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Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences (IJVS) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1988. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. A double-blind peer reviewing system is also used to assure the quality of publication. IJVS publishes original articles, review papers and case reports in the field of veterinary science. This...
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A gross anatomical and histological study of pancreas in adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

Ammar Ghanim Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 175-180
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162960

Fifteen Kestrel were used in this study regardless to their sex. The results study showed that the pancreas of adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) lies under the right side of the peritoneal cavity, and situated between the descending part and ascending part of the duodenum and has pale pinkish to white pinkish colored and consisted of 3 lobes dorsal (lobus pancreatic dorsalis), middle (middle pancreatic lobus) and ventral (lobus pancreatis ventralis) with well-developed interlobar connections made it difficult to distinguish between the 3 lobes. Histologically the pancreas of adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was covered by very thin layer of connective tissue with mesothelial cells, Connective tissue septa extended from capsule into parenchyma of pancreas dividing it in to many lobules. These septa were very thin and some of them carried blood vessels distributed all over the pancreas. The exocrine portion was constituted from serous acini with pyramidal shaped cells which had dark rounded nucleus in the middle part of the cell. Acidophilic granules found in the apices of cells. Centro acinar cells found as one or two nuclei in the center of the pancreatic acini. The endocrine portion (islets of Langerhans) was formed from clusters of endocrine cells in shape of oval or rounded pale structures with different sizes. The small one has mean diameter of 40.02±0.9 µm while the large one has diameter of 126.3±3.8 µm. Few endocrine cells were seen distributed as single cells among the pancreatic acini.

Prevalence of nematodes infestation in Clarias gariepinus from El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, Egypt

Sh.S. Sorour; A.H. Hamouda

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162963

A total number of 400 Clarias gaiepinus were collected alive from several and various locations at El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, to investigate the prevailing nematodes that infect this fish species from the two locations. Nearly all the examined fish were positive for one or more nematodes; four spp. of two families were identified from Clarias gaiepinus at El-Burullus Lake: Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. (recovered from the gall bladder for the first time) and Terranova spp. larvae (recorded for the first time in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate representing new locality record), one nematode from Clarias gaiepinus at Lake Nasser: 3rd stage  larvae (L3) of Contraceacum spp. (has zoonotic importance). The prevalence of Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. and Terranova spp. larva were 37.5%, 44%, 0.5% and 10% respectively, meanwhile the prevalence of L3 larvae of Contraceacum spp. were 100%. This study was planned to compare between the nematodes infecting Clarias gaiepinus from the two lakes evaluating clinical signs, postmortem examinations, parasitological examinations, seasonal prevalence and histopathological investigations of infected fish with different nematodes infestation. Clarias  gaiepinus must be eviscerated as soon as possible after catching to prevent 3rd stage larvae of Contraceacum spp. in the abdominal cavity from liberating from their sheaths and attacking the fish musculature (the edible part in the fish) as well as,prevent Terranova spp. larvae in the gills from attacking another parts of the fish and thus prevent the transmission of the nematodes of zoonotic importance to the consumers.

Study of histopathological and biochemical effect of Punica granatum L. extract on streptozotocin -induced diabetes in rabbits

E.R. Sarhat; S. A. Wadi; Th. R. Sarhat; N.A. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125523.1045

This study was undertaken to determine the antidiabetic effects of oral administration of Punica granatum L. extract on serum and tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rabbits at 100 mg/kg. The present study was carried out at the Faculty of veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University, from February to August 2017 for 10 weeks. For this purpose, 30 rabbits were randomly separated into three groups, each containing 10 animals: Group 1, healthy control rabbits; Group 2, diabetic rabbits received streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg); Group 3, diabetic rabbits treated with PS extract (the 100 mg PS+1 ml DW) for 21 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken for measuring serum biochemical parameters. For histopathological evaluation, sections of kidneys were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and 5micron thick sections with H&E stain were prepared using routine histopathological techniques. The treatment revealed that PSE extract significant decreased serum glucose throm-bospondin-1, nitric oxide, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein in diabetic treated rabbits as compared to diabetic rabbits. Histopathology of kidney showed lesions similar to human glomeruloscleroses, glomerular membrane thickening, arteriolar hyalinization and tubular necrosis. From the above one can conclude that PSE extract possess nephroprotective effect in experimentally induced diabetic rabbits.

Isolation and identification of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria with detection of type-1 fimbriae coding gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique

Zeena Foaad Saleh; B.M. Al-Muhana; Kh. Hamdan; M.S. Jawad; S.F. Klaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 195-199
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162961

Two hundred faeces sample were collected from cattle with different age and sex in Al- Diwaniyah Province. The study was conducted in the period between November 2016 and November 2017. Salmonella typhimurium bacteria identified by routine methods such as culturing on selective media, biochemical test and agglutination test using monovalent and multivalent antisera. PCR was can detection type-1 fimbriae gene coding for fimC of Salmonella typhimurium. Results showed that Salmonella isolates were 14.5% in the bovine fecal samples. Also, the serotyping of isolates by using monovalent and polyvalent antisera revealed that all Salmonella isolates in cows were S. typhimurium. The PCR technique was used for detection of type-1 fimbriae coding gene by specific primer for fimC gene. All S. typhimurium isolates in cows appeared to be contained this gene show one distinct band MW.289 bp when electrophoresed on agarose gel. The results of this score indicated that the PCR technique potentate a loud specify in the disclosing of S. typhimurium especially the serotype that encoded to fimC gene type-1 fimbriae isolated from cows in comparison to other routine diagnostic tests.

Mixed thymic tumor in a rooster: gross and histological features

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Ahmed Saad AL-Gadhi; Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; layth Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 201-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125536.1058

A 2-year-old rooster local breed suffered from anorexia, emaciation with abnormal large mass in lateral side in cervical region was attended to Veterinary Teaching Hospital belong to College of Veterinary Medicine, Mosul University. After physical examination a movable and friable mass were recognized in cervical region. The case sends for surgical intervention. Gross examination of removed mass showed a friable, pale, will capsulated with hemorrhagic areas. Microscopically, the mass included three types of tumors. Squamous cell thymic carcinoma characterized by presence of keratin pearl. Lymphoma that characterized by atypical polymorphic lymphocytes, vesicular nucleus, and pyknotic nucleoli, while cytoplasm appears eosinophilic to granular with ill- define borders. Lipoma which appear as irregular shape of adipocytes that lack their nucleus, with scattered infiltration of pyknotic lymphocytes. This is the first pathological report of mixed tumor of thymus gland in rooster that composed from squamous cell thymic carcinoma, lymphoma and lipoma.

Early prediction of some kid body dimensions from maternal traits

Abdullah Hameed Salim; Ahmed Abdulridha Mnati; Yassen Taha Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 205-207
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125537.1059

This study was conducted in the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture, Ruminant Research Station, west of Baghdad. It included 447 goats born of both sexes belonging to local, Shami and their crosses. The body dimensions of kids at birth and the dam's weight and age at birth, as well as the dependence of weaning weight on the birth weight of the kids by the use of simple linear regression equations. The results presented that coefficient of regression of most studied dimensions on the traits of maternal weight at birth and weight of the kid at birth has significant effect, except the regression of the body length at birth on both the maternal weight at birth and the kids weight at birth, which was not significant, The results showed the possibility of dependence on the studied maternal characteristics and kids birth weight to predict the dimensions of the goat kids body at birth.

Molecular identification of allelic genotypes of pyrethroid-insecticide resistance in housefly, Iraq

Monyer Abdulameir Abd Alfatlawi; Mansour Jadaan Ali; Hassan Hachim Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 209-212
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125538.1060

According to global-wide presence of insecticides resistance to pyrethroids, the current study identified the purpose to detect the allelic genotypes regarding this issue in house flies in Iraq. From the governorate of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, 60 morphologically and molecularly recognized house flies were caught from 6 different regions. Using a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of specific allele (PASA), PCR was employed to reveal the presence of allele-genetic variations in the para-type sodium channel (para) gene to recognize knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation from the homozygous-wild type of complete susceptibility (sus/sus) to the mutated-homozygous type of complete resistance (kdr/kdr) or to the mutated-heterozygous type (kdr/sus). Here, these genotypes were targeted using specific primers to identify these genetic variations. The results have declared the presence of the sus/sus at 100%-frequency rate in all flies, and none of the other genotypes were detected (0%) in all flies. This valued piece of result indicates the reality of resistance persistence due to lack of insecticide-spraying programs in the governorate. This study provides high-quality information about the current status of insecticide resistance in house flies in Iraq about supporting the fact of genetic-base development of such resistance via frequent use of insecticides.

Effect of arginine on physiological and reproductive performance of Awassi ewes

Thair Mohammed; Ahmed Al-Ani; Alaa Munther

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 213-220
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162878

The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of injected amino acid arginine on reproductive performance in ewes and on the levels of some hormones. Twenty-one non pregnant Awassi Turkish ewes were used. These ewes were divided into three equal groups. The first group were not treated which serve as control group (T1), and injected with 5-10 ml of normal saline in intramuscular. Ewes of second group (T2) were treated by injected with a 155µmol/kg arginine I.V. The third group (T3) was treated by injected with 155µmol/kg arginine intramuscular. All treated ewes were inseminated by rams for 7 days. Blood samples were taken from jugular vein on the 1st and 2nd days of arginine injection and then insert CIDR and on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th,13th, and 16th days of this treatment to measure the change in the levels of some hormones during treatment. The results showed arithmetic difference in the time of the estrus where the treatment of intramuscular arginine injection came first and it was followed by intravenous arginine injection and then the control. Arginine treated groups significantly the control group in the estrus appearance rate. The estrus appearance estrus rate in intravenous injection group, intramuscular injection group and control group were 71.43, 57.14, and 42.85% respectively, also there is significant increase in fertility rates were 71.43, 57.14 and 42.85% respectively. There was a significant increase in pregnancy rates were 71.43, 57.14 and 28.85% respectively. However, birth rates were 71.43, 57.14 and 28.57% respectively. Intravenous treatment showed the lowest than other treatments. The results of current research revealed no significant difference between groups in the level of progesterone hormone, furthermore there is no significant change in the hormone during all periods of the experiment except the 7th period in IV arginine treated group. It was also observed a significant decrease in the estrogen concentration level in arginine intravenous (14.62 ±1.02) and intramuscular (15.00 ±1.98) injected groups in compared with control group (16.82 ±1.25) respectively during the first and 7th periods of injection after the insert of CIDR as compared with the other periods. There were no significant differences in the level of cortisol between the treated groups and the control group, and also between all periods of the experiment. It was concluded from this study that injection of amino acid arginine improved the reproductive performance of Awassi Turkish ewes, taking into consideration the superiority of intravenous injector as compared with intramuscular injection which gave higher rates of estrus, fertilization, fertility, pregnancy and birth and gave the lowest proportion of barrenness as compared with control group. However, arginine had no significant effects on the level of estrogen, progesterone and cortisol.

Effect of probiotic (Poultrystar®) and heat stress on some blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Rawnaq H. Ismail; Alaa Alhamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 221-225
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125539.1061

This study was conducted to determine the effect of the heat stress on some blood parameters and role of probiotics (Poultrystar®) to reduce these effects, 120 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with mean weight 150±10g were obtained from collage of Agriculture and forestry /University of Mosul. Fish were acclimated for at least 7 day in the laboratory and fed daily, the water temperature was maintained at 25 ±2°C. Three experiments have been done, each of 40 fish which have been divided randomly into four groups 10 for each. First experiment the four groups exposed to different water temperature (control 25, 30, 32, 34 °C), second experiment the four groups treated with (Poultrystar®) in a dose 1 g/ kg body weight by using stomach tube with exposed to heat stress (control 25, 30, 32 and 34 °C). In the third experiment the four groups have been treated with (Poultrystar®) in the same dose of the previous experiment for 7 days then exposed to heat stress. The results show there were significantly increase in hemoglobin concentration in three experiments, and also the Packed cell volume was significantly increase in three experiments, but the stress index was significantly decrease in three experiments, and the probiotics (Poultrystar®) improved the blood picture especially in the second and third experiment because no probiotic used in the first experiment.

Variations in the viability and macromolecules concentration of E. granulosus protoscolices isolated from ruminants consequence treatment with Nigella sativa seed's oil (In vitro study)

Maimonah Q. Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 227-234
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162880

The aim of the present study was to investigate the scolicidal activity of Nigella sativa seed's oil concerning the viability in vitro and biomolecules content (carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids) ofEchinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Protoscolices were aseptically aspiratedfromcysts of livers and lungs (naturally infected) which eradicated from goats and sheep that had been slaughtered at Mosul local abattoir / Nineveh / Iraq from September 2017 to May 2018. Various concentrations of N. sativa seed's oil (20 to 60 µl/ml) were applied on special time interval (5-40min). Viability of protoscolices was checked using vital stain (0.1% aqueous eosin). Concentration of carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) were estimated after treating the protoscolices with LC50 of the seed's oil (40 µl/ml) comparing with untreated group. It is revealed that mortality rate of protoscolices, those were treated for 10 minutes with 40 µl/ml and 60 µl/ml of Nigella sativa oil, were approximately 50% and 100% respectively. Viability % of protoscolices treated with 20% hypertonic saline solution for 5 minutes was 43%, whereas, 16% of protoscolices were viable when treated with 60 µl/ml of seed's oilat the same time. The experiments detect concentration and time-dependent scolicidal effect of N. sativa seed's oilon the E. granulosus protoscolices. Mean concentrations of carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) were significantly higher at P≤ 0.05 in control group (62.6µg/ml, 31.0 mg/dl and (23.4 and 82.9 µg/ml, respectively) than that found in LC50 treated protoscolices (58.3 µg/ml, 15.3 mg/dl and (18.19 and 64.48 µg/ml, respectively).The study showed that oil extract of N. sativa seedshas a significant (P≤ 0.05) clear impact in reducing viability of E. granulosus protoscolices, as well as, mean concentrations of its biomolecules which may open away for further experiments about scolicidal validity of N. sativa seeds oil in vivo.

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of theaflavin in healthy and experimentally induced liver damage rabbits

Sarhan Rashid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 235-242
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162962

This current work aimed to study the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin in healthy and hepatotoxic rabbits for comparison. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly raised (P<0.05) after administration of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) Carbone tetrachloride (CCL4) subcutaneously. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated following administration of theaflavin intravenously and orally at 30 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively to both healthy animals and those with damaged liver. Theaflavin concentration in blood measured by HLPC at various time intervals. Pharmacokinetic results showed that theaflavin concentration when given orally reached its maximum concentration after 5 hours in healthy rabbits. While in hepatotoxic group, theaflavin concentration achieved the highest level in blood after three hours. Theaflavin bioavailability in hepatotoxic animals was significantly high and almost double its bioavailability in healthy animals. Results revealed that the area under curve (AUC) value in rabbits with damaged liver was significantly greater than in healthy group (P<0.05). t ½ of theaflavin after intravenous administration was 6.3±0.82 hour in damaged liver group which is significantly higher than that in healthy group (P<0.05). Theaflavin mean concentration in hepatotoxic group required more than 3 hours to decline to 352±19.4 ng/ml when compared to its concentration in healthy group which is required only 45 minutes to decrease to 310± 9.5 ng/ml. In conclusion liver has critical impact on the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin especially bioavailability and biotransformation and this research recorded reasonably large differences between healthy and liver damaged groups regarding theaflavin pharmacokinetic parameters which may result in negative influences on its biological efficacy when used in the treatment of various diseases.

Experimental detection of antioxidant and atherogenic effects of grapes seeds extracts in rabbits

Shihaab Al-Bajari; Moataz Al- Akash; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 243-249
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162881

The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Grapes seeds (Vitis vinifera) aqueous, proteinous, non- proteinous and alcoholic extracts as antioxidant and antiatherogenic in rabbits after exposure to 0.5% H2O2 in drinking water for 30 days. The results illustrated capability of 0.5% H2O2 to initiate oxidative stress via significant decrease in Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxdiase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in heart and liver concomitant with significant increase in malondialhyde (MDA) in addition to decrease in high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-c) and increase low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-c) in serum of treated only with H2O2 rabbits. While rabbits treated with H2O2 associated with Grapes seeds (aqueous, proteinous, non- proteinous and alcohol) extracts for 15 days showed a significant increase of Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxdiase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration in the heart and liver tissue as well as increase HDL-c, decrease in LDL-c and VLDL-c. While, the histolopathological examination of heart and liver tissue demonstrated that H2O2 induces, degeneration, necrosis and few inflammation foci in the liver and myocardial muscle. While the administration of (Vitis vinifera) aqueous, proteinous, non-proteinous and alcoholic extracts cause improvement in the histological picture of the liver and the myocardial muscle. It was concluded that the (Grapes extracts) aqueous, proteinous, non-proteinous and especially the alcoholic extracts can reduce the damage caused by H2O2 and this will pave the way to investigate the protective effects of the natural substances in the diseases caused by oxidative stress.

Microscopic identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq

Rashaa Ateaa; Mansour Ali Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 251-258
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162882

Babesia is one of hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by arthropod vectors which responsible for causing of Babesiosis disease in bovine worldwide. The present study was designed for microscopic identification, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq. The study performed in three months of summer season (August into September 2017) and animals ages and sex were included in this study. The direct microscopic prevalence results were show highest prevalence of haemoprotozoa prevalence at Babesia sp. 45.74%. The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to animal sex, were show in male 43.48% and female was 52%, with non-significant differences. The Prevalence of Babesia sp. related to age were show 12.50%, 92.86% and 30% in young, adult and old age respectively with significant differences (P<0.05). The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to month of study were show. 28.57%, 62.50% and 42.86 in August, September and October respectively and with non-significant differences. Molecular study results were based on PCR and DNA sequencing method by phylogenetic tree analysis (MEGA 6.0) and NCBI-BLAST Homology Sequence Identity to differentiation Babesia species typing. The Babesia species prevalence results were show identified two Babesia species, high prevalence of Babesia bovis (38.30%) were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bovis (HQ264126.1) with homology sequence identity 97-100% and Babesia bigemina 7.45% were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bigemina (KU206291.1) with homology sequence identity 95-99%, then 43 Babesia species includes (B. bovis and B. bigemina) were submitted into NCBI-Genbank and provided accession numbers (MH503811-MH503853). In conclusion, this study concluded that Phylogenetic tree and homology sequences identity was show accurate in differentiation of Babesia species, and these species can be isolated at from local water buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city, of Iraq.

Application of magnetic technology in local quail house and hatchery on performance, reproductive and physiological traits under heat stress

Mahbuba Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 259-266
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162897

Using magnetic technology has shown major potentials in different fields especially agriculture. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the using of magnetic technology application in local quail house and hatchery on productive and physiological traits under heat stress condition. Results revealed that quail when served 0.2 T magnetically treated water (MTW) were significantly (P≤0.05) better in most productive, reproductive characteristics in the 1st experiment: eggs production, water consumption, egg weight, shell strength, estrogen conc., also improved FCR in females, all semen quality and testosterone conc. in males. Also, total RBCs count, thrombocyte, blood pH, blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), thyroxin hormone and total count of Lactobacillus spp. in small intestine. However, reduction in dead sperm, abnormal acrosome, corticosterone conc., body temperature, blood clotting time, E. coli and fungi counts in both sexes. In the 2nd experiment using of magnetic technology on embryonic development traits of local quails incubating eggs that collected from experiment 1 were significantly (P≤0.05) higher in the most characteristics at the group of 0.2 T MTW as fertility, hatchability, chicks weight, immune status of hatched chicks. While reduction in dead embryo and heterophil-to- lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. Finally, the results of 0.2 T MTW achieved superiorly gains compared with the other groups.

Analyses of mycotoxins in broiler’s local and imported feeds

N.M. Bibani; Z.K. Khidhir; A.S. Shaker; S.M. Kirkuki; S.M. Abdulateef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 267-271
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162994

In the present study 40 samples of broiler feeds that obtained from commercial feed manufacturing company (concerning 21 from Iraqi manufactures and 19 from the Iranian manufactures) were analyzed for the incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin, T-2, Fumonisins, and Zearalenone mycotoxins. The result has shown that AF was detected in 16 samples 76.19% of the Iraqi manufactures and 16 samples 84.21% from the Iranian manufactures, in concentrations ranging from 1.00-23.00 μg/ kg, and 1.00-2.00 μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of AF contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, the highest prevalence was observed in Iranian samples 84.21%, whereas it least in Iraqi samples 76.19%. OCHRA toxin was detected in 21 samples 100% of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples 100% from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from 3.00-4.00 μg/ kg, and (2.00 – 4.00) μg/ kg respectively. prevalence of OCHRA contamination revealed a non-significant (P>0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures. T2 toxin was detected in 21 samples (100%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (2.00 – 16.00) μg/ kg, and (2.00 – 23.00) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of T2 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures FUM3 toxin was detected in 21 samples (100%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (0.05 – 5.00) μg/ kg, and (0.10 – 2.50) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of FUM3 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, ZEAR3 toxin was detected in 15 samples (71.42%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (2.00 – 76.00) μg/ kg, and (1.00 – 41.00) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of ZEAR3 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, the highest prevalence was observed in Iranian samples (100%), whereas it least in Iraqi samples (71.42%).

Analgesic effect of silymarin in chicks

Ahmed Salah Naser; yasser albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 273-276
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162906

There were no studies about the analgesic effect of silymarin in the chicken. This study examined antinociceptive effect of silymarin given intraperitonially in 7-9 day-old chicks. The median effective dose of silymarin for the induction of analgesia to electric stimulation in the chicks was 65.3 mg/kg. Silymarin at 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg revealed analgesic effect to electric stimulation in chicks in dose dependent manner in comparison with the control group. The analgesic effect of silymarin at 120 and 240 mg/kg started at 15 min after injection and lasted after over 120 min of injection were as silymarin at 60 mg/kg the analgesic effect started at 15 min after injection and declined before 120 min of injection. The peak of analgesic effect for 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg were at 60 min after injection. These results indicate that silymarin have an analgesic property in the chicks model.

Structural study of uterine tubes of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) at different postnatal periods

Faeq Jabar Al-Saffar; Massarat Almayahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 277-288
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162911

This study was designed to investigate the histomorphological changes in the uterine tubes of the local rabbits during three different periods of ages that were kitten, immature and mature stages of life. For such study, twenty-four female rabbits were used. Procedure of routine histological technique was performed to prepare histological sections by using general and special histochemical stains. Gross findings revealed the presence of bilateral uterine tubes which comprised thick short coiled preampulla, thin long ampulla and the isthmus which was shortest and straight region joined to the uterus. Microscopically three regions were identified according to the differences in their histological characteristic features. Data revealed that the wall of uterine tubes in kittens was not fully developed, whereas in immature does, global histological and histochemical changes were identified compared to kittens while mature does indicated critical role of the post weaning period on the development of the animals. Changes were specially recognized by histochemical procedure which showed strong positive reactions especially isthmus which obviously reacted with PAS, Ab, combined PAS-AB. In conclusion, current data showed unique differences of the uterine tubes in the local rabbits compared to other mammals especially those of rodentia species.

A comparative study between kessler suture versus polypropylene mesh implantation to repair tenotomized common calcaneal tendon in rabbits

Saddam Humadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 289-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162907

The present study is assigned to throw the light on the benefit of using Kessler suture compared with polypropylene mesh implantation in healing of induced tenotomy of common calcaneal tendon in a rabbit model based on clinico-histopathological evaluation. Twenty adults New Zealand white male rabbits were used for this clinical prospective study divided equally and randomly into two groups. The first group, (suture group n=10) and the second group (mesh group n=10). Under the effect of general anesthesia, longitudinal skin incision over the common calcaneal tendon was made, and the skin flap was reflected. The tendon was isolated by blunt dissection from the surrounding tissue, with small curved forceps. Simulation of a rabbit’s common calcaneal tendon rupture was made by sharp transvers incision with scalpel. The first group repair with (Kessler Suture) using polypropylene suture size 4.0. In contrast, the second group repair with (polypropylene mesh implantation) after initial suturing of the cut ends of tendon by two simple interrupted stitches using polyglyconate suture size 4.0. The surgical skin wounds were re-stitched by simple interrupted pattern with 3-0 silk. After clinical follow-up of the treatment rabbits, certain secondary health problems were encountered represented by swelling of operative site and lameness. Grossly, adhesions were noticed between the tendon and subcutaneous tissue in rabbits of both groups. Microscopical examination reflected presence of inflammatory cells perivascular edema and few capillaries at two months. At the end of experiment there were perfect orientation and organization of collagen fibers in mesh group in comparing with suture group. Based on the results obtain from this study, it seemed that both groups reflected best outcome in healing of operated tendons with superiority of mesh group in comparing with suture group.

Assessment the level of some heavy metal in vital body fluids and blood parameters in lactating Awassi ewes

Ashwaq Ahmed Hassan; Rana amer asim Al Suleman agha; ALI SAEED HAMMOODI AL-CHALABI

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 297-301
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162908

The aim of the study was to estimate the level of cadmium, zinc and oxidative stress parameters in serum and milk as well as the blood constituents in local at the age of 3-4 years during the spring and summer seasons. Blood and milk samples were collected from 30 ewes (15 each season). The blood samples were allocated to into two tubes, for complete blood profile study and for biochemical analysis. Milk was used for biochemical tests. Blood analysis showed a significant difference between some blood values during the two seasons represented by significant increase of total white blood number, haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in circulating blood of lactating ewes during summer season compared with spring season. Red blood cells number and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration did not change among the two seasons. Both mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value of lactating ewe increased significantly during spring season with respect to the summer season. The serum glutathione level showed a significant elevation during spring season compared with the summer season, while, the level of malonaldehyde and peroxynitrite free radicle remain constant during the study period. There were no significant changes in the level of cadmium in serum and milk of examined ewes, while the serum level of zinc significantly higher during the spring compared to the summer season and milk zinc level remain stable during both seasons. The study concluded variations in haematological, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum and milk concentration of Zn and Cd according to lactation season in ewes.

Detection on ectoparasites on small ruminants and their impact on the tanning industry in Sulaimani province

Bahzad Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 303-309
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162995

The study was carried out through the clinical examination on the skins of sheep and goats to identify the quality and processed in the tanneries. Parasitic skin diseases caused by ectoparasites such as mange mites, lice, and ticks are among these threats resulting in a serious economic loss to the tanning industry and the country as a whole. Out of 38066 sheep and 9889 goats examined in Sulaimani slaughterhouse in spring season 2017, shows statistically significant P<0.05 between sheep and goats prevalence; 9.35% and 7.43% respectively with one or more ectoparasites. Three different of ectoparasites were infested in both sheep and goats namely; hard tick, lice and mite. Five species of hard tick (Ixodidae) were identified in sheep and goats as follows; Boophilus spp 3.68% and 14.16%, Rhipicephalus sanguineous 12.47% and 28.63%, Rhipicephalus turanicus 7.50% and 15.96%, Hyalomma a. anatolicum 11.90% and 31.30%, Hyalomma marginatum 9.26% and 9.95%) respectively. Two species of lice were identified in sheep namely, Damalinia ovis 17.74% and Linognathus stenopsis 13.63%, and D. caprae 10.97% and L. stenopsis 6.22% on goats. Highly infested were identified with mite on sheep include Psarcoptic scabiei 13.83% and Psoroptic ovies 9.98%, while only one species founded in this study in goats namely, Psarcoptic scabiei 22.79%. The overall number of skins refused to tanning industry 164 (4.61%) in sheep and 116 (15.78%) in goat. The difference in the prevalence of skin disease infestation between refused skin in both sheep and goats were statistically significant in ruminants (P<0.05). This paper deals with major skin defects in occurrence by ectoparasites sheep and goats in Sulaimani province.

The histological changes induced by cytarabine on rabbits kidneys (with and without vitamin E administration)

Saif Al-Jammas; ayad Al-Sarraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 311-316
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162910

The present study was designed to determine the histological changes induced by Cytarabine drug on the structure of rabbits kidneys and the protective effects of vitamin E on these histological changes. The treated group with daily intraperitoneal dose of (50 mg/kg body weight) of Cytarabine alone, showed a massive histological changes represented by renal tubular necrosis, glomerular atrophy and enlarged urinary spaces (widening of Bowman’s spaces), infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages within interstitium of the cortex, formation of hyaline cast in some of the tubular lumens as well as fibrosis and hemorrhage in the cortex were also observed. While the group that received a protective (800 IU of vitamin E) prior to each Cytarabine injection showed a significant improvement that represented by focal regions in the cortex with a normal renal tubules except for a cloudy cell swelling which is a reversible injury, also neither cortical hemorrhage nor hyaline cast formation were seen, in addition to presence of focal areas of normal glomeruli. The present study suggests that vitamin E is an effective chemo-protective agent against nephrotoxicity when used prior to each Cytarabine administration.

A comparison between two different biomaterials for treatment of tracheal defect in dogs

Osama Al-Hyani; Abd Al-Haleem Al-Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 317-327
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162883

This study was designed to evaluate the healing process of tracheal cartilage defect after implantation of two different biomaterials in dogs. Eighteen adult dogs from both sexes were used. They were divided into 2 equal groups. A window shape defect of about 3cm x 2cm was induced in the cervical part of three adjacent tracheal rings with their annular ligaments. In group one, the defect was closed with a small strip of ear cartilage (auto graft) from the same animal, while in the second group, calf's pericardium scaffold (xeno graft) was used to close the defect. All the animals were clinically monitored postoperatively, while gross pathological changes and biopsy collections for all animals was performed at 15, 30, 60 postoperative days. No postoperative clinical complications were recorded and all were looking healthy and resuming food and water intake normally. The gross pathological results revealed rapid occlusion to the trachea especially in first group and animals survived without any respiratory complications. The histological features in both groups were represented by newly granulation tissue formation and hyaline cartilage regeneration. The new hyaline cartilage cells formation was showed faster in group 1 rather than group 2. In conclusion, both grafts can be used for closing a tracheal defect in dogs with the priority of ear cartilage implantation.

Different vectors used to transform and clone of nonstructural NS1 gene of Influenza B in Escherichia coli

Ali Adel Dawood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 329-333
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162964

Flu is a highly contagious and common illness caused by influenza A, B, and C viruses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transformation and cloning of NS1B gene with pET-32a, pET-32b and pQE-81L in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and DH5α. pUC57-NS1B synthetic gene was transform and clone in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Isolation, single digestion and ligation with pET-32b using HindIII restriction enzyme. Amplification of recombinant DNA was done with conventional PCR after transformation. Screening with IPTG of colonies. Gel electrophoresis was done for each step of cloning after isolation. Isolation, double digestion and ligation with pET-32a and pQE-81L using SacI, PstI and HindIII respectively.Recombinant DNA was attempted to be transformed into E. coli strains BL21 (DE3) and DH5α. pUC57 plasmid carrying NS1B gene was successful transformed and isolated from E. coli BL21 (DE3). Designed primers used for PCR of NS1B showed successful amplification. First screening of pET-32b-NS1B colonies using white/blue method, cloning NS1B into pET-32b using single restriction digestion with HindIII, pET-32a using double restriction digestion with SacI and HindIII and pQE-81L using double restriction digestion with PstI and HindIII gave unexpected result. This result may relate to re-ligation of digested vector for single digestion and uncompleted digestion for vectors of double restriction digestion. Current study has suggested that recombinant NS1B gene can be cloned using single digestion with other expression vectors.

Histological and antimicrobial effects of tramadol infiltration on incisional oral mucosal wound healing in rabbits

F.A. Al-Mashhadane; E.A. Mustafa; G.A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 335-340
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162996

The present study compared effects of tramadol with lidocaine on healing processes of incisional intraoral mucosal wounds in rabbits and to study the antimicrobial effect of tramadol. For this purpose, fifteen apparently healthy male rabbits of 5-6 months old were used. They were classified into three groups, first group treated with 0.5 ml distilled water infiltration as control (n=5), second group treated with 0.5 ml tramadol infiltration in dose of 100 mg/2 ml (n=5), and third group treated with 0.5 ml of 2% vasoconstrictor-free lidocaine infiltration, then an incision was done to the buccal mucosa of all animals and they slaughtered on day 10 and their wounds were evaluated by histopathologic for presence of edema, vascularity, and inflammatory cells. For antimicrobial effect, swabs from tramadol group were taken from sites of wounds before incision and other swabs were taken after surgical incision on the first day, third day and seventh day, then the colony forming units (CFU)/ml of microorganisms were counted. The present study found that the infiltration with tramadol in dose of 100mg/2ml result in new epithelialization and wound healing occurred faster than infiltration with lidocaine 2% group also this study found that tramadol has significant decrease in the means of colony forming units of oral microorganisms. This study demonstrated that tramadol accelerated stages of buccal wound healing faster than lidocaine in rabbits.

Nad1 gene analysis of Echinococcus granulosus from sheep in Aqrah city, Iraq

R.N. Hamoo; nashaat Ghalib Mustafa; S.A. Abdulraheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 341-345
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162965

Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a dog tapeworm cestoda; it is larval stage responsible to cystic echinococcosis, one of the most common and dangerous worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease. The aim of this study was the molecular identification of the local strain of E. granulosus isolated from sheep liver slaughtered in the principal abattoir of Aqrah city, Northern of Iraq during Jun-Nov. 2017. In this study, 37 sheep liver infected by E. granulosus, 12 of high DNA purity fertile (have protoscolices) cyst of them were considered. A molecular study conducted on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) gene. Results demonstrated that E. granulosus isolates were sheep strain (G1) genotype, with fascinating highly corresponding 95% and 96% to global isolates, particularly to north African and Mediterranean countries, by employing phylogenetic tree analysis. So, the isolates of our project were deposited in Genbank (accession No. MG792129). This study findings provide that the local isolates of E. granulosus from sheep liver in Aqrah city, Northern of Iraq are loyally equivalent to global strains and isolates, in addition, nad1 gene considers a perfect biomarker in a molecular identification and phylogenetic study of this parasite.

Detection of ectoparasites in different birds

Manal Hammadi Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 37-41
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162896

The study was conducted to detect the ectoparasites infestation in chickens, Domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica and turkeys in different areas of Mosul city by survey examining of 80 birds of chickens, 85 birds of pigeons and 50 birds of turkeys, of both sexes. Results show the infestation rates with ectoparasites in chickens, pigeons and turkeys, were 41.3%,37.6% and 36% respectively. Results show that the chickens were infested with three types of ectoparasites, two species of lice are Menacanthus stramineus, Gniocotes gallinae and soft ticks Argas persicus the infestation rates were 63.6%, 24.2% and 36.4% respectively. The highest infestation rate with lice in chicken was 70% in Spring season and the lowest rate 5% in Summer season while the infestation rates in Autumn and Winter were convergent, there was 44.4% and 45.5% respectively. The results show that the pigeons were infested with two types of ectoparasites, one species of lice is Columbicola columbae and soft ticks is Argas persicus, the rates were 87.5%,18.8% respectively. The infestations were individual and double. In turkeys the results record one lice species Goniocotes gallinae, the infestation rates were 36%. The male and female were infested with rates 27.3% and 42.9% respectively.

Effects of cadmium chloride on some endocrine glands (thyroid and adrenal) in male rats (Rattus norvegicus)

K. H. Al- Derawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 211-217
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153852

This study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on thyroid and adrenal gland of male rats (Rattus norvegicus). Thirty six male rats were used and randomly into three groups each of 12 rats, the first group(G1) kept as at control. The 2nd and 3rd groups (G2 and G3) were administrated orally cdcl2 at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg.B.W. respectively for 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed, then thyroid and adrenal glands were removed and processed for light microscope. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland with (15mg/kg.B.W.) showed increase in the size of follicles, some of these follicles appeared empty from any colloidal substance and heavily infiltrated by inflammatory cells, with depletion of parafollicular cells. Vaculated follicles may be clear in other sections, and showed congested blood vessels, vascularized stroma, hyperplasia of thyrocyte in rats treated with 20 mg/kg.B.w. Results also noted changes in different regions of adrenal gland related to rats exposure tocdcl2 with 15 mg/kg.B.W., these includes cellular debris, necrosis of cortical cells, amorphous material in the zona fasciculate and focal necrosis in zona granulosa with disruption of normal structure and replaced by necrotic cells and inflammatory cells, also obvious adipocytes infiltration which appeared clear in medulla. Most changes occurred within the adrenal cortex and appeared more severity than that in the medulla region. Hypereosinophilia, pyknotic nuclei, congested blood vessels, hemorrhage, degeneration and inflammation also seen in both regions (cortex and medulla) of adrenal gland from rat exposed to cdcl2 at 20 mg/kg.B.W.

Detection of virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different animals by using bacteriological and molecular methods

B. S. Noomi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 205-210
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153851

The aim of this study was to detect the presence of virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different animals. For this purpose 120 samples were collected and examined to detect fourteen virulence factors by using biochemical  and molecular methods. The results showed that the highest isolation rate was recorded in doges (29.6%) among studied animals, and highest isolation rate was recorded in milk samples (26.8%) among the studied samples. The virulence factors were detected in different ratio, and highest of them were capsule detected in 50% from skin isolates, amylase enzyme detected in 28.5% from milk isolates, hemolysin enzyme detected in 75% from wound isolates, protease detected in 100% from skin isolates, phospholipase enzyme detected in 56.1% from milk isolates, urease enzyme detected in 50% from skin isolates, gelatin liquefaction detected in 100% from skin and ear isolates, β -lactamase production detected in 100% from skin and wound isolates, pigments production detected in 100% from skin and ear isolates, oprI, oprL and exoT detected in 100% from skin and wound isolates, exoS detected in 100% and 85.7% from skin and milk isolates respectively. We conclude from his study that the dogs are more sensitive in compare with studied animal, while the milk sample is more susceptible to contamination by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Regarding the virulence factors we noticed that the appearance of it basis on infection state.

Commercial oil of Nigella sativa as growth promoter in lambs rations

S. El-Naggar; J. A. Abou-Ward; A. Y. El-Badawi; A. M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 199-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153850

This study aimed to investigate the impact of supplementing different levels of Nigella sativa oil in rations of growing lambs. In a feeding experiment lasted 90 days, 18 growing Ossimi lambs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided by weight into three equal groups (6 animals each). Individual animals in all groups were fed a uniform total mixed ration, offered at 3% of body weight, where the first group was without supplement (R1), while Nigella sativa oil was supplemented at 0.1 (R2) and 0.2% (R3) of dietary DM. Results indicated that additions of N. sativa oil didn’t influenced feed intake, but it increased average body weight gain and feed efficiency. Nutrients digestibility values and dietary nitrogen utilization were higher with N. sativaoil rations than control. Ruminal fermentation parameters showed comparable pH values among groups at 0, 3 and 6 hrs. of feeding. Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower and TVFA concentration was higher for animal fed R2 and R3 rations than control. It’s concluded that N. sativa oil could be added at 0.2 % of the daily feed as a natural growth enhancer of lambs.

Fetal anomalies in prolonged gestation in Awassi ewe: A case report

U. T. Naoman; B. D. Al-Watar; E. H. Lazim; E. K. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 195-197
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153849

This report was described the observation of five types of congenital anomalies with a Hydramnios Syndrome in prolonged gestational (6 months) three years old awassi ewe bearing an abnormal fetus for first time, ultrasonography revealed signs of pregnancy with numerous small cotyledon, high amount of bright turbid fluid (Hyper-genic), with no signs of heart beat and small abnormal ribs. Vaginal examination indicated that complete closure cervix with pale mucous membrane.

Effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) barks of root and stem (alcoholic extract) on the viability and fatty acids content of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro study

R. S. Al-Juwary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153848

The present study was aimed to determine the scolicidal effect of stem and root alcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) on the viability and fatty acids content of Ecinococcus granulosus protoscolices. The study elucidate the scolocidal effect of both stem and root extracts. Its seemed that the scolocidal effect of root extract was higher than that of stem extract ie. LC50 and LC90 of stem extract were 5 and 9 mg/ml respectively while LC50 and LC90 of root extract were 3 and 8 mg/ml respectively. GLC analysis of E. granulosus protoscolices was stated presence of nine fatty acids esters, which were Lauric (C12:0); Myrisitic (C14:0); Palmatic (C16:0); Stearic (C18:0); Archidic (C20:0); Behenic (C22:0), which were saturated fatty acids, and Oleic (C18:1); Linoleic (C18:2); Linolenic (C18:3) which were unsaturated fatty acids. Treating E.granulosus protoscolices with LC50 of pomegranate stem bark was showing slight and swing effect on fatty acid content, while treated the protoscolices with LC50 of root bark were resulted in obvious increase in short length fatty acids like Lauric, Myrisitic and Palmatic in compare with control group. In contrast the long chain fatty acids concentration like Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic were decrease.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Commercial oil of Nigella sativa as growth promoter in lambs rations

S. El-Naggar; J. A. Abou-Ward; A. Y. El-Badawi; A. M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 199-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153850

This study aimed to investigate the impact of supplementing different levels of Nigella sativa oil in rations of growing lambs. In a feeding experiment lasted 90 days, 18 growing Ossimi lambs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided by weight into three equal groups (6 animals each). Individual animals in all groups were fed a uniform total mixed ration, offered at 3% of body weight, where the first group was without supplement (R1), while Nigella sativa oil was supplemented at 0.1 (R2) and 0.2% (R3) of dietary DM. Results indicated that additions of N. sativa oil didn’t influenced feed intake, but it increased average body weight gain and feed efficiency. Nutrients digestibility values and dietary nitrogen utilization were higher with N. sativaoil rations than control. Ruminal fermentation parameters showed comparable pH values among groups at 0, 3 and 6 hrs. of feeding. Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower and TVFA concentration was higher for animal fed R2 and R3 rations than control. It’s concluded that N. sativa oil could be added at 0.2 % of the daily feed as a natural growth enhancer of lambs.

Evaluation of the isolation protocols of primary cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) skin tissue

M. Hasoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 119-125
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153837

In this study, pieces of skin from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish were collected freshly from juveniles from a privet fish farm in Duhok city, Kurdistan-Iraq. Those pieces of skin were cultured In Vitro by using two methods of explanting; direct explants and enzymatic pre-digested explants of tissue fragments. The results showed a highest cell yield (5×103 cell/ml) on passage 2 of enzymatic pre-digested tissues and higher cell growth rate in compare with cell yield (38×102 cell/ml) gained from direct explant tissues. Both procedures showed forming of clumped cells colonies in initial passages (P1 and P2), and the morphological changes were developed in both cells to show a fibroblast like appearance thereafter. Such findings are important and advantageous to suggest a faster and more efficient protocol for tissue culture cells isolation with lower cost and better isolation success as well.

The effect of autotransplantation of bone marrow with laser irradiation on the healing of non-union fractures in the femoral bone of dogs

O H Al-Hayani; B T Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 109-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46747

In this study, the effect of autotransplantation and laser irradiation on the healing of experimental induced non-union fractures in the femoral bone were investigated clinically and radiographically in 12 dogs. The fractures were left without fixation for 40 days and over, and following the occurrence of non-union state the fractures were treated at 3 different schedules in the experimental animals, which were divided into three groups, each containing 4 dogs:
Group 1 (control): the non-union fractured femoral bones were treated by the routine surgical procedures using intramedullary fication achieved with Steinmann intramedullary pins.
Group 2 (intramedullary fixation with autotransplantation of bone marrow): following the surgical treatment of non-union fractured femoral bone and their fixation by the Steinmann intramedullary pins (by the same procedure applied in group 1), 4-6 ml of fresh bone marrow was implanted at the fracture site. The bone marrow was aspirated freshly and aseptically from marrow cavity of the opposite femur from the same dog.
Group 3 (autotransplantation of bone marrow with He:Ne I.R. laser irradiation): in addition to the procedures applied in group 2, the surgical site was exposed to laser irradiation type He:Ne I.R. with a total dose of 2.7 J/cm2 for 12 irradiation sessions. Each daily irradiation session was for a period of 5 min for 3 successive days, followed by one-day rest.
The concluded results were:
1-autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow at the site of the treated non-union fractures has a role in accelerating or improving the healing process, by promoting excessive callus formation, whereby the fracture line disappeared at the end of the 4th post-treatment week.
2-the use of laser irradiation with autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow, greatly improved the healing process by increasing the periosteal reaction and callus formation, and lead to disappearance of the fracture line at the end of the 3th post-treatment week. Furthermore, this technique improved the functional use of the affected limb in comparison with groups 1 and 2.
3- the laser irradiation made the remodeling stage shorter (finished within about 3 months) in comparison with group 1 and 2, in which it continued for more than 3 months.

Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 35-41
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5666

A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis) were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Assessment of alterations in some blood biochemical and mineral contents concentration before and during pregnancy period in Iraqi ewes of Salah-edin province

M. A. Ismaeel; A. H. Awad; N. N. Dhahir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 161-165
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153844

Thirty local Iraqi ewes reared in Tikrit – Salah-edin province from first the of October-2016 to the first of March-2017 were used in the current study to investigate the influence of pregnancy on levels of some biochemical and minerals contents in the blood serum. Blood samples were collected from ewes before and monthly during pregnancy (first, second, third, fourth and fifth month), serum separated and stored at 5 °C until samples analysis. All samples were analyzed by spectrophotometer with special kits for each parameter. Results demonstrate significant decrease (P ≤0.05) in concentration of total protein, cholesterol and glucose as pregnancy advanced, while there is no effect of pregnancy on the concentration of creatinine and magnesium, however, there is a significant increase (P ≤0.05) in calcium concentration as pregnancy proceed. In conclusion the pregnancy has clear influences on the concentration of total protein, cholesterol, glucose and calcium. The measurements of these parameters give best assessment for nutritional and health status of Iraqi ewes during pregnancy.

The possibility of using Acridine orange compared to Giemsa stain in the diagnosis of parasite Babesia spp in cattle

E. G. Suleiman; A. F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153870

The current study included the possibility using fluorescent Acridine orange stain in the diagnosis of Babesia spp in cattle in Mosul city/Iraq, this dye is easily applied and takes no more than 2-5 minutes in the diagnosis of Babesia spp using of fluorescent microscope versus 45 minutes of Giemsa stain by using light microscope. The benefit of Acridine orange stain is in its uses in epidemiological and survey studies and for the control programs against Babesiosis but it is considered to be of little value in study of morphological features of small blood protozoa with low parasitemia comparing with the golden Giemsa stain in the study of morphological and specifications of Babesia spp.

Quality enhancement of cryopreserved spermatozoa of sutchi catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) with honey addition

N. A. Fanni; M. B. Santanumurti; T. w. Suprayogi; s. s. Bendryman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 231-236
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153854

Sutchi Catfish is one of the important fish commodities in Indonesia. Unfortunately, its seasonal spawning pattern causes limited supply. Cryopreservation is a solution to solve limited supply since it can store the spermatozoa in low temperature so that physiological, biological and morphological functions still remain. Improving the quality of cryopreservation is important to increase the success of Sutchi Catfish aquaculture. Adding honey in cryopreservation process is expected to increase the quality of spermatozoa since it contains with sugars as a source of spermatozoa’s energy. This study tried to compare the effectivity of honey in cryopreservation process with no addition. The treatments used in this study were T1 (0% honey), T2 (0.2% of honey), T3 (0.4% of honey), T4 (0.6% of honey) and T5 (0.8% of honey). 30 days after stored, the spermatozoa were checked their motility, viability, abnormality, fertility and hatching rate. This study showed that honey addition could increase the motility significantly (P<0.01) to 23.14% better than control. The viability increased significantly (P<0.01) to 23.17% better than control. The abnormality test did not show significant difference between honey addition and control although the abnormality value in control was the highest (10.75%). The fertilization rate increased significantly (P<0.01) to 28.85% better than control. The hatching rate increased significantly (P<0.01) to 29.78% better than control. The success of all test indicated that the addition of honey in cryopreservation process of spermatozoa could be performed on Sutchi Catfish to increase its production even though the limited spawning pattern.

Evaluation of the isolation protocols of primary cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) skin tissue

M. Hasoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 119-125
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153837

In this study, pieces of skin from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish were collected freshly from juveniles from a privet fish farm in Duhok city, Kurdistan-Iraq. Those pieces of skin were cultured In Vitro by using two methods of explanting; direct explants and enzymatic pre-digested explants of tissue fragments. The results showed a highest cell yield (5×103 cell/ml) on passage 2 of enzymatic pre-digested tissues and higher cell growth rate in compare with cell yield (38×102 cell/ml) gained from direct explant tissues. Both procedures showed forming of clumped cells colonies in initial passages (P1 and P2), and the morphological changes were developed in both cells to show a fibroblast like appearance thereafter. Such findings are important and advantageous to suggest a faster and more efficient protocol for tissue culture cells isolation with lower cost and better isolation success as well.

Publisher: College of Veterinary Medicine / Mosul University

Email:  editor@vetmedmosul.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Fouad K. Mohammad

Print ISSN: 1607-3894

Online ISSN: 2071-1255

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According to last update in Scopus Journal Ranking The SJR for Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences have been increased to be at 0.13

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The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences announce that Articles printed in Arabic language will not be accept form publication  Starting from the first of April, 2019

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