eliminated by cooking. The hygienic significance of antibiotic residues in sheep meat has been discussed particularly the major risks to human health, including those caused by toxic reactions, cancer cases, bacterial resistance or other risks.

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

Histological evaluation of the possible role of Na+/ H+ entiporter and anion exchanger in endochondral ossification activities of secondary bone healing in rats

Sahar Mohammed Ibrahim; Kareem Obayes Handool; Abubakar Adamu Abdul; jalila abu; Sabri Mohd Yusof; Mehdi Ibrahimmi; Loqman Yusof

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 233-240
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125832.1165

In secondary fracture healing, callus proliferate, undergo hypertrophy and the extracellular matrix becomes calcified. This step to some extent, recapitulates the embryological bone development with a combination of cellular proliferation and differentiation, increasing cellular volume and matrix deposition. The causes of the chondrocytes volume increase in secondary bone healing are poorly known, but cell membrane transporters perhaps could be implicated. We hypothesize that NHE-1 and AE-2 are among plasma membrane transporters that have a role in cellular differentiation and regulation of endochondral ossification for secondary bone fracture healing. Study of closed tibia fracture healing in 2 groups of 25 of 8-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were undertaken and histological evaluation were made at 5 different time points at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after induction of the fracture. Histological evaluation of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocyte zone area showed a significant difference in week 1 compared to other weeks. Immunohistochemistry study revealed a significant high level of labeling intensity of NHE-1 at the first four weeks. While labeling intensity of AE-2 showed moderate reaction at 1 and 2 weeks, that increased and reached the highest level at 3 and 4 weeks. These results suggested that NHE-1 and AE-2 had role in the endochondral ossification of secondary bone healing.

The antagonism effect of sodium nitrate by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on neurobehavioral of mice

Halima O. Qasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 241-245
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125863.1169

Evaluates the neurobehavioral effects were resulted from dosing of sodium nitrate in mice. Mice were divided into 5 equal groups, the first group; control group was fed from concentrated feed (Barley, Wheat, Soybeans, Corn and Bran), the second group was added 0.2% sodium nitrate and the third group was added 0.2% sodium nitrate with 0.4% ascorbic acid, fourth group was added sodium nitrate 0.4% alone and the fifth group was added 0.4% sodium nitrate with 0.8% of ascorbic acid for five weeks. Sodium nitrate did not produce clear signs of toxicity, but a significant decrease in motor activity and standing on the hind legs (rearing) was observed in the open-field activity test, where the lowest level was reached in the fourth week of treatment, and these declines returned gradually to reach the control group level values at the end of the study period. Sodium nitrate was significantly delayed at the time of the negative geotaxis test at a 45 ° while returning to the control level in the fifth week, also showed that there was a significant increase in body weight compared to pre-treatment value. In this study 0.8% of ascorbic acid with 0.4% sodium nitrate in group 5 showed differed significantly with 0.4% sodium nitrate only in group 4, that means the ascorbic acid give a beneficial result when used for remedy of nitrate toxicity.

Molecular detection and seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province, Iraq

Farhad B. Mikaeel; Adel T. Al-Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 247-252
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125885.1173

Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease of mammals and birds; human infection occurs through consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Little was known about the infection rate of T. gondii among free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the infection rate in Duhok province by using ELISA (IgG) and conventional PCR. A total of 368 blood samples were collected from free range local chickens distributed in five different areas of Duhok province during the period from November 2016 to March 2017. The collected blood samples were from different sexes (hens and cocks) and from different age groups (less than 6 months and older than 6 months). The data found that the total infection rate was (84 / 368) 22.8% by ELSIA. The presence of the infection was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. In this study, there were differences from area to area in the infection rates, the highest rate was reported in Semel district at 33.7% which was significantly (p

Genetic detection to Aeromonas hydrophila proteolytic activity in milk samples (cows, buffaloes and goats) in Basra governorate

Rawa B Banay

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 253-258
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125888.1174

This study aim is to determine the incidence and the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila in raw milk, randomly collected from Basra governorate by using of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In this study, the total number of raw milk samples collected from cows, buffaloes and goats that kept from different the regions of Basra governorate were 90 samples. The PCR technique is modern method which regarded as a reliable tool to detect virulent gene of the A. hydrophila isolates. The PCR assays using the primers sets SerAh-F and SerAh-R resulted in the amplification of 650-bp bands from the targeted proteases gene of the A. hydrophil. The result of the present study showed that the results of PCR concerning the proteolytic activity of A. hydrophila in the tested raw milk samples according to animals' source. The higher percentage of the proteolytic activity was found in the cow's raw milk samples 40% and in the buffalo's milk samples was 26.7% while, the proteolytic activity did not find in the goat's milk samples. The association between the source of the milk sample and proteolytic A. hydrophila positive results was considered to be statistically highly significant. The higher percentage of the A. hydrophila isolates found in the raw cow milk was 40%, and the A. hydrophila isolates found in the raw buffalo milk was 26.7%, while, the A. hydrophila isolates did not find in the goat milk.

Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat raw milk

Zahra K. Saeed; Basil A. Abbas; Rasha M. Othman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 259-263
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125896.1176

The aim of this study was to identify the genetic diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the local goat's milk. A total of 100 raw milk samples were collected from the different Basrah local markets. All the samples were cultured in the De man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) medium which enhances the growth of lactic acid bacteria. The result of the study showed that the only 64 lactic acid bacteria isolated gave the Gram-positive and catalase-negative were 64 (64%). All the suspected isolates were detected and identified by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene and DNA sequencing. The sequencing results showed that 9 strains belong to Lactococcus spp. and 6 strainsbelongto Lactobacillus spp. and all tested isolates had similarity over 99% with those recorded in the GenBank of The National Centre for Biotechnology.

Ovarian morphometric evolution in two consecutive estrous cycles of female rats treated with steroid-free bovine follicular fluid antiserum

Jabber A. Al-Sa’aidi; Areej H. Al-Charack

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 265-271
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125923.1186

The current study aims to investigate the role of steroid-free follicular fluid antiserum on ovaries morphometric growth and development in virgin female rats at two sequential estrous cycles. Bovine follicular fluid aspired from graafian follicles, steroids were removed by treatment with activated charcoal, in order to obtained steroid-free bovine follicular fluid (S-FBFF) which was used for immunization of male rabbits to prepare S-FBFF antiserum (S-FBFF-ab). Sixty virgin female rats were assigned into control and treatment groups (30 each), intraperitoneal injected with a single dose of distilled water 100µl/rat and S-FBFF-ab 100µl/rat at late metestrus, respectively. At the estrus phase of the first and second estrous cycle, 15 females from each group of each cycle were anesthetized and ovarian samples were obtained for histological examination. In comparison with control, the results of S-FBFF-ab treated female rats revealed a significant increase of relative ovaries and uteri weights at both estrous cycles. Morphometric examination showed progressive ovarian proliferation at the first estrus phase in S-FBFF-ab treated female rats through elevation of the number of primaries, graafian, and total follicles. In conclusion, passive immunization against endogenous inhibin using S-FBFF-ab could augment the reproductive fecundity through increase ovarian growth and development.

Effect of steroid-free follicular fluid antiserum on reproductive endocrine profile at estrous and metestrus phases in female rats

Jabber A. Al-Sa’aidi; Areej H. Al-Charack

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 273-278
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125925.1187

Inhibins are important ovarian hormones that control the action of the pituitary gonadotropins which regulate the ovarian cycle. The present experiment aims to study the role of steroid-free follicular fluid-antibodies (S-FBFF-ab) on the reproductive hormone levels at estrus and metestrus phases in cycling female rats. Follicular fluid was collected from mature ovarian follicles, centrifuged and treatment with activated charcoal. S-FBFF was isolated and used for immunization of adult male rabbits. After 5 injections, blood was withdrawn for separation of S-FBFF-ab. Eighty mature female rats were assigned into control and treatment groups (40 each). At late metestrus phase, females of the control were injected intra-peritoneally with 100 μL of physiological saline, whereas treated females were injected intra-peritoneally with 100 μL of S-FBFF-ab. At early estrus and early metestrus phases of each estrous cycle, serum concentrations of inhibin-B, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and prolactin (PRL) were estimated. The results revealed that S-FBFF-ab has inhibin immuno-neutralization effect, which caused elevation in the concentrations of serum FSH and E2, and significant decline of serum PRL and inhibin-B, at early estrus, whereas significant elevation of E2 and PRL, and significant decline of serum FSH, at early metestrus. Furthermore, the results of gene expression revealed a significant elevation of ovarian aromatase gene at both early estrus and early metestrus phases, whereas pituitary PRL gene showed significant decline at early estrus phase and significant elevation at early metestrus phase. In conclusion, passive immunization against S-FBFF could augment the reproductive efficiency through increase reproductive endocrine activity.

Anticlastogenic properties of Quercus infectoria galls extract against DMBA induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice in vivo

Sherzad I Amedi; Bushra M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125930.1188

This study aimed to evaluate the aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria galls extract (QIGE) as anticlastogenic. The effect of QIGE was tested in mice (5 groups for each test) treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA), the strong site-specific carcinogenic agent. In this study, the QIGE show no signs of toxicity, a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice caused a great increase in number of chromosomal aberrations, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and reduction in the percentage of mitotic index (MI) (cytogenetic markers). Oral pre-treatment and post-treatment of QIGE for 14 days at dose 2 gm/kg b.w. daily to DMBA-treated animals greatly reduced in number of micronucleus formation, chromosomal abnormalities such as chromosomal break, chromatid breaks, ring chromosome, dicentric chromosome and fragments. Besides, mitotic index frequency increased comparing with the positive control. The data suggest that QIGE has potent anti-clastogenic effect against DMBA-induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of albino male mice and it may have a protective effect against the mutagenicity of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

Some insights of novel COVID 19 virus: structure, pathogenicity and immunity aspects

Ammar M. Al-Aalim; Mohammad A. Hamad; Ali A. AL-ledani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 287-293
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126898.1408

COVID- 19 is highly infectious disease where the first infected case reported in Wuhan city-China, then it was spread worldwide. The causative agent belongs to novel enveloped single linear positive-sense stranded RNA Coronavirus, which is also called SARS-CoV-2 and has an affinity to lung cells. The genetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that this novehtm hgn l strain may be developed from the animal. origin by recombination between a bat SARS-like CoV and a coronavirus of unknown origin. The ability of rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus from person to other is similar or even more than to other human viruses like influenza or plague leadding to be announced as a pandemic by WHO in 2020. The mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 increased day by day and this led the scientists to search ways to control the virus. Most of the deaths in aged patients may be due to immune response complications where 70% of patients showed lymphopenia. This review, provided some details about structure, pathogenicity and immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The facts in this review lead to suggest that in most cases the death in SARS-CoV-2 may occur via loss of systemic inflammatory response control which leading to lung injury followed by pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure, hence the death especially in old patients. In concluding the early effective control of both innate and adaptive immunity may be the critical. key factor in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

Follow up the antibodies titer against Newcastle disease virus in broiler breeders using ELISA test

Fanar A. Isihak; Salah M. Hassan; Balqees Z. Shaker; Yasir A. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 295-299
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125931.1189

The study period carried out from 25 April 2018 till 21 May 2019 through the rearing and production period including totally of 24000 birds (20800 females, 3200 males). The number of tested blood samples was 452 divided to 255 samples at the rearing period, 143 samples at the production period and 54 samples of offspring. The results of antibodies titer in the sera of non-vaccinated broiler breeders obtained by ELISA showed the maternal derived antibodies titer for 28 samples at 0-5 week/day of age was 5716±612.7, this titer decreased gradually at 3-1 week/day age till to 1075±234) Then the titer was elevated increasingly after vaccination with both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines and reach to peak 37512±2049.4 at 20-1 week/day age. Whereas the bimodal graduation of antibodies titer showed at production period till to end of study. The mean of maternally antibodies titer in the tested sera of the offspring chicks 0-1 week/day that hatched from parent flocks at 32, 39 and 48 weeks of age was 9012±872.4, 6591±368.1 and 4831±982.7 respectively. Thus, we concluded the repetitive vaccination of broiler breeders flock with live vaccine as well as inactivated vaccine is very necessary in endemic areas and ELISA is a good serological test for following, checking and monitoring of immune status of poultry flocks periodically.

Study of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the mouth of canary

Saba A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 301-304
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125937.1192

The study was done for described genotypically characterize of Staph. aureus isolated from the oral cavity of canary birds in Mosul city using polymerase chain reaction technique which was achieved by amplifying of the thermonuclear nuc gene specialized with Staph. aureus. Sixty birds were examined from variable ages of both sexes from different regions of Mosul city for the period of 1/5/2018-1/6/2019 was carried out. The results indicate that 35 samples gave Staph. aureus with the percentage of 58.4%. These isolates are positive for pigmentation of mannitol salt agar, hemolysis on blood agar, catalase and coagulase-positive, gram staining and oxidase negative. PCR technique indicate that all 35 isolates were positive for the nuc gene and produce amplicon of 166 bp. These results considered positive and it is very specific for bacterial isolates of staph aureus as well as may be used for strain isolation, characterization, and differentiation from other types of bacteria.

Inhibition of Escherichia coli biofilm formation by Streptomyces sdLi crude extract

Ahmed J. Neamah; Abdul-kareem S. Al-Al-Yassari; Mohammed A. Hamed; Miran A. AlRammahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 305-310
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125965.1202

Biofilm is a microbial-protecting environment initiated on surfaces that reveals major health problems such as biofilms represented by dental plaques. Fighting biofilm formation is a hugely demanded process. Here, the crude extract of Streptomyces sdLi (sediment lake Iraq-sdLi) was used to check the anti-biofilm formation bioactivity (ABFB) against Escherichia coli (Orooba Meteab Diwanyah 4, OMD4) isolated from milk samples. Using a cross-streak method, each strain of Streptomyces spp. was tested for the best broad-spectrum ABFB. A triplex polymerase chain reaction (TPCR) method targeted specific genes and a fragment (hemin receptor molecule (chuA), uncharacterized protein YjaA (yjaA), and chuA TspE4.C2) was used to categorize 18 isolated OMD4. Using the alcoholic extract of liquid growth of the best strain with ABFB, a crystal violet biofilm assay (CVBA) was employed to test the ABFB against OMD4. The results of the screening test revealed Streptomyces sdLi with strongest ABFB; however, ethyl acetate, as one of the sdLi extracting solvents, was the most potent in in inhibiting the biofilm formation. The TPCR resulted in 18 isolates categorized into four groups A, B1, B2, and D in which B2 and D are known for their significant pathogenic activities in humans and animals. The results of the CVBA showed that Streptomyces sdLi extract was potential for its ABFB. This study recognizes that the Streptomyces sdLi extract is potential for deactivating biofilm formation by pathogenic E. coli which encourages future studies to consider this microorganism and/or its extract as a cure for the treatment of E. coli related illnesses in humans and animals.

Detection and pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish in Baghdad, Iraq

Nagham M. Al-Gburi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 311-316
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125980.1205

A few reports are available for detection of L. monocytogenes in fish in Iraq, however, the current study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Listeria spp. in common carp fish in Baghdad province, Iraq. A total of fresh thirty raw common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were purchased from fish sellers of various local markets in Baghdad city from (December 2017 to March 2018) The viscera was removed aseptically, the bacterial isolation and identification was conducted by a conventional culture method using Listeria selective media, biochemical tests and Vitek 2 for gram-positive. Pathogenicity of isolates was studied in vivo by inoculating mice with bacterium. Targeting virulence associated genes was used to detect the virulence and to confirm the L. monocytogenes isolates. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method for 12 antibiotics. The results revealed that 6.66% of L. monocytogenes were identified from common carp fish viscera and the isolates were pathogenic in mice. L. monocytogenes virulence associated genes were detected in both isolates, while L. innocua virulence associated gene (Lin0372) was detected in one of the two isolates. The isolates were resistant to 7 out of 12 antibacterial drugs including tetracycline, ampicillin, methicillin, cefixime, oxacillin, cefotaxime and penicillin G. The results suggest that presence of L. monocytogenes in fish may have a serious role in public health hygienic in humans.

Synergizing the deltamethrin larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus larvae using cinnamaldehyde in Diwaniyah, Iraq

Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Dhafer R. Al-Fetly; Monyer A. Alfatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 317-320
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126026.1212

The current work on mosquito larvae was performed to evaluate the resistance status of larvae to deltamethrin (DM) and to detect if the larvicidal activity (LA) of this chemical could be synergized after exposing the larvae to cinnamaldehyde (CD). Here, 200 Aedes albopictus larvae were employed for the experiment and were divided randomly into 2 groups (100/each group and placed in petri-dishes (PD), 10 larvae/PD), and they are the DM group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l in 99ml of distilled water (DW) was placed to each PD) and the DM+CD group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l and 1ml of 0.9mg/l respectively were placed with 98ml DW in each PD). The experiment was lasted for 24hrs. Larvae were detected to have resistance against DM as 45% to 60% of the larvae were killed by the DM, 40% to 55% resistance rate. However, when evaluating DM activity with the use of CD, the LA was synergized showing mortality in 87% to 92% of the larvae in which a significant increase in the mortality in DM+CD group was noticed more than that in the DM group. Furthermore, RT-qPCR was run to identify the expression status of the P540 monooxygenase gene, Cyp6p15, and found that the gene expression was significantly inhibited in the DM+CD group when comparing that in the DM group that showed overexpression of this gene. This work results provide viable information about the potential activity of the cinnamaldehyde in synergizing the larvicidal activity of deltamethrin.

Molecular characterization of fertile hydatid cysts from the liver of the sheep and cows and associated environmental influence factors

Renas G. Abdulla; Sarmad N. Mageed; Chawarwan E. Obed; Jamil A. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 321-327
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126036.1213

The aim of the study is characterizing of hydatid cysts that have been isolated from sheep and cow liver fertile hydatid cysts using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1(cox1) gene. DNA samples of nineteen sheep and one cow were extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers of the parasites in Koya city-Erbil, Iraq, using specific extraction procedures. Mitochondrial cox1 gene region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the expected gene sizes were confirmed by gel electrophoresis. All DNA isolates were then sequenced. Nucleotide sequence alignments were then performed to verify the sequenced isolated according to the database, which showed that all samples were belonging to the (G1) sheep strain. Phylogenetic analysis was also carried out for the sequenced isolated to find out the highest similarities with closest organisms to E. granulosus’ conserved gene and to reveal sharing common ancestor, which has been confirmed. Electrocatalytic reduction of DNA where detected through applying cyclic-voltammetry technique, which referred to the environmentally strong protection features of these strains against any effects of external factors, such as heavy metals and has revealed the secret behind the potent preservation of the DNA structure of this parasite from being affect by mutations, or alterations, along the different lineages over a long period of time.

Molecular detection of Hammondia heydorni in dogs in Mosul city

Wasan A. Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 329-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126052.1219

Through this study 122 individual fecal samples were collected from dogs, with different ages, sexes, and breeding management (stray and pet house hold). Some dogs were with healthy appearances while others were suffered from diarrhea, anorexia, depression, dehydration. Infection was investigated by light microscope after flotation technique by using Sheather's sugar solution. if the sample gives positive to oocyst (H. heydorni or other relative group), were mixed with potassium dichromate solution a rate of 2.5% for the stimulation of sporulation. DNA extraction was done using 2% sarcosyl, pronase E followed by phenol/chloroform extraction then precipitation attempt using ethanol. DNA amplification was attempt using H. heydorni primers JS4 and JS5 n microscope examination give 78 sample positives to the presence of oocyst, while polymerase chain reaction showed total percentage of infection with H. heydorni was 34.6% (27 case give positive reaction to PCR). Dogs less than 6 months of age show high infective rate 17.9%, dogs which suffer from gastrointestinal tract troubles (diarrhea, anorexia and dehydration) gave high infective rate 24.4%. Stray dogs gave high prevalence of infection to H. heydorni 25.6% when compared with pet house hold dogs which recorded 9% percentage of infection. This study is the first recorded H. heydorni in dogs in Mosul city.

Detection of similarity and genetic distance between Iraqi chicken varieties and different standard strains

Thamer A. Ezzulddin; Dhyaa M. Jwher; Sufian A. Dabdoub

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 333-337
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126109.1235

Forty-eight wing vein blood samples were collected from different locations of poultry rearing farms and back yard chickens of Nineveh governorate from the of local and exotic chicken. The chicken divided into twelve groups four birds each according to colors and phenotype for the local and exotic chicken respectively. Blood DNA was extracted and amplified by thermocycler apparatus and the electrophoresis was done using 1.2% agarose gel for DNA bands exhibiting. The results showed high genetic similarity within the local chickens ranged between 0.78- 0.96 at an average of 0.88, while it ranged between 0.73- 0.86 at an average of 0.78 in exotic breeds. The degree of similarity between Iraqi and exotic breeds was 0.74-0.88 at average of 0.80. The calculated average of differences among each of Iraqi and exotic chickens and in between were 0.12, 0.22 and 0.20, respectively. However, the genetic distance within the local chicken, exotic breed and in between them was 0.128, 0.24 and 0.21 respectively. The study concluded that the genetic similarity was higher within local chicken groups than those of exotic breeds.

Pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar albany in experimental infected SPF BALB/c Mice

Jesny B. Sabri; Imad I. Al-Sultan; Khalil Altaif; Sherly Peter; Mohammed J. Saadh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 339-344
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126269.1282

Salmonellosis remains an important zoonotic disease and public health concern, Salmonella enterica serovar Albany is one of the motile serovars which has been identified from poultry and humans. However, its pathogenic potentials and shedding probability and duration from infected/colonized chickens have never been reported. To assess its pathogenic potentials and shedding probability 6 SPF BALB/c mice was inoculated with 0.1ml volume for each mice bacterial solution of 108 CFU/ml of Salmonella entrica serovar Albany after 24 hours the segments of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon were fixed to study the histopathology and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the Salmonella entrica serovar Albany in the intestinal mucus swabs. The control group consist of 6 SPF BALB/c mice were inoculated with 0.1ml of 0.9% normal saline, The pathogenesis incidence rate of the disease caused by S. entrica serovar Albany revealed that prominent blood vessels on caecum 100%, red intestinal serosal 100%, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the crypt of liberkhun and submuscular layer of small intestine 100%, enterocyte necrosis 100%, haemorrhagic enteritis 83.3%, cecitis 33.3%, colonitis 66.6%, villus atrophy 100%, crypt atrophy 100%, and detachment of epithelial tissue 50%, can occur as soon as 24 hours post infection. Infected S. entrica serovar Albany was also successfully re-isolated from the intestinal swabs which revealed that the mice is potentially shed the bacteria through feces.

Are promising mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine abolish COVID-19 activity? A review study

Yaareb J Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Fanar A. Isihaq; Ammar A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 345-349
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127049.1449

To explore the benefits of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), (which is an antimalarial agent that has shown effective pharmacological properties in different malarial conditions and immunological disorders, particularity in chloroquine-sensitive malaria), in the treatment and prevention of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because HCQ was recently advocated to minimize the pathogenicity of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to shed the light on a possible mechanism by which HCQ can defeat the COVID-19, a disease characterized by the WHO as a pandemic. Literatures from Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were cast-off to search the literature data. The keywords used are antimalarial agent, COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine, SARS-CoV-2 and Zinc sulfate.The review summarizes the benefits of using HCQ against COVID-19 through exploiting the ability of this antimalarial agent in ameliorating the body immunity, inhibiting and/or delaying the viral glycosylation by increasing the pH inside the host cell and also via suppressing the viral transcription and replication through the formation of a complex structure after binding with zinc. We concluded thatthese interfering properties of HCQ support human immunity to fight against the progression of COVID-19. We hypothesize that the therapeutic efficiency of HCQ against the COVID-19 can be enhanced by the concurrent administration of zinc sulfate.

Effect of vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation on heat shock protein 70 in broiler chicken exposed to heat stress

Ashwaq Ahmed Hassan; Rana amer asim amer Al Suleman agha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125950.1195

The goal of the current investigation is to study the role of vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid for minimizing the effects of heat stress on blood constituent, growth hormone, HSP 70 and glutathione. Broiler chickens were randomly allocated to four groups: 1st group controlled, the 2nd group subjected to heat stress 40±2 C for 4 hours. / day, the 3rd group was subjected to heat stress and vitamin C (360mg/L) in drinking water and 4th group was subjected to heat stress and acetylsalicylic acid (0.03%) in drinking water. The result showed that exposure to heat stress decline in RBCs count, Hb concentration, PCV% and percentage of lymphocyte, furthermore elevation in of MCV, Heterophils, H/L ratio, and HSP70. Administration of vitamin C caused a significant rise in RBCs count, percentage of lymphocyte and reduces in MCV, MCH value, percentage of Heterophils and H/L ratio compared with the heat stress group. Administrations of acetylsalicylic acid significantly increase in the RBCs, and PCV% and decrease in MCV, MCH, MCHC values, and H/L ratio compare with the heat stress group. The results did not show significant changes between groups in the level of glutathione and growth hormone. It concluded that Vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid administration as feed additive ameliorating the opposing effect caused by heat stress in broiler chicken; thus, its administration recommended during the heat stress.

Molecular Analysis of ompA Gene Pasteurella multocida Indonesia Local Isolates

A. T. Soelih Estoepangestie; Arini Rahmi Dewi; Suwarno Suwarno; Didik Handijatno; Rahaju Ernawati; Wiwiek Tyasningsih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125934.1191

The aim of this research was to analyze ompA molecular gene of Pasteurella multocida buffalo isolate and bovine isolate from Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia and Katha strain isolate from Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccine. Determinant of P.multocida local isolates ompA gene amplification sequencing PCR then conducted to see the sequence of nucleotide sequences of ompA gene. The results of PCR amplification showed an amplicon of 559 bp of all isolates. The homology analysis result of the isolates ranged from 93 – 100% with 13 P.multocida isolates from GeneBank, and phylogenetic tree analysis shows that buffalo isolate were closely related to Katha strains, Iran, India and China isolate. Whereas bovine isolate far enough with buffalo and Katha strain isolate. Nucleotide sequences were compared to amino acids then by the method of Kolaskar and Tongaonkar antigencity predicted antigens in P.multocida. Epitope predictions from local isolates and Katha strain were found in five peptides: QVSPVFAG, IPELALRVEYQ, GQSVYVPEVVSKT, LKSASVAVAG, and ANYLVAKG .

Using T cell Lymphokines to enhance the immune response against Newcastle disease in vaccinated broiler chickens under the effect of Mycotoxin

Basher Saud; mushtaq AL-Zuhariy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125977.1204

The current study aimed to reduce the toxic effect of Mycotoxins and enhance the immunity against Newcastle disease in broiler chickens by using lymphokines from hyperimmunized birds with salmonella typhymurium. The study included three stages, the first phase included isolating salmonella typhymurium from the infected birds and then determined the infected dose by injecting five groups of broiler chicks, each group included 5 chicks, the dose was 108, the second phase included after isolating the bacteria and determine the infected dose, was taken two groups of broiler chicks, each group included 20 chicks at one day, the first group was drinking orally three doses (7, 14 and 21) days. The second group not taken anything as considered a control group. At 35 days of age, T cell cells were collected from spleen of the infected bird, after it was destroyed and filtered (1500) rpm with centrifuge, and then grow T cell on RBM media and added Co-A to stimulate T cell to secretion the Lymphokines. Third and final phase of the study involved 250 broiler chicks at one day, divided into five groups each group 50 chicks, treated as follow: the first group was injected 0.5 ml intraperitoneal with Lymphokines at one day, after 30 minutes vaccinated with Newcastle (ND) vaccine (La Sota strain) through drinking water, the injection and the vaccine was repeated at 10 days.

Clinical , Serological and Antigenic study of Feline panleukopenia virus in cats in Baghdad / Iraq .

Amanee Mohammad Radhy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125960.1201

(FPL) is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates . This study was performed in the Baghdad capital city of Iraq from January 2018 -to- February 2019.
Fecal and blood samples were collected from both diarrheic and non diarrheic 180 cats , of both sexes . Hundred pet and eighty stray cats was divided into 2 groups according to their ages : > 1-year and < 1-year . Fecal sample were checked for presence of FPL virus antigens by rapid antigen test kit ( immuno chromato graphy assay) and blood samples were tested for presence of FPL virus specific antibodies by ( ELISA ) test as well as the study of blood parameters of cats.
Forty cats ( 22.2 % ) were infected with FPL virus by ICG assay , while a high percentage of total seropostive rate 65 ( 36.1% ) was founded by ELISA test . Significant (P ≤ 0.05) higher infection ( 27.5 % ) and seropostive ( 36.7% ) rates were observed in cats less than one year age . Clinically the infected cats showed multi-systemic signs and the vomiting was the more frequent sign ( 87.5 % ), hematological changes showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in heamogram values and prolonged clotting time , the total leukocytic count was lowered in infected cats and this owing to significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in absolute numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils .

natural heavy infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp in sheep in mosul city

Nadia Sultan alhayali; manalhimmadi himmadi hasan; karam yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125994.1210

Abstract
This study included recording the natural heavy infection with immature macrocysts (Sarcocysts) of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep .In animal with one year of age which is slaughtered at butcher shop in Mosul city in May 2018. This is the first case recorded of natural infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. In Mosul City . Multiple small nodules were observed during slaughter ,they were along the esophageal muscles with different sizes and shapes , they were distributed randomly throughout esophageal muscles. Most of the sarcocysts were small in size with mean size 20- 28×28-42 µm and histological examination showed that contained only metrocytes.This confrmed the diagnosis that the sarcocysts were immature macrocysts (sarcocysts) for the Sarcosystis spp. In our study, heavy infected case with Sarcocystis reveals the fact that large numbers of cats(final hosts) in contact with sheep in pastures is considered the main risk factor for infection and supply of raw meat from infected sheep, which is very important for carcass condemnation when the meat inspection if specific abnormalities are found which indicate that the part of carcass , is unfit for human consumption it is condemned, which means the economic loss for livestock.

Functional morphology of the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel (Epixerus ebii)

CHIKERA IBE; Adanna Elezue; Ekele Ikpegbu; Uchenna Callistus Nlebedum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126047.1216

The study was initiated to contribute to the meager knowledge of the anatomy of the African palm squirrel. Skin of the trunk and paw pads was the subject of interest. Basic gross and histological techniques were employed. The dorsal fur was grey with golden brown free endings, while the ventral fur was greyish white. The fur covered the entire trunk, extended through the dorsal surface of the distal carpal joint to the dorsal surface of the digits. Five digital pads, three inter-digital pads and two metacarpal pads were observed on the forefoot. There was no observable digital pad on the hindfoot; four inter-digital and two metacarpal pads were observed.
Surface groves were evident in the cornified layer of the trunk skin, but not in the paw pad skin.
The mean thickness of the cornified layer of the epidermis of the palmar pad was 75.54 (± 3.45) μm, while the entire epidermis was 102.32 (± 4.23) μm thick. The non-cornified layer of the trunk skin was made of only three distinct layers, as the stratum lucidum was not evident. Conversely, the stratum lucidum was evident in the paw pad skin. Dermal papillae observed in the paw pad skin were more numerous and progressed deeper into the non-cornified epidermis than those observed in the trunk skin. There were more melanocytes in the dorsal than in the ventral trunk skin. The study concluded that the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel enable its adaptation to arboreal habitat.

Detection of lead, chromium and cobalt in meats of cattle and buffalo from retails of Mosul City

Hiba Salahaldeen Al-Naemi; Raad Abdulghani Al-Sanjary; Rana Aoni Faraj; Ahmed sadii sadii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126069.1224

Lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) were investigated in 160 local and imported meat samples of cattle and buffalo collected from markets of Mosul city by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results reported mean concentrations of Pb and Cr in local cattle meat (0.136) and (0.0651) mg/kg, respectively significantly higher (p<0.05) than that reported for Co (0.008 mg/kg). In imported cattle meat, results revealed that Pb presented a mean concentration (0.182 mg/kg) significantly higher (p<0.05) than that presented by Cr and Co (0.0486 and 0.00971 mg/kg, respectively). No significant differences (p<0.05) in the mean concentrations of Pb, Cr and Co in local buffalo meat (0.119, 0.0896 and 0.017 mg/kg, respectively) and imported buffalo meat (0.106, 0.102 and 0.041 mg/kg, respectively) were reported. The results revealed that 20% from each local cattle and buffalo meat samples, 12.5% from imported cattle meat and 22.5% from imported buffalo meat were exceeded the maximum permissible limit for lead in meat. Concerning Cr, 2.5% from imported cattle meat and 5% from each of local and imported buffalo meat surpassed the maximum acceptable limit. Ultimately, results showed that all samples of local and imported cattle and buffalo meat were within the maximum allowable limits for Co. The hazards of metals on public health was discussed.

Molecular study to detect the Eimeria Species in Sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province / Iraq

Noaman Naji A&amp;#039;aiz; Noora Majeed; Ahmed Neama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126064.1225

Sheep eimriosis is one of the most important and common disease which infects sheep in all ages but it is more effective in lambs. The diarrhea with or without blood is the main signs of infection. Eimeria protozoan required single host to complete its life cycle which pass in different stages including schizogony, gametogony and sporogony. The study was designed for detection of sheep Eimeria species through the molecular method.
This study was conducted in Al-Diwanyah province during the winter months of 2019. In which 200 sheep fecal samples were collected and examined traditionally to investigate the Eimeria oocytsts. Ninety seven samples of highly intensity infection with Eimeria oocysts were selected to subject for DNA extraction process. The extracted DNAs were tested through amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene by conventional PCR, and then phylogenetic analysis was made to diagnose the sheep Eimeria species.
All samples that examined microscopically were showed positive results of infections with Eimeria protozoan. Out of 97 molecularly examined samples, forty five (46.39%) were given positive result in conventional PCR technique, where Eimeria spp. detected through succeeded amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene. Then phylogenetic analysis referred to that there are five species of Eimeria confirmed in sheep in Al-Diwanyah province including 6 (33.33%) samples diagnosed as E. ahsata , 4 (22.22%) samples E. weybridgensis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. ovinoidalis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. bovis and 2 (11.11%) samples E. auburnensis.

Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of xylazine and its interaction with metoclopramide in acute pain model in mice

Khalid ahmed Shaban; Muna Alzubaidy; Gada abdul-munem faris

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126070.1226

The study was designed to qualitative and quantitative evaluation of antinociceptive effect of metoclopramide and xylazine each alone or as a concomitant administration in mice. Adult albino Swiss mice weighing (20-30)mg used in all experiments. By using hot plate test ,the individual analgesic dose (ED50) of metoclopramide and xylazine detected depending on up and down method . Isobolographic analysis used to evaluate the type of interaction between two drugs at ratio 0.5:0.5 of individual ED50 for each drug at level of antinociception effect. Simultaneously administration of double dose of individual ED50 and low doses (sedative, non-analgesic doses ) of both drugs, also evaluated at level of central and visceral analgesia using hot plate and writhing response test respectively. The individual ED50 of xylazine and metoclopramide was 10.8 and 25.6mg/kg,i.p. respectively . Asynergistic interaction at level of analgesia explored between two drugs at ratio 0.5:0.5 which represented as decreased in ED50 of metoclopramide and xylazine by 58.75 and 58.15% respectively . The animal suffered from only slight sedation and docile. Simultaneously i.p. administration of xylazine and metoclopramide at double dose of ED50 for each drug induced significant increase in latency time of thermal response , As well as significant decrease in writhes number, which induced by acetic acid in comparism with control groups. The percentage of analgesia at subanalgesic doses of aconcomitant administration of both drugs was 100% in comparism with each drug alone. This results suggested safe and good use of both drugs in veterinary medicine

Development of In-house Taqman qPCR assay to detect Equine herpesvirus-2 in Al-Qadisiyah city

Mohammed Al-Saadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126076.1229

EHV-2 is distributed in horses globally. It is clustered within gamma-herpesvirus subfamily and percavirus genus. EHV-2 infection has two phases: latent and lytic. In the later, EHV-2 mainly associated with respiratory and genital symptoms. However, in the quiescent phase of infection, EHV-2 stay dormant in the host till viral reactivation. Our previous study has showed that EHV-2 can be harboured by equine tendons, suggesting that leukocytes possibly carrying EHV-2 for the systemic dissemination. So far, numerous PCR protocols have been performed targeting the gB gene. However, this gene is heterogenic. Therefore, there is a need to develop a quantitative diagnostic approach to detect the quiescent EHV-2 strains. To do this, Taqman qPCR assay was developed to quantify the virus. This was performed by targeting a highly conserved gene known as DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene using constructed plasmid as a standard curve calibrator. The obtained results showed an infection frequency of 33% in which the EHV-2 load reached 6647 copies/100 ng DNA whereas the minimum load revealed as 2 copies/100 ng DNA. The median quantification was found as 141 copies/ 100 ng DNA. Establishment of a credited qPCR assay to quantify EHV-2 could be helpful in the control of the disease.

Histological alteration of male and female reproductive systems induced by alloxan in rats

Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126626.1351

The objective of this study is to determine the effect of oxidative stress experimentally induced by alloxan 100 mg/kg bw on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration on tests include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells with paucity of sperms into the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. As for the histological alteration of female reproductive organs include disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.

Assessment of the withdrawal period for ractopamine hydrochloride in the goat and sheep

Mochamad Lauardi; Bambang Hermanto; Tjuk Imam Restiadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126114.1237

Ractopamine hydrochloride often used as a bronchodilator, but its β-adrenergic agonist effects on un-striated muscle and its withdrawal time have not been assessed for Etawah goats and sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the safe time to slaughter goats and sheep post-treatment with ractopamine. Five clinically healthy adult goats and sheep (20 kg body weight) were treated with a single dose of ractopamine (1 mg, intravenously). Whole blood was sampled from the jugular vein at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min post-treatment. Ractopamine as a veterinary drug was analysed using HPLC at wavelength 225 nm. The concentrations at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min were 817.156 ± 13.460 µg.mL-1, 554.468 ± 50.157 µg.mL-1, and 294.588 ± 52.845 µg.mL-1 in goats and 706.266 ± 89.856 µg.mL-1, 579.194 ± 45.664 µg.mL-1, and 209.36 ± 54.797 µg.mL-1 in sheep, respectively. The withdrawal times in goats and sheep were 1141.710 ± 255.85 h and 989.741 ± 167.633 h, respectively, no drug residues detected. The safe time to slaughter goats after administration of 1 mg of ractopamine was approximately 3 months and 5 days post-treatment at a safety factor of 2, which was later than the sheep at 2 months and 22 days by a safety factor of two (p> 0.05).

Detection of hbl complex genes in Bacillus cereus isolated from cow raw milk in northwest of Iran

Saman Mahdavi; Reza Alipour Banaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126120.1238

Bacillus cereus is a gram positive and spore-forming bacterium which is widely distributed in nature. It also has been known as a major food borne pathogen that often plays a role in the contamination of ready-to-eat and dairy products. It causes two different types of food poisoning in human: the diarrheal type and the emetic type. The aim of this study was detection of hbl complex genes in B. cereus isolated from cow raw milk in northwest of Iran. 120 B. cereus strains isolated from cow raw milk that already had been identified phenotypically, were assessed for molecular confirmation by PCR method. Then, they were evaluated for determination of presence of hbl genes complex by specific primers. Of 120 B. cereus strains, 117 strains were confirmed molecularly. The frequency of hblA, hblC and hblD genes were reported 105(89.7%), 102(87.1%) and 102(87.1%), respectively. 99 strains (84.6%) harboured 3 tested genes simultaneously. 12 B. cereus strains (10.25%) lacked these genes. The results of current study showed that B. cereus strains isolated from raw milk have high potential in causing diarrhea poisoning and therefore the use of procedures to reduce the bacterial contamination during the processing of dairy product is required.

Effect of Saponins Extract of Glycyrrihiza Glabra in Activities of Hepatic Enzymes and Some Biochemical Parameters in Serum of Adults Ovariectomized Female Rats

Hadeel mohammed Al-hashemi; Ameera Hamdoon; Elham M. Al-Khashab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126127.1239

This research was planned to verify the infuence of saponins, that extracted from Glycyrrihiza Glabra in activities of hepatic enzymes and some biochemical parameters of serum ovariectomized adult female rats. Adult female rats (15) were randomly divided into three groups. which included sham–operated (sham), ovariectomized (ovx),and ovariectomized rats treated orally with (250 mg/kg/day) of saponins extract for (25) days .The results revealed ,that ovx rats showed a significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Calcium level , a significant reduction in activities of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate amino transferase (AST), ᵞ-Glutamyl transferase(GGT), and level of albumin, creatinine without any significant change in alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity and magnesium level comparison with sham –operated rats.Treatment ovx rats with 250 mg/kg of saponins caused a significant reduction in ALT and CK activities, and elevation in albumin and creatinine levels , and AST,GGT activities. In conclusion, the present results revealed that, saponins extracted of Glycyrrihiza Glabra have an effect in hepatic enzyme activities and some biochemical parameters in ovariectomized female rats with osteoporosis results from reduction in estrogen level.

Application of ultrasound contra infection with secondary hydatidosis in mice

براء باسل; Asmaa Abdul Aziz Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126132.1240

The present research explained the impact of ultrasound on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vitro by the waves application of fixed frequency (20000 pulse/sec ) (18w/cm2) for all treatments , with different exposing periods, thirty, twenty ,fifteen , twelve ,ten and five seconds respectively , subsequently prevention of mice against interjected with minor hydatid cysts, in comparison with the control animals (infested with protoscoleces without exposure to ultrasound waves), depending on many criteria including , numbers , weights and diameters of developed metacestodes , in addition to the percentage reduction, The results displayed an obvious increase of ultrasound waves impact on of their numbers Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces viability by increase of period in vitro , the results also manifested %100 decrease of metacestodes numbers in the dealt ones (with%17 fertility exposed for 20 seconds), whereas showed %99.23 decrease with group of fertility %34 (exposed for 15 seconds) four and five months post infection .

Molecular detection of pathogenic Entamoeba spp. and Genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica in Hemorrhagic diarrhea samples of humans, cows and sheep.

hassan hachim hachim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126135.1242

Abstract :
The present study was carried out to detect the genotype of Entamoeba histolytica that found in human fecal specimens and animals feces with Haemorrgic diarrhea by amplifying the SREHP gene, using Real Time PCR technique, Cyber green dye and by fusion curve analysis. The study also included molecular detection of amoebic parasite species using PCR technology, this technique based on 18S rRNA genes responsible for the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica; Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba bovis. The study recorded presence of parasites (Entamoeba histolytica; Entamoeba dispar; Entamoeba bovis) with total infection rates (82.9% ; 26.8 % ;4.9 % ), respectively. The study revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica parasite in five different genotypes (I, II, III, IV, V) with rate presence (9.75% ; 53.65 % ; 19.5% ; 9.75% ; 7.3%), respectively. In conclusion, There are five genotype of Entamoeba histolytica , in human and animals , most of these genotype may be infect any host , Entamoeba bovis was record in sheep and cows .

Administration of Nitrobacter as Ammonia Decomposer in Maintenance Media of Clarias gariepinus with Aquaponics

Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja; Adinda Septyasari Taragusti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

Abstract. Many Indonesian catfish farmers apply the aquaponics system to overcome the problem of limited cultivation land. However, the use of high-stock solid method on aquaponics system causes a decrease in water quality due to the accumulation of fish feces and food scraps that are not consumed by fish and are left to pile up and turn into ammonia. Ammonia in water is toxic and dangerous for fish health. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias sp.) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The control group were treated without Nitrobacter administration and 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters observed were SGR, SR and FCR. Whereas, the supporting parameters were water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) plant growth and water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in chicken in Al-Diwaniya province

Noor Jarad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126159.1249

This study were conducted in Al-Diwaniya province, in south Iraq during the period from February to July (2019) to determine the rate of infection of Cryptosporidium parvum in domestic chicken, study the effect of some epidemiological factors such as sex and months on the rate of infection, addition to the molecular Identification of Cryptococcus parvum by amplification HSP70 gene by conventional PCR for first time in Iraq. Number of collected fecal sample was (210) from domestic chicken and processed by Ziehl-Neelsen method. The results of the microscopic examination showed that 108 (51.4 %) out of 210 fecal samples were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. The statistical analysis founded no marked difference in prevalence of infection between sexes. Significant difference (P<0.05) was recorded between infection rate during the months of the study and higher prevalence of infection rate was observed in March (11.9%), while lowest infection rate was observed in July (5.23%). and June (5.23%). Genomic DNA was Genomic DNA was extracted from 108 fecal samples and HSP70 gene for C. parvum was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR technique is showed that out of 108 fecal samples (21.3%) were positive for C.parvum.

The Effect of Cinnarizine on Histological Outcome, Oxidative Stress Markers and Adhesion Molecules in Experimental Colitis in Rats

Rana Atarbashe; Ahmed Abu-Raghif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126170.1254

Ulcerative colitis is chronic, intermittent illness. The current treatment failed to cure the disease which made a need to investigate other drug with minimal side effects. The goal of the research is to assess the histological outcome, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnarizine in comparison with that of sulfasalazine in experimental colitis in rats. Acetic acid 4% (vol/vol) was used rectally to induce experimental colitis in rats. After induction, rats were administered either sulfasalazine 100mg/kg or cinnarizine 20mg/kg orally for one week. There was estimation of histopathological and macroscopical parameters also the expression of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-4), oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1and E-Selectin) in the colonic tissue. Results showed that both cinnarizine and sulfasalazine significantly reduced the macroscopical and histological injury in colon that induced by acetic acid. Inaddition to the downregulation of the increased colonic proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, MPO parameters and adhesive molecules.These results concluded that cinnarizinehad effective role in experimental colitis in rats through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions with downregulation the colonic adhesive molecule.

Phylogenetic analysis of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in Iraqi Awassi sheep

Saad Hashim Al-Husseiny; Asaad Jassim; Khalefa Ali Mansour; Qassim Haleem kshash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126172.1255

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection in sheep results in contagious ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The aim of this study was to detect the presence of JSRV in Iraqi Awassi sheep of Al-Qadisiyah Province using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Lung secretion samples from 50 adult sheep (1.5–2 year old) during 2016-2018 that were suffering from chronic respiratory distress with suspected clinical OPA were collected. RT-PCR assay for detection of JSRV was conducted using primers specific for its 382 bp envelope protein gene. The results showed that 22 of the 50 (44%) lung secretion samples were positive for JSRV. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the JSRV sequence detected in the local Iraqi sheep population was closely related to NCBI BLAST locus isolates KT279066.1 and KT279065.1. The study found that the JSRV disease is prevalent in the Iraqi Awassi sheep flocks and that the local JSRV isolate is genetically divergent from most other global isolates.

Improving Light Microscopic Detection of Collagen by Trichrome Stain Modification

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126176.1256

In present study we aimed to introduce modifications in classical protocol applied to stain collagen fibers by Masson's trichrome stain, in order to decrease time and concentration of different steps and chemical in this traditional protocol. The experiment design contains a series of successive amendment steps based on previously successful steps, in which every step where be modified to get the best result, then the next step of staining protocol will be modified in the classical Masson's trichrome staining protocol in a samples of tissue from liver, heart and intestines of sheep diagnosed with chronic fasciolosis. The result showed that the new modified protocol gives the same staining efficiency to collagen fiber when we used Harris hematoxylin as a nuclear strainer or even excluded this stain from staining protocol. In conclusion this new modified staining protocol give a perfect staining reaction to collagen fibers in pathological samples which is similar to that obtained by Masson's trichrome stain, also this new modified procedure is less time consuming and less toxic effect on human and environment than other trichrome stains, and can be easily conducted either by the technician or the pathologists.

physiological effects of Lactic acid bacteria on Melamine induced toxicity in female albino rats

Mohammed Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126183.1259

physiological effects of Lactic acid bacteria on Melamine induced toxicity in female albino rats
A. H. Jameel M. J. Mohammed M. S. Mahdi K. M. Thalj
Food science department, college of agriculture, Tikrit university, Tikrit, Iraq.
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus against melamine toxicity by some physiological indicators in laboratory female rats after 21 days. These results showed caused in significant decrease (P<0.05) in the organs weights liver and spleen and increase in kidney weight. Also showed to decrease in value of hemoglobin, RBC, WBC, Lymphocyte and Platelets, While the values of GRN was increasing as compared with control group. Also found that the addition of Melamine led to increase in cholesterol, LDL and blood glucose, while the values of triglyceride and HDL was decreased. The addition of two types of lactic acid bacteria L. casei and L. acidophilus led to decreasing the negative effect of Melamine on the values of all the parameters determined.

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the Veterinary Teaching Hospital

Radhwan Al-Ajeli; Ahmed Al-Qadhi; Saevan Al-Mahmood; layth mahmoud Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital/ College of Veterinary Medicine/ University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that total number of the excised tumors was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. In addition, the excised tumors were identified as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leukosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and venereal transmissible tumor 2.78%. We concluded from current study occurrence a different type of tumors which was malignant or benign in their nature in different species of animals. hymoma, and venereal transmissible tumor 2.78%. We concluded from current study occurrence a different type of tumors which was malignant or benign in their nature in different species of animals.

Using acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of laminitis in racing horses: a comparative study

Abdulmuniem Ibrahim Aljobory

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126217.1263

Objective: To compare the efficiency of using conventional acupuncture CA and electroacupuncture EA in the laminitis therapy in race horses.
Methods: Twenty adult race horses with laminitis were randomly selected. Clinical examination was carried out and acupuncture points were determined according to the results of diagnostic palpation of acupuncture. The horses were grouped into two equal groups; the 1st group was treated daily for 6 consecutive weeks, with CA and the 2nd group with EA. evaluation of lameness was depended on the visual and objective examination using the “American Association of Equine Practitioners” (AAEP) lameness scale and confidence stride lengths criterion for forelimbs which performed by the force plate indices. The lameness level was statistically analyzed applying t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis and p-value (P<0.05) was significant.
Results: Both visual and objective lameness examinations showed gradual statistical significant reduction (P<0.05) in the severity of lameness and improvement in the gait of the horses after CA and EA treatment. It is also showed that the lameness level was significantly (p<0.05) decreased after every weekly session of EA treatment in comparison with CA treatment.
Conclusion: It is concluded that continued electroacupuncture EA treatment by current study pattern showed a marked improvement in the movement of the laminitic horses when compared with conventional acupressure CA treatment.

A Retrospective study of fracture Cases Managed in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital; 181 Cases (2014-2018)

Sozan Ali Muhamad; Othman Jalal Ali; Bahjat Taifor Abbas; Hardi Fattah Marif; Rizgar Rahim Sleman; Brwa Mhamed Ali; Dekan Ali Raza; Harem Habeel Hama Ali; Gashaw Mustafa Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126228.1266

The aim was to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in different breed, age and sex admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine-University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From those, dogs represented 49.72% (90/ 181 cases), whereas cat represents 18.23% (33/181 cases) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology was multi factorial, but the roadside accident was the main cause of fractures particularly in the dogs. Femoral fractures were the most common type of fractures that represented 26.51% (48 /181), whereas the other most common types of fractures were radius-ulna (19.33%, 35/ 181), tibia-fibula (13.81%, 25/181) and the pelvis (9.94%, 18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered better latitude and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of the 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found very convenient and without much difficulties, while cases with external coaptation were not. Satisfactory postoperative results were obtained from most, but in few cases, postoperative inflammation (4 cases), mal-union (5 cases) and incomplete alignment (2 cases) were found. It was concluded that fractures in animals should be considered in Sulaimani province and fracture repair was highly successful and the best-employed internal fixation techniques were intramedullary pins.

Antimicrobial activity of peptides extracted from camels' blood neutrophils against some pathogenic bacteria

mohammed abdulaah mola

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126239.1270

Absract :
The aim of this search was to isolate and purify Antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs) taken from camel blood , and to study its antibacterial activity against some multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium , Bacillus subtilis) .
The results showed the possibility of obtaining these peptides from camel's white blood cells , and was separated by using Reversed-Phased High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) technical equipment. The results showed the presence of (21) absorption peaks of the isolated peptide extract .
The two-stage radial diffusions method was used to study the activity of the crude peptide against the studied bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium , Bacillus subtilis) . The results showed that this peptides was effective without any resistance. the best effect was on the gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) with a diameter of (31mm) inhibition, while the less effect was on the negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) with a diameter of (20mm) .

Incidence of internal parasites of the slaughtered local breeds of ducks and geese

Manal Himmadi Hasan; Baydaa Younis Mahmood; Ahlam Fathi Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126242.1272

This study was carried out to determine the presence of gastrointestinal parasites of local ducks and geese in Nineveh province. Sixty-four ducks and seventy geese of different ages and sexes were purchased from local markets. Necropsy findings in ducks reviled a total infection rate of 68.8% was with protozoa,50% was with nematodes, while 28.1% were with cestodes. On the other hand in geese, the percentages with the mentioned parasites were 78.6% with protozoa,54.2% with nematodes, 31.4% with nematodes and respectively. Four types of nematodes were identified in ducks; Ascaridia galli , Heterakis gallinarum , Heterakis isolonche , and Subulura brompti, the same were also found in geese except Heterakis.isolonche. Cestodes identified in ducks and geese were Railletina tetragona , Railletina echinobothrda, Railletina cesticillus and Coantaenia infundibulum. The detected protozoa include Eimeria spp., Tyzeria spp., Wenyonella spp., Cryptosporidia spp., Giardia spp. Double infection with parasite was higher in ducks while the triple infection in geese was the higher.
Key words: Internal parasites, ducks, geese.

Histopathological Effects Of Experimental Exposure To Lead On Nervous System In Albino Female Rats

Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya; Hana Kh. Ismail; Asrar Al-khafaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126248.1273

Background: Lead toxicity is a common health issue, Lead (pb) is harmful to vital organs of body particularly the nervous system. This study aimed to estimate the effects of lead on the cerebellum , cerebrum and spinal cord in rat model, focusing on histopathological changes. Material &methods: 24 female mature albino rats of 200-300g randomly divided into 2 groups, the first is the control , and the second group were treated with lead acetate at dose 40mg/kg B.W. for 30 days. The results: Microscopic examination revealed degeneration and necrosis of purkinje cells and molecular cells , Decrease in the number of granular cells and molecular cells also observed . Some purkinje cells lose axons and shrinked and some areas showed depletion from purkinje cells, Congestion of blood vessels with perivascular cuffing of mononuclear inflammatory, hemorrhage , neurophagia , glial nodules were observed in the brain paranchyma. Demyelination reported in white matter , with microglial infiltration around vertebral canal of spinal cord. This study referred to the increased risk of central nervous system damage due to the exposure to lead.

Multi-presence of antibiotic residues in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Duhok abattoir/ Kurdistan region, Iraq

Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126259.1276

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and/or multipresence of tetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and gentamicin residues in slaughtered apparently healthy sheep of Duhok city using ELISA technique. Eighty eight samples were collected from different sites of twenty two sheep carcasses. These samples included (Longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney). The samples were prepared, homogenized, extracted and assayed according to ELISA kit instructions. The results also revealed that all 22 carcasses were contained at least one type of tested antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic residues were found in 17(77.27%) of examined carcasses. The study indicated that local ovine meat sold in Duhok province generally contained residues of antibiotics. Animals slaughtered might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.

Keywords: Antibiotic residues, ELISA, sheep carcasses, Duhok abattoir

Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria galls on DMBA induced Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis

Sherzad Ibrahim Mustafa; bushra mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126267.1281

Abstract
Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis and a number of plants with anti-cancer properties are being researched, some of which have shown promising results. Quercus infectoria galls is a well-known medicinal plant which has been used in medicine as larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of the aqueous extract on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis, consisting of initiation with a single topical application of a carcinogen 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a promoter (croton oil) three times in a week were employed. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, and cumulative number of papilloma was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with 2gm/kg of Quercus infectoria galls extract as compared to the positive control group treated with DMBA plus croton oil administered. Furthermore, Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced significantly before and after galls extract oral administration. The results thus concluded that Quercus infectoria galls extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity and may serve in future drug development programs for the cancer prevention of skin cancer.

Evaluation the safety and synergistic effect of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles with antibiotic against pseudomonas aeruginosa

hala ail majeed; Heba Younis Khalef; Halah Abdulkhaleq Awadh; Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Nihad Abdul-Hussain jafar; Khaild Ahmad Hadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126298.1294

Antimicrobial resistance currently impedes and threatens effective prevention and treatment of the continually expanding range of infections caused by bacteria. This study aimed to identify the bacterial causes of wound infection among animals and using of antibiotic/nanoparticles mixture as a new attempt for the treatment of wound infection induced in rats. For this purpose, 112 wound infection cases in different animal types (36 sheep, 21 goats, 12 cows, 4 horses, 8 dogs, 9 rabbits, 7 genies pigs, 15 rats) were studied for bacterial isolation. The predominant bacterial isolate (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were tested for its sensitivity to antibiotics and nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4) in vitro using MIC method. Also wound infection induced in rats and the effect of nanoparticles/antibiotics mixture were tested in vivo.
The results showed that pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant bacterial type that caused wound infection. The MIC of NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were 32 µg /ml and 16 µg /ml respectively. A clear synergistic effect of antibiotic/ nanoparticles as antibacterial were noticed which appear as decrease in MIC and increase of inhibitory diameter zone. According to result of RAPD test, nanoparticles effect on genetic material of P. aeruginosa observed as appearance/disappearance of bands, increase in thickness and clarity of bands.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Levels of disaccharidases in the brush border membrane of equine small intestine

Miran A. Al-Rammahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 197-201
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125778.1152

The disaccharides, consisting of sucrose, lactose and maltose, are hydrolysed into monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose) by intestinal brush border enzymes: sucrase, lactase and maltase. The aim of this study to investigate changes in the brush-border membrane carbohydrate digestive enzymes. From intestinal mucosal scrapings of equine, brush border membrane vesicles were isolated. The results showed that sucrase, maltase and lactase are present in the equine small intestine. The activity of all three enzymes is highest proximally (in the duodenum and jejunum) and lower in the ileum. There was considerable variation between individual horses, however the majority showed highest disaccharidase activity in the jejunum, with some showing highest activity in the duodenum. Sucrase activity is highest in the jejunum and duodenum and lower in the ileum. Maltase activity is similar in all three regions, but slightly higher in the jejunum. Lactase activity is low in all three regions of the small intestine, slightly higher in the equine jejunum and duodenum than ileum. From this study, we can conclude that the equine small intestine digests disaccharides by the brush-border associated disaccharidases sucrase, maltase and lactase. Levels of sucrase and lactase are comparable to other species, but maltase is much higher.

Fetal anomalies in prolonged gestation in Awassi ewe: A case report

U. T. Naoman; B. D. Al-Watar; E. H. Lazim; E. K. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 195-197
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153849

This report was described the observation of five types of congenital anomalies with a Hydramnios Syndrome in prolonged gestational (6 months) three years old awassi ewe bearing an abnormal fetus for first time, ultrasonography revealed signs of pregnancy with numerous small cotyledon, high amount of bright turbid fluid (Hyper-genic), with no signs of heart beat and small abnormal ribs. Vaginal examination indicated that complete closure cervix with pale mucous membrane.

Effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) barks of root and stem (alcoholic extract) on the viability and fatty acids content of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro study

R. S. Al-Juwary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153848

The present study was aimed to determine the scolicidal effect of stem and root alcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) on the viability and fatty acids content of Ecinococcus granulosus protoscolices. The study elucidate the scolocidal effect of both stem and root extracts. Its seemed that the scolocidal effect of root extract was higher than that of stem extract ie. LC50 and LC90 of stem extract were 5 and 9 mg/ml respectively while LC50 and LC90 of root extract were 3 and 8 mg/ml respectively. GLC analysis of E. granulosus protoscolices was stated presence of nine fatty acids esters, which were Lauric (C12:0); Myrisitic (C14:0); Palmatic (C16:0); Stearic (C18:0); Archidic (C20:0); Behenic (C22:0), which were saturated fatty acids, and Oleic (C18:1); Linoleic (C18:2); Linolenic (C18:3) which were unsaturated fatty acids. Treating E.granulosus protoscolices with LC50 of pomegranate stem bark was showing slight and swing effect on fatty acid content, while treated the protoscolices with LC50 of root bark were resulted in obvious increase in short length fatty acids like Lauric, Myrisitic and Palmatic in compare with control group. In contrast the long chain fatty acids concentration like Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic were decrease.

Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital

L. J. Shaebth

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153847

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and16SrRNAgenes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153846

Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results of the collections show that all the dogs, which were the subject of this survey, are infested by ticks during the period between March and August in different areas of the northeastern of Algeria. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the predominant tick species. It has been observed with a frequency of 88 % in the area of El-Tarf, 100 % in Souk-Ahras, 95 % in the Tébessa region and 72 % in Guelma, (average of 89 %). Climatic conditions seem to play the essential role for this distribution of ticks. The other tick species collected are: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Hyalomma anatolicum. The latter were present with very low a proportion, which gives them the appearance of accidental parasitism in dogs. Rhipicephalus sanguineus has significant infestation intensity in spring and summer, peaking in August in the semi-arid region (Souk-Ahras). In humid regions (El-Tarf), the peak of infestation recorded by this arthropod is in April. The second aspect of study of the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus shows the seasonal nature (Spring-Summer) of the brown tick of dog.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Lambing and mortality rate in Ouled-Djellal sheeps in Tebessa region-Algeria

M. Douh; C. Aissaoui; A. Hicher; S. Abdelmajid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 267-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153863

The aim of this work is to study lamb births and mortalities in Algerian sheep Ouled Djellal breed distributed in different zones of Tébessa region, which is divided according to bioclimatic stage, staff in livestock and area agricultural vocation, into four distinct zones: northern (A, B), middle (C) and southern zone (D). During two years 2015-2016, birth numbers (BN) and mortality rates (MR) of 355 sheep flocks were recorded using a questionnaire. Concerning BN the total number was 21244 lambs representing a mean 59±31 per flock. No significant differences between the birth means of C and D (75±28 vs 83±30) were registered. Birth mean was significantly higher (P<0,05) in B (40±17) than A (29±10), when comparison with C and D, the births of A and B were highly significantly (P<0,001). According to (BN) the studied region were classified into 3 zone groups: (a) with high lambing rate (C, D); (b) with medium lambing rate (B); (c) with low lambing (A). In regard to mortality rates, the total rate was 24±6%. The (MR) in A (27±5%) was significantly higher (P<0,05) as compared to other zones (B) 24±4%, (C) 23±7% and (D) 22±4%. However, no significant differences between B, C and D were revealed. According to the results of (MR) the studied region was classified into two groups: (a) with low MR (C, D), (b) with high MR (A, B). Our result showed that zones influence the (BN) and (MR) in Tébessa region, and southern zones especially D seems the appropriate to practice breeding of Ouled Djellal breed.

Commercial oil of Nigella sativa as growth promoter in lambs rations

S. El-Naggar; J. A. Abou-Ward; A. Y. El-Badawi; A. M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 199-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153850

This study aimed to investigate the impact of supplementing different levels of Nigella sativa oil in rations of growing lambs. In a feeding experiment lasted 90 days, 18 growing Ossimi lambs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided by weight into three equal groups (6 animals each). Individual animals in all groups were fed a uniform total mixed ration, offered at 3% of body weight, where the first group was without supplement (R1), while Nigella sativa oil was supplemented at 0.1 (R2) and 0.2% (R3) of dietary DM. Results indicated that additions of N. sativa oil didn’t influenced feed intake, but it increased average body weight gain and feed efficiency. Nutrients digestibility values and dietary nitrogen utilization were higher with N. sativaoil rations than control. Ruminal fermentation parameters showed comparable pH values among groups at 0, 3 and 6 hrs. of feeding. Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower and TVFA concentration was higher for animal fed R2 and R3 rations than control. It’s concluded that N. sativa oil could be added at 0.2 % of the daily feed as a natural growth enhancer of lambs.

Evaluation of the isolation protocols of primary cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) skin tissue

M. Hasoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 119-125
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153837

In this study, pieces of skin from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish were collected freshly from juveniles from a privet fish farm in Duhok city, Kurdistan-Iraq. Those pieces of skin were cultured In Vitro by using two methods of explanting; direct explants and enzymatic pre-digested explants of tissue fragments. The results showed a highest cell yield (5×103 cell/ml) on passage 2 of enzymatic pre-digested tissues and higher cell growth rate in compare with cell yield (38×102 cell/ml) gained from direct explant tissues. Both procedures showed forming of clumped cells colonies in initial passages (P1 and P2), and the morphological changes were developed in both cells to show a fibroblast like appearance thereafter. Such findings are important and advantageous to suggest a faster and more efficient protocol for tissue culture cells isolation with lower cost and better isolation success as well.

The effect of autotransplantation of bone marrow with laser irradiation on the healing of non-union fractures in the femoral bone of dogs

O H Al-Hayani; B T Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 109-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46747

In this study, the effect of autotransplantation and laser irradiation on the healing of experimental induced non-union fractures in the femoral bone were investigated clinically and radiographically in 12 dogs. The fractures were left without fixation for 40 days and over, and following the occurrence of non-union state the fractures were treated at 3 different schedules in the experimental animals, which were divided into three groups, each containing 4 dogs:
Group 1 (control): the non-union fractured femoral bones were treated by the routine surgical procedures using intramedullary fication achieved with Steinmann intramedullary pins.
Group 2 (intramedullary fixation with autotransplantation of bone marrow): following the surgical treatment of non-union fractured femoral bone and their fixation by the Steinmann intramedullary pins (by the same procedure applied in group 1), 4-6 ml of fresh bone marrow was implanted at the fracture site. The bone marrow was aspirated freshly and aseptically from marrow cavity of the opposite femur from the same dog.
Group 3 (autotransplantation of bone marrow with He:Ne I.R. laser irradiation): in addition to the procedures applied in group 2, the surgical site was exposed to laser irradiation type He:Ne I.R. with a total dose of 2.7 J/cm2 for 12 irradiation sessions. Each daily irradiation session was for a period of 5 min for 3 successive days, followed by one-day rest.
The concluded results were:
1-autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow at the site of the treated non-union fractures has a role in accelerating or improving the healing process, by promoting excessive callus formation, whereby the fracture line disappeared at the end of the 4th post-treatment week.
2-the use of laser irradiation with autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow, greatly improved the healing process by increasing the periosteal reaction and callus formation, and lead to disappearance of the fracture line at the end of the 3th post-treatment week. Furthermore, this technique improved the functional use of the affected limb in comparison with groups 1 and 2.
3- the laser irradiation made the remodeling stage shorter (finished within about 3 months) in comparison with group 1 and 2, in which it continued for more than 3 months.

Protective effect of placental mesenchymal stem cells on histological changes of pancreas experimentally induced by alloxane in mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Rasha A. Al-Sabawy; Hamad J. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163563

In an attempt to find a treatment for diabetes by Placental mesenchymal stem cells, we induced diabetes in albino mice by injected them with the diabetic agent Alloxan intra peritoneal cavity dose 70 mg / kg of body weight for the group 1 and 2, then injection of the diabetic mice with Placental mesenchymal stem cells in the peritoneal cavity for the group 2 then the glucose levels in the blood of these mice were measured by using a GLUCOTREND 2, while group 3 was control injected with normal saline only. Pancreas tissue where tested by studying histopathological effect of Alloxan, the endocrine pancreas histologically showed decreased in the size and number of Langerhans islets with vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of almost all cells in the atrophied islets. Also, there was congestion of blood vessels in the interlobular space and there was distortion of exocrine pancreas. There was vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial cells of the acini, also there was atrophy of acini which lead to edema and dilatation of interacini space. Moreover, there was thickening in the wall of blood vessels, and there was thrombus in some blood vessels. In addition to the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interlobular septa. Compared with the section of pancreas of control group showed the normal structure of islets notice the normal cells shape surrounding by exocrine pancreas. Then the pancreas studied after injection of Placental mesenchymal stem cells, while there was regeneration of islets and acini which seem to be normal comparing with control group, there was improvement of normal histological appearance of mice treated with alloxan and then injected with placental mesenchymal stem cells. The results of the diabetic mice which treated with placental mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated present of significant differences (P≤0.05). Our conclusion of this study revealed that placental mesenchymal stem cells have a protective role against the histological changes of pancreas induced by alloxan.

The possibility of using Acridine orange compared to Giemsa stain in the diagnosis of parasite Babesia spp in cattle

E. G. Suleiman; A. F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153870

The current study included the possibility using fluorescent Acridine orange stain in the diagnosis of Babesia spp in cattle in Mosul city/Iraq, this dye is easily applied and takes no more than 2-5 minutes in the diagnosis of Babesia spp using of fluorescent microscope versus 45 minutes of Giemsa stain by using light microscope. The benefit of Acridine orange stain is in its uses in epidemiological and survey studies and for the control programs against Babesiosis but it is considered to be of little value in study of morphological features of small blood protozoa with low parasitemia comparing with the golden Giemsa stain in the study of morphological and specifications of Babesia spp.

Comparative study of some local therapeutics for endometritis in cows

M. B. Taha; E. B. Basheer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2008, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5721

The present study was conducted on 57 local breed cows suffering from various degrees of endometritis. The clinical examination included visual examination of vagina supported by uterine palpation per rectum; the laboratory examination included the bacterial isolation from the uterine swabs and histopathological examination of the uterine biopsies. Animals were randomly divided in to three groups of 15 cows each and 12 cows were considered as a control group received no treatment and observed for three consecutive estrous cycles. The first group was treated with a mixture of oxytetracycline (4 g) and tylosin (2 g), second group was treated with cephquenome sulfate 0.5 g, and the third group was treated with lugol's solution (30 ml) 2 %. These treatments were applied as a single intrauterine infusion and the clinical recovery was evaluated at the next estrous cycle by considering the absence of abnormal vagina discharge as an indicator of clinical recovery. Cows that showed clinical cure were inseminated artificially and the pregnancy diagnosis was preformed at least 75 days after insemination by rectal palpation. Retained placenta was the most important predisposing factor of endometritis 50.8 %, results of the bacterial examination demonstrated that E. coli was the most prevalence bacteria (27.4 %). Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy showed a high incidence ratio of chronic endometritis (42.1 %). Results of the treatment showed a higher response and conception rate in the second group (using of cephquenome) 73.3 % and 63.3 %, respectively, followed by first group (using mixture of oxytetracycline and tylosin) 60 % and 55.5 %, respectively, then the third group (using of lugol's solution) 40 % and 50 %, respectively. The lowest cure and conception rates were observed in the control group 25 % and 33.3 %, respectively. This study pointed out a positive relationship between the nature of the vaginal discharge and each of the bacteriological and histopathological examination and revealed the importance of the early treatment of endometritis especially using of cephquenome sulfate.

Study of the relationship between the production of milk and some of its components with the growth of lambs in two breeds of Iraqi sheep

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163172

A total of 1116 records Awassi ewes and 432 of Hamdania ewes were collected and which belong animals resource department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors in milk production and some of its components from birth until weaning. The results showed significant effects (p≤0.05) for the breed and highly significant effects (p≤ 0.001) for the year, mother's age, sex, and type of birth in the daily milk production. There was a highly significant effect of year in milk fat, protein, and lactose. same there was a significant effect for age at weaning on birth weight, and highly significant effects for the breed, year, age of dam, sex, type of birth, and age at weaning on birth, weaning and weight gain from birth to weaning. The highest value for repeatability was 0.398, 0.309 in Awassi ewes for weight gain and in Hamdani ewes for daily milk yield respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between protein and lactose in Awassi ewes 0.507 and 0.410, and in Hamdani ewes 0.641 and 0.157 respectively were highly significant.

Detection of some species of lice and ticks infestation on local buffalo in Mosul city

B. Y. AL-Lahaibi; A. F. AL-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 43-50
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153876

 The current study included examination of 1525 buffaloes from (11) districts in Mosul city for detection of lice and ticks. Results showed that the total percentage of lice infestation was 48.63%, particularly blood sucking lice Haematopinus tuberculatus. Buffaloes reared in Al-Shalalate and Al-Kabate showed 100% lice infestation, sucking lice H. tuberculatus was diagnosed by thorax plate which was rectangular with the presence of anterior process on each side. The length of male was 3.5-4 mm while the length of female was 4.5-5 mm. Total tick infestation was 49.1%, with a heights percentage of 80% was noticed in Al-Kabat. Three species of hard ticks were identified, namely Hyalomma anatolicum, Boophilus annulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. H. anatolicum was diagnosed by the following characteristics: half circular capitulum; chilecera consist of 3 long pieces, bifurcated first coxa, breathing plate is comma shape, festoon is present with the presence of 2 sub anal plates project out of the body. In R. sanguineus, the capitulum is six angled with short mouth parts. The first coxa was bifurcated with presence of festoon. Breathing plate was comma shape. In B. annulatus the capitulim was six angled with short mouth parts. The first coxa was triangular in shape with short legs and absence of festoon while the breathing plate was oval or rounded in shape.

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