About Journal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences (IJVS) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1988. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is also used to assure the quality of the publication. Since 1988 the journal published two issues per year, nowadays (starting from January 2021) due to...
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Animal Anatomy
Osteocranium Anatomy of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) from Cultured Pond in Aceh, Indonesia

Ilham Zulfahmi; Yusrizal Yusrizal; Andi Iqbal Burhanuddin; Yeni Dhamayanti; Epa Paujiah; Kizar Ahmed Sumon; Dina Nath Pandit; Firman M Nur

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 549-554

Abstract
  To date, information related the skeletal morphology of fish in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, we firstly described the morphology of the cranium of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected from aquaculture pond in Aceh Province, Indonesia. In the present study, research methodology included ...  Read More

Veterinary Surgery
The role of adding Hyaluronic Acid in the grafting process for the repair of experimentally induced tibial defect in dogs model

Fouad M. Albaroudy; Layth M Alkattan; Ahmed M Shareef; Hana Kh. Ismail

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 555-561

Abstract
  Abstract The study was designed to determine the role of adding hyaluronic acid as a supportive filling material to improve grafting process of experimentally defective tibial bone in dog model. Eighteen local breed dogs of both sexes weighted 18± 0.4 kg and aged (12± 0.6Months) were randomly ...  Read More

Veterinary Surgery
Evaluation of Fracture Healing After Thyroidectomy in Rabbits Model

Omar A. Bader; H. Nahi Hussein

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 563-570

Abstract
  This research aims to investigate the fracture healing effects caused by thyroidectomy. The experiment involved sixteen matured male rabbits of local breed which divided into 2 equal groups (control and treated). Rabbits anesthetized by premedicated atropine sulphate, then 15 minutes later, a mixture ...  Read More

Animal Physiology
Renal ameliorating effect of resveratrol in hydrogen peroxide induced male rats

Noor T. Khudair; Bara N. Al-Okaily

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 571-577

Abstract
  The study aimed to investigate the potential effect of resveratrol (RS) supplementation in attenuating kidney injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in male rats. Forty adult male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (10 each). The control group was orally supplemented with distilled water, ...  Read More

Veterinary Surgery
In vivo study of Impact Transplantation Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells on Induced Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rabbits Model

Zahraa K. Zedan; Salah A. Hassan

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 579-589

Abstract
  The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (HSCs) on full-thickness cutaneous wounds healing in rabbits. Twenty clinically healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study; under aseptic technique and general anesthesia full-thickness excisional ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Rapid diagnosis of leishmania spp. in blood samples using gold nanoparticles.

Musafer H. Al-Ardi

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 587-590

Abstract
  There are many methods to diagnose Leishmania spp. a microscopic, serological or molecular methods. However, finding a fast and accurate diagnostic assay is a necessary and urgent requirement nowadays. here, we improved nano detection method to diagnose Leishmania spp. In blood samples. In this study, ...  Read More

Animal Embryology
A study of primary ossification centers in the hind limbs of Awasi sheep fetuses by double stains method and radiography.

Saif A. Salih; Naziha S. Ahmed

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 591-597

Abstract
  Forty Local Awasi sheep fetuses were collected from several areas in Ninevah Governorate, further than local slaughterhouse. Their estimated ages calculated depending on crown-rump length with the aid of Richardson formula. The study aimed to detect the site and the time of appearance of ossification ...  Read More

Animal Hygiene
Molecular Detection of uidA gene in Escherichia coli Isolated from the Dairy Farms in Nineveh Governorate/Iraq.

Leena H. Alsanjary; Omar Hashim Sheet

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 599-603

Abstract
  Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative environmental micro-organism- which causes intramammary infections in mammals, In addition, to cause food poisoning in human. Four hundred samples were obtained from various areas of the dairy farm . Fifty samples from each of bedding, soils, feces, feed, ...  Read More

Animal Histology
Histological and histochemical observations of the prostate gland at resting and stimulating status in adult local Dog (Canis familiaris)

Mohammed I. Hammodi; Luay O. Hamza

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 605-610

Abstract
  The present investigation was done to clarify the histological and histochemical characteristics of the well-developed prostate gland in the adult local dogs (Canis familiaris). The tissue specimens were taken from the prostate gland, the samples were processed by routine histological techniques and ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Expression of Ki67 in submandibular salivary glands of rabbits after BTX injection: Histological and immunohistochemical study

Abdullah A. Ahmed; Jawnaa K. Mammdoh

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 611-620

Abstract
  This study aimed to examine the possible histological effects of local injections of BTX in rabbits submandibular SGs and to find the dose-dependent and time relationship between injections and study immunohistochemistry expression of Ki67. Thirty male rabbits randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits ...  Read More

Reproduction Biotechnology
Prediction of the ovulation time in estrus mares by different methods

Thamer Ahmed Alrashidy; Mohammed Abdulelah Rahawy

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 621-626

Abstract
  The study aimed to evaluate the prediction of ovulation time by three different methods body temperature, Dramineski estrus detection apparatus, and observation of the mature follicle daily by ultrasonography in mare’s estrus. Sixteen mature cycling mares were used during the breeding season in15 ...  Read More

Animal Anatomy
Radiographic and ultrasonic study of pelvic bones in awassi ewes and local she goat and relationship with age of sexual puberty

Ahmad A. Alhanosh; Adnan A. Alhasso

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 627-632

Abstract
  Thegoal of this study is to find out the age of sexual puberty in Awassi sheep and native black she goats by examining pelvic bone development which is obtained from measuring the transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvic bone in the two species using portable X-ray machines American origin.in ...  Read More

Animal Histology
Histological effects of the interaction of some food additives on the kidney of pregnant rats

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha; Raghad A. A. Najjar

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 633-640

Abstract
  Many studies are still the subject of food additives to know their positive and negative effects, primarily as they are widely used globally. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the histological effects of sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate on the histological structure of the kidney in pregnant ...  Read More

Infectious and Epidemic Animal Diseases
Classical and molecular identification of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infestation cattle wounds with myiasis in Basrah governorate, Iraq

Moaed H. Sayhood; Abeer L. Mohammed; Mohanad F. Abdulhameed; Muna M. Jori

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 641-646

Abstract
  Thepresent study was carried out to describe some epidemiological facts of myiasis infestations in cattle; therefore, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified from various infested sites with maggots from February to September 2019. It involved three districts (Shatt-Alarab, Al-Qurnah, and Al-Dyr) ...  Read More

Veterinary Microbiology
Detection of Campylobacter fetus in aborted ewes in Sulaimani province by PCR

Eman D. Arif

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 647-651

Abstract
  Abortion is one of the most critical factors affecting lambing rates and, as a result, sheep farm profitability. It is also significant from a zoonotic viewpoint, in addition to financial losses. In sheep flocks, Campylobacter fetus causes infectious infertility, embryonic death, and miscarriages. The ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Indicative parameters for liver fascioliasis at pre-clinical and clinical phases in cows from Al-Diwaniyah city, Iraq

Nawras K. Kadhum; Salah M. Karim; Khalefa A. Mansour; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 653-657

Abstract
  The current work emphasized understanding the liver functions while having pre-clinical or clinical fascioliasis accurately detect the disease phase from cows in Al-Diwaniyah City, Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq. The experimental design included the use of 30 cows in Al-Diwaniayh province divided into ten ...  Read More

Veterinary Microbiology
Control of biofilm-producing Aeromonas bacteria in the water tanks and drinkers of broiler poultry farms using chitosan nanoparticle-based coating thyme oil

Asmaa N. Mohammed; Amira S. Attia

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 659-669

Abstract
  In a drinking water distribution system, biofilm-producing bacteria are considered an alarm bell for increased emergence of waterborne pathogens. This study aims to monitor the prevalence of biofilm-forming Aeromonas species in the drinking water distribution systems in different broiler chicken farms. ...  Read More

Animal Histology
Evaluation of histological changes induced by prednisolone and cyclophosphamide in some organs of male albino mice

Sahar A AL-Sharqi; Amal K. Chaloob; Ilham A. Al-Saleem

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 671-679

Abstract
  Prednisolone is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various diseases. It is known to be used to treat many conditions such as autoimmune diseases and asthma. Cyclophosphamide is a type of nitrogen mustard therapy that works by alkylation of DNA and is used as an immunosuppressant in rheumatoid arthritis ...  Read More

Infectious and Epidemic Animal Diseases
Abortion in ewes in Nineveh governorate, Iraq: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Eman K. Alameen; Mohammad O. Dahl

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 681-688

Abstract
  The current study was designed to examine the evidence and knowledge gaps in studies investigating abortion in ewes in Nineveh, Iraq, and quantify the overall incidence of abortion and the prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion. PubMed, CABI, and GoogleScholar databases were used as ...  Read More

Animal Physiology
Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 689-697

Abstract
  This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial ...  Read More

Animal Histology
The histological effect of the injection of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on sciatic nerve of rats

Mustafa M. Altaee; Ahmed H. Qassim

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 699-707

Abstract
  The ongoing work aims to compare the effect of extraneural and intraneural injection of therapeutic doses of meloxicam and diclofenac sodium on the sciatic nerve of rats. Six groups of adult albino rats were used with five animals per group. Control group (A), group (B), and group (C) received a single ...  Read More

Zoonotic Diseases
Prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species in Indonesia: A review

Saifur Rehman; Fedik Abdul Rantam; Khadija Batool; A. Rahman; Mustofa Helmi Effendi; Muhammad Ilyas Khan; Bilal -

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 709-718

Abstract
  Avian influenza, commonly called bird flu, is highly contagious and pandemic zoonosis of global importance, primarily affecting birds and other mammals, including humans. The present review is intended to highlight a report on the prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species of ...  Read More

Veterinary Pathology
Histopathological and histochemical study of mastitis in sheep

Asseel M. Rahawi; Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Hana Kh. Ismail

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 719-723

Abstract
  Ovine mastitis is considered one of the problems that cause economic losses through its impact on milk production, which is unfit for human consumption. The current study aimed to shed light on mastitis in sheep in different areas of Mosul city. The results of the recent study showed the presence of ...  Read More

Animal Anatomy
Comparative morphological and morphometrically study of the adrenal gland in adult males' squirrel (Sciurus anomalous) and hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

ِAbdulrazzaq B. Kadhim; Iman M. Khaleel

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 725-730

Abstract
  Given the physiological significance and the need for further physiological and morphological knowledge of the adrenal glands, the objectives of the current study were to compare morphometric data between the right and left adrenals of male squirrels and hamsters. The study was conducted on five squirrel ...  Read More

Veterinary Virology
Molecular investigation of feline calicivirus in cats in Mosul city, Iraq

Alaa K. Hamdan; Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 731-735

Abstract
  The study included 200 cats of different ages, genders, types of breeding, source, vaccination programs, and health status. They were examined clinically and traditionally and recorded clinical signs appearing on them, and swabs were collected from the eye's conjunctiva and the pharyngeal area. RNA was ...  Read More

Animal Histology
Comparative anatomical, histometrical, and histochemical study of esophagus between ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and black-shouldered kite (Elanus caeruleus)

Jehan M. Rajab; Sahar A. AL-Sharqi; Sabah A. Abdelrahman

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 737-743

Abstract
  The present study aimed to investigate the esophagus's anatomical, histometrical, histochemical aspects in the Ring-necked parakeet and Black-shouldered Kite. The esophagus in the parakeet was shorter and narrower than the kite esophagus. The crop was a well‐developed sac shape in the parakeet, while ...  Read More

Animal Physiology
Gonadotropin profile in experimentally induced hypothyroid and hyperthyroid cyclic female rats

Jabber A. Al-Saaidi; Jaafar K. Al-Bedary

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 745-751

Abstract
  The current study examined the association of thyroid disorders with reproductive dysfunction by determining its effect on gonadotropin secretion in cyclic female rats. Sixty cyclic females were assigned to three groups (20 each) and supplemented, for 30 days plus two consequent estrous cycles, with ...  Read More

Infectious and Epidemic Animal Diseases
The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation on parasitemia, oxidative stress and serum biochemical parameters in Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs

Chigozie S Ukwueze; Polycarp O Akpa; Rita I Odo; Chinwe J Aronu; Boniface M Anene

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 753-760

Abstract
  This study investigated the effect of resveratrol supplementation on parasitemia, oxidative stress and serum biochemical changes in the Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs. The mean pre-patent period (MPP) of infection was 5.75±0.96 (5-7) days and 9.00 ± 0.82 (8-10) days between infected un-supplemented ...  Read More

Veterinary Microbiology
Secondary bacterial infection of hydatid cysts infected livestock animals (In vitro study)

Maimonah Q. Yahya; Zahraa Khairi-Aldeen Mohi-Aldeen

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 761-768

Abstract
  Isolation and identificationof the bacteria-infected hydatid cystsof livestock animals were carried out. The study lasted for five months. A total of 302 slaughtered livestock were checked to find hydatid cyst naturally infected livers and lungs of sheep and goat at local Mosul abattoir/ Nineveh/ Iraq. ...  Read More

Poultry Diseases
Studying an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis in broilers in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Maan T. Jarjees; Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher; aqeel alshater

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 769-774

Abstract
  The aim of this study was to provide field outbreaks data with FAdVs in Ninevah governorate to emphasize the importance of the disease due to high mortality and production losses. A total of 729,500 broilers collected from 64 flocks at 14 different locations in Nineveh governorate during the second half ...  Read More

Animal Hygiene
Psychrotrophic count influence on oxidative stability and aflatoxins in milk and cooking butter

Tawfik El-Bassiony; Gamela abdel-Malek; Marwa Khalifa

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 775-780

Abstract
  Milk and butter are among the precious foods susceptible to spoilage and rancidity due to psychrotrophic microorganisms' activities, which grow in abundance due to the richness of milk and butter in the nutrients and their ability to resist the cold environment milk and butter are stored. In this study, ...  Read More

Animal Histology
The macroscopical and microscopical characters of the trachea in different avian species: A comparative study

Asmaa A. Sakr; Shafika A. Elsayed; Sozan A. Ismaeil

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 781-789

Abstract
  This study aimed to explain and compare the anatomical, histological, histochemical and histomorphometrical analyses of the trachea in different species of birds. This study includes 21 healthy birds from geese (Anser anser domesticus), cattle egrets (Bublucus ibis) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), ...  Read More

Veterinary Obstetrics
Transabdominal ultrasonographic determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in mares

Eman H. Lazim; Dhafer M. Aziz; Mohammed A. Rahawy

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 791-796

Abstract
  The study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of transabdominal ultrasonographic approach for pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring the viability of fetus in mares as an alternative approach to the transrectal ultrasonography to minimize the opportunity of misdiagnosis and prevent the deleterious effect ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Antidiabetic of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel ethanolic extract on alloxan induced diabetic mice

Tridiganita Solikhah; Cinta Atsa Mahesa Rani; Mela Septiani; Yan Arengga Syah Putra; Qonita Rachmah; Gahastanira Permata Solikhah; Bodhi Agustono; Maya Nurwartanti Yunita; Muhammad Thohawi Elziyad Purnama

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 797-802

Abstract
  Diabetes is a disease characterized by high blood glucose due to the abnormal response of the cells in the body on produced insulin or insulin resistance. Indeed, the treatment for diabetes mellitus lasts for a lifetime and causes various side effects, such as headache, hypoglycemia, vomiting, and gastrointestinal ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Assessment of the analgesic effect of Alpha-lipoic acid by three acute pain models

Marwa R. Rehab; Ahmed S. Naser

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 803-807

Abstract
  Alpha-lipoic acids are Known as a good analgesic in neuropathic pain, especially in diabetic patients. This research aimed to assess the analgesic activity of ALA by three acute pain models using broiler chicks. We used electrical stimulation, hot water test, and formalin test to elicit acute pain. The ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
In vitro study of curcumin calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (Curcumin-NPs) impacts on the meriz goat’s coccidian oocysts

Mohamed R. Ali; Saad M. Bayati; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Ammar A. Mohammed

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 809-814

Abstract
  Nanoparticles biosynthesis has an essential and increased role in delivering medical compounds. Calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (CaCO3-NPs) were prepared as a stabilized amorphous and incorporated with herbal curcumin extract as an anticoccidial agent in vitro. CaCO3 - NPs were tested against ...  Read More

Animal Physiology
Effect of dietary BHA supplementation on certain physiological values in broiler chicken

Hadeel M. Hameed; Hiyam N. Maty; Ashwaq A. Hassan

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 815-819

Abstract
  Butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) is manufactured from a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tertiary-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, and is widely used in poultry feed as a phenolic free radical scavenger. The current search investigated the impact of different doses ...  Read More

Animal Hygiene
Detection of the nuc gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from swamps and ponds in Mosul city by using PCR techniques

Omar H. Sheet; Reem A. Talat; Ibtihal I. Kanaan; Ashwaq A. Najem; Ali S. Saeed Alchalabi

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 821-824

Abstract
  In most developing countries, rainwater is considered a significant water source for drinking, washing, bathing, and cooking. On the other hand, this water is the medium for transporting microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi to humans and animals. Most domestic and wild animals ...  Read More

Animal Histology
New surgical model to induce irreversible liver fibrosis by surgical closure of major duodenal orifice in dogs

Marwan H. Khalil; Ahmed Khalaf Ali; Osamah muwaffag aliraqi

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 825-831

Abstract
  This study was conducted to induce and evaluate irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs by surgical closure of the major duodenal orifice. The study was performed on six healthy local adult dogs. Irreversible hepatic fibrosis was surgically induced in all animals by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Morphometric and molecular characterization of Moniezia species in sheep in Mosul city, Iraq

Eman G. Suleiman; Nadia S. Alhayali; Ahlam F. AL-Taee

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2022, Pages 833-837

Abstract
  The current study examined 100 small intestines collected randomly from sheep slaughtered in the abattoir and butcher’s shops from different Mosul city / Iraq areas of both sexes (55 females, 45 males) and different ages. Moniezia expansa was diagnosed in 9 samples of intestines by studying the ...  Read More

Animal Physiology
Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Volume 33, Issue 1 , April 2019, , Pages 1-7

Abstract
  This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Molecular identification of new circulating Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum from sheep and goats in Duhok governorate, Iraq

Shameeran Ismael; Lokman Tayib Omer

Volume 35, Issue 1 , January 2021, , Pages 79-83

Abstract
  Because there was no such study done on identification of tick species by PCR technique in in Duhok Governorate, therefore present study was done to identify tick species by using molecular study by using of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. About 1000 ticks were collected from both sheep and goat, form Duhok ...  Read More

Lambing and mortality rate in Ouled-Djellal sheeps in Tebessa region-Algeria

M. Douh; C. Aissaoui; A. Hicher; S. Abdelmajid

Volume 32, Issue 2 , December 2018, , Pages 267-273

Abstract
  The aim of this work is to study lamb births and mortalities in Algerian sheep Ouled Djellal breed distributed in different zones of Tébessa region, which is divided according to bioclimatic stage, staff in livestock and area agricultural vocation, into four distinct zones: northern (A, B), middle ...  Read More

Poultry Diseases
Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Volume 34, Issue 2 , July 2020, , Pages 223-231

Abstract
  Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. ...  Read More

Zoonotic Diseases
Some insights of novel COVID 19 virus: structure, pathogenicity and immunity aspects

Ammar M. Al-Aalim; Mohammad A. Hamad; Ali A. AL-ledani

Volume 34, Issue 2 , July 2020, , Pages 287-293

Abstract
  COVID- 19 is highly infectious disease where the first infected case reported in Wuhan city-China, then it was spread worldwide. The causative agent belongs to novel enveloped single linear positive-sense stranded RNA Coronavirus, which is also called SARS-CoV-2 and has an affinity to lung cells. The ...  Read More

Veterinary Obstetrics
Relationship between the leptin, progesterone, body weight, and onset of puberty in ewe lambs

Mohammed Abdulelah Rahawy; Mohammed Qassim Al ali

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 21 March 2022

Abstract
  The aim of the current study was to find out the relationship between leptin, progesterone, bodyweight with the onset of puberty in the ewe lambs. Eight healthy weaned local breeds of ewe lambs at the age of 90 days were introduced in the study, Body weights were recorded, blood samples serum was collected ...  Read More

Veterinary Theriogenology
The Impact of Various Antioxidant supplementation on Ram's Sperm Quality, Fertilization, and early embryo development, in vitro

Saif Al-Hafedh; FATİN CEDDEN

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 19 March 2022

Abstract
  The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) is very stressful for gametes. Gametes are subjected during in vitro manipulation to many different types of stress; oxidative stress is the most prominent one, which will cause damage or alter the genetic material of the sperm and reduce the quality of the oocytes, ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Clinical and Molecular Detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in Iraqi Camels
Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 21 March 2022

Abstract
  Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the most frequent zoonotic species of mites causing mange in camels worldwide. The prevalence of camel’s mange in Iraq is still little studied. Thus, this research was conducted to detect S. scabiei from camels distributed in four provinces of the Middle-Furat area ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Pregabalin potentiates the analgesic effect of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol in chicks: Isobolographic analysis
Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 21 March 2022

Abstract
  The study aimed to reveal the median effective analgesic dose (ED50) of pregabalin and to determine the type of analgesic interaction with each of tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks. Methods: The electrical stimulator device was used to detect pain before and after treatment and through ...  Read More

Veterinary Obstetrics
Estimation of gestational age in Shami goats based on transabdominal ultrasonographic measurements of fetal parameters
Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 21 March 2022

Abstract
  The study was aimed to estimate the gestational age of Shami does by transabdominal ultrasonographic measurement of fetal parameters. Thirty-three Shami does aged 2-2.5 years with confirmed conception dates were used. The does were examined in standing position using a transabdominal 3.5 MHz convex sector ...  Read More

Biology
Molecular description of melatonin receptor 1A gene in Iraqi buffalo

hassan nima habib; Khalaf A.H. Al-Rishdy; Murthda F. AL-Hellou

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  The water buffalo has a seasonal reproductive pattern with reduced sexual activity during the longer photoperiod. The goal of this study was to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism of melatonin receptor 1A gene in Iraqi buffalo cows and 3D structure of its protein and phylogenic with other sequences ...  Read More

Veterinary Surgery
Comparing efficacy of the platelet rich plasma and advanced platelet rich fibrin on tibial bone defect regeneration in dogs

sarah elshafey; abd elmageed fetouh elmezyen; Ahmed S. Behery; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and advanced platelet rich fibrin (A-PRF) on regeneration of induced tibial bone defects in dogs. A 7mm circular tibial defect and 10mm depth was performed at the proximal extremity of the right and left tibiae of 12 adult ...  Read More

Infectious and Epidemic Animal Diseases
Multivariable binary logistic regression model to predict risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Goat and Sheep.

Abdelrhman sobeih; khairy el bayomi; mahmoud el-tarabany; ahmed abuel-atta; sherif moawed

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious illness that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants, causing significant economic losses. The goal of this study was to use a multivariable logistic regression model to determine risk factors for PPR. A total of 113 apparently healthy non-vaccinated ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Protective effect of propolis on liver and kidney injury caused by methotrexate in chicks

Saevan S. Saad Al-Mahmood; Maab A. Fadel

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  The contemporary reading was deliberated to explore the valuable responsibility of propolis, a biologically brisk flavonoid, in opposition to methotrexate- (MTX-) caused hurt of the liver and kidney in chicks. Chicks customary a multiple intraperitoneal gaves of MTX (40 mg/kg) moreover unaided or in ...  Read More

Animal Embryology
The Potential of Kebar grass extract on histopathological changes in kidney of mice offspring from the parent exposed to carbofuran during lactation period

Epy Muhammad Luqman; Ernestine Sisca Priyatna; Maslichah Mafruchati; Hani Plumeriastuti; Widjiati Widjiati; Viski Fitri Hendrawan

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  This aims of this research is to know the potential of kebar grass extract (Biophytum petersianum) in reducing the impact of kidney damage in mice offspring during lactation period from parent exposed to carbofuran. Carbofuran, kebar grass extract, and vitamin C are exposed orally postnatal day 1st ...  Read More

Animal Hygiene
Food safety and sanitation practices survey in very small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States

Omar Al-Mahmood

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  To determine the level of food safety and sanitation practices and make comparisons between very small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States, we conducted two web-based surveys by using a similar questionnaire and similar data collection methods. Among the 80 halal slaughterhouses ...  Read More

Animal Hygiene
Molecular identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from meat and meat products

Raad A. Al-Sanjary; Yousra Abdulrazaq Abdlla; Raad Abdulghany Al-Sanjary

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  The aim of study is to diagnose diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from meat and their products by conventional polymerase chain reaction technique using uidA gene for confirmation the bacterial isolated as E. coli and used multiplex PCR technique to detect the virulence genes of these bacteria by using ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Molecular and Serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii in three species of wild birds of Babylon Province, middle Iraq

Ameer Ibrahim Alanad; Basim Hashim Abdullah

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  Birds are intermediate hosts that play a significant role in Toxoplasma gondii epidemiology and infection transfer to humans by eating their raw or undercooked meat.The aim of this study was to diagnosis the Toxoplasma gondii infection in three species of wild birds (Columba livia, Streptopelia senegalensis ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE HEPATIC METACESTODES IN INFECTED SHEEP WITH HYDATIDOSIS

Buthaina Al-Sabawi; Hanan Sadoon; Mohammed saeed

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  This study aimed detection the liver histopathological changes of hydatid cysts sheep infestation. Seventeen infested liver's sheep with hydatid cysts were gathered from the local butchers. The specimens sectioned, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and some special stains such as Gomori's ...  Read More

Veterinary Pathology
Amelioration activity of vitamin E in rabbits with brain histological alteration induced by zinc-oxide nanoparticles

Atheer Nabeel Taha; Hana Kh. Ismail

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  The Zinc-oxide in the form of nanoparticles suggested to be one of the crucial nanoparticles due to its expanse implementation in many industries, like electrons, food supplements, and maquillage and makeup this led to more exposure of the individual to ZnO NPs through inspiration, and skin penetration. ...  Read More

Veterinary Pathology
The impact of Nano Zinc oxide particles on the histology of male reproductive system of adult male rabbits

Atheer Nabeel Taha; Hana Kh. Ismail

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 June 2022

Abstract
  The goal of our research is evaluating histological impact of nano ZnO particles (NZnO) on the testis and epididymis of adult male rabbits treated with intraperitoneal of 600mg/kg B.W. of nano ZnO particles twice a week for six weeks and illustrate the protective effect of vitamin E versus the effect ...  Read More

Poultry Diseases
ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF SOME VIRULENCE ASSOCIATED GENES IN AVIAN PATHOGENIC E. COLI

majid Hasan; SAMEER Mezher Abdulla; Amjed H. Ulaiwi

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  At least 13 virulence-associated genes are commonly seen in APEC colibacillosis isolates. A total of ten non-repetitive E. coli isolates from various Iraqi poultry epidemics are being studied as part of this research. Six virulence-associated genes (iroN, iucC, frz Operon, iucD, papC, and R4) were examined ...  Read More

Animal Hygiene
Molecular Detection of mecA gene in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dairy mastitis in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq

Omar Hashim Sheet

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is the main aetiologic cause of dairy mastitis universally. Additionally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogenic bacteria in both veterinary medicine and public health. Sixty-six cattleʼs milk samples were collected randomly from different ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Coprological detection of Toxocariosis in domicile and stray dogs or cats in Sulaimani province/ Iraq

Zana Rashid; Sadat Abdulla Aziz Sadat; Othman Ali; Nawroz Akram Kakarash; Hardi Fattah Marif

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are ascarid nematodes, belong to the Toxocaridae family and genus Toxocara, causing toxocariosis in dogs and cats. The disease is mainly transmitted between animals and humans through ingestion of contaminated food with the embryonated eggs of the parasite. In addition, ...  Read More

Veterinary Virology
Assessment of multiplex PCR for detection of FMDV, BVDV, BTV and possible co-infection with Pasteurella multocida in cattle

Gawhara G.E. Ahmed abdelmonem; Ali M.A. Amer; Elsayed A.M. Hussein; Zeinab Aboezz; Ahmed R. Habashi; Saad S.A. Sharawi

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay is a nucleic acid amplification method that is considered reliable and practical mean for several pathogen detection in a single reaction, especially when multiple pathogens are suspected. In this study, a novel mPCR assay was validated for detection of ...  Read More

Animal Histology
Histological and Histochemical Features of the Esophagus in Local Breed Dog (Canis familiaris)

Dhyaa Abdul hussen Abood; Mohammed S. Sulaiman Dawood; Aseel Yassen Hameza

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  A total of eight samples of esophagus of local breed dog were used to investigate the histochemical features of the esophagus. The specimens were processed according to the protocol of paraffin embedding technique and the tissue sections were stained by hematoxyline and eosin stain, massons trichrom ...  Read More

Animal Hygiene
Molecular Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat at Mosul city retails using PCR technique

Ibrahim mohamed Tahr; Muntaha Ghazi Hasan

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  Pseudomonas are recognized as a unique meat spoiling organisms , the proliferation of these spoilage organisms might influence the organoleptic qualities of meat and meat quality , therefore the current investigation is being carried out to detect pseudomonas associated with meat displayed in Mosul city ...  Read More

Animal Physiology
Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Activities of Crude Flavonoid extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. against Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Chicks

Suleiman Suleiman; Jian Salam Hassan

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  In the current study, crude flavonoid extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. (MC) was used to evaluate anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsion in chicks. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring brain tissue neurotransmitters (gamma aminobutyric acid ...  Read More

Animal Histology
The Histologic Effects of High Doses of Botulinum Toxin A on The Rabbit's Salivary Gland

Luma I. Khalel; Jawnaa Khalid Mammdoh; Abdullah Ahmed

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  The exact mechanism of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A)on submandibular salivary gland(SMG) regarding its function and histology remains unclear. The goal of this work is to clarify the histological effects of BTX-A (at high doses) in SMG in rabbits after one week. Thirty adult male rabbits were used in this ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Acute toxicity events of ivermectin in chicks model

Muna Hazim ALzubaidy; tamara khaled Al-najmawi

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  Ivermectin is a very safe drug however; there are many studies on its toxic effects in different types of animals due to sensitivity, misuse or accidental overdose. The aim of this study was to further characterize the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin in chicks and to identify possible therapeutic strategies ...  Read More

Veterinary Pathology
Effects of ProbChick® on immunological response after New Castle virus using LaSota stain vaccination in broiler

Ali Riyadh Mohammed; Saevan S. Saad Al-Mahmood

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  The vaccination process and immunological status of chickens during their life period have great importance in the poultry industry. We aimed in the current study to evaluate the effect of ProbChick® on the immunological status of broiler chickens after vaccination with Newcastle vaccination using the ...  Read More

Infectious and Epidemic Animal Diseases
Prevalence and Some Risk Factors with Therapeutic Trial of Sheep Dermatophytosis in Egypt

Elshaima Fawzi; Mohammed Abd-Elmegeed; Mamdouh El-Mekkawi; Abdelkarem Mansour Morsi; Eman Abd-Elfatah; Eman El-Diasty

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  Dermatophytosis is a fungal disease that affects superficial skin layers and hair of farm animals with worldwide distribution including Egypt with great public health concern and devasting economic losses in form of skin and hide damage and long course of treatment in spite of self-limiting nature of ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Neurobehavioral Toxicity of Copper Sulfate Accompanied by Oxidative Stress and Histopathological Alterations in Chicks' Brain

Yamama Z. Alabdaly; Shahad Alnuaimi

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  The aim is to investigate the sub-acute neurotoxic effects of copper sulfate in chicks on motor and neurobehavioral activity and its relation to oxidative stress and histopathological changes in chick brain tissue. Thirty chicks were employed in this experiment, randomly separated into 5 groups of 6 ...  Read More

Animal Histology
Morphometrical and Histochemical study of glandular stomach (Proventriculus) in local domestic male ducks (Anase Platyrhchos)

Ammar Ghanim Al-Haaik; Ghada Abdulrhman Sultan; Adnan Ali Alhasso

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  Present study intended to explore the morphometric and histochemical foundations of the wall of proventriculus in adult domestic male ducks. To achieve this study, six healthy adult ducks were purchased from local vendors at Mosul province. All of the birds were sedated and their stomachs were removed ...  Read More

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Effects of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac in chicks

Rafal Luqman Abdulah; Yaareb J. Mousa

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 July 2022

Abstract
  The aim was designed to determine the impact of oxidative stress (OS), induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on the ketorolac plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics in the chicks. A significant decrease was observed in the total antioxidant status (TAS) measured on day 7th, 10th, and 14th of chicks ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in goat in Babylon province, middle Iraq

Akeel Mohammad; Abdul Awad; Mansoor Jadaan Alkhaled

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 06 July 2022

Abstract
  The study aim is to investigate zoonotic potential and diversity of gene of Cryptosporidium species and subtype of C. hominis & C. parvum in goat in Babylon province. A one hounerd samples fac were obtain from four location in Babylon province. It was tested by modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, 50 positive ...  Read More

Veterinary Microbiology
Multi-drug resistant phenotypes of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from layer chickens

Wale Olopade; Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus; Asabe Halimat Momoh-Zekeri; Pwaveno Huladeino Bamaiyi

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 03 August 2022

Abstract
  Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is recognized as a growing and emerging public health problem worldwide. This research determines the occurrence of ESBL E. coli and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli on eggshells from selected layer chickens. The shells of 270 egg samples were swabbed ...  Read More

Fish Diseases
Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae amino acids as anti Aeromonas hydrophila enterotoxin in vivo

Dahliatul Qosimah; Dahliatul Qosimah; Sanarto Santosa; Maftuch Maftuch; Husnul Khotimah; Loeki Enggar Fitri; Aulanni’am Aulanni’am

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 03 August 2022

Abstract
  Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic freshwater. These bacteria cause gastroenteritis and septicemia in animals and humans. Hemolysin and aerolysin, are important in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila. Prepupae Black soldier fly (BSF) can be used as an antibacterial using its active substance against ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Microscopic and PCR-based detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in camel females from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq

Monyer A. Abdulameir Al-Fatlawi; Ghaidaa Abass; Zainab Hussein chaid

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 03 August 2022

Abstract
  This study was carried out to identify the etiological pathogens responsible of protozoal-like disease conditions occurred in camel females from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. For this reason, 125 camel females (one blood sample per animal) that showed signs of weakness and pale mucus membranes were considered ...  Read More

Veterinary Pathology
Curative and protective potentials of decoction of Moringa oleifera leaf on the streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes mellitus in albino Rats

Mohamed Abdalla; Nahla Ahmed Refat; Moustafa Abou El-Fattouh; Mohamed Mohamed Metwally; Tarek Khamis

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 03 August 2022

Abstract
  The present study was designed to investigate the protective and curative potentials of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves powder against streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in rats. Fifty adult Wistar male albino rats were randomized divided into five equal groups: The normal control ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Molecular Evaluation of E198A SNP in the iso-type 1 β – tubulin gene of Haemonchus contortus isolated from sheep in Al-Diwanyiah-Iraq

Akram Madlool Alzyadi; Mansoor Jadaan Alkhaled

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 03 August 2022

Abstract
  This study investigated the benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus parasitic nematodes from sheep from October 2021 to December 2022 in AL-Diwanyiah city/Iraq and samples were processed at the laboratory of Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine College of Al-Qadissyiah University through the ...  Read More

Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Molecular Evidence of Schmallenberg Virus Associated by Ovine Abortion with Fetal Anomalies in Nineveh Province, Iraq

Fahad Yaseen Taha

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 03 August 2022

Abstract
  In late of 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was observed in Germany using genomic analysis. The virus is transmitted through haematophagus insect vectors and vertically from females to their offspring across the placenta. In adult sheep, the virus causes a short viremia followed by lethargy, abortion, ...  Read More

Veterinary Obstetrics
Effect of lecirelin acetate, hCG or progesterone administration on day 7 post-insemination on conception rate and progesterone concentration in cross-bred cattle

M. S. Akhtar; S. Saleem; T. Ahmad; E. Ahmad; M. H. Lashari; M. M. Ayaz; L. A. Lodhi; I. Ahmad; I. Hussain; M. A khtar

Volume 32, Issue 2 , December 2018, , Pages 149-153

Abstract
  The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of administration of lecirelin acetate, hCG and progesterone after AI on ovarian picture, serum progesterone concentrations and first service conception rate in cross-bred cattle. A total of 160 lactating cross bred (Friesian x Sahiwal) cattle were ...  Read More

Veterinary Microbiology
Plasmid transformation and curing of nalidixic acid gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from buffaloes mastitis and workerʼs hands

D. A. Khaleel; R. M. Othman; B. Y. Khudaier

Volume 32, Issue 2 , December 2018, , Pages 167-174

Abstract
  The present study was designed to detect resistant site of nalidixic acid through transformation and plasmid curing of S. aureus strains isolated from buffalo milk with subclinical mastitis and workers’ hands. A total of 37 S. aureus isolates including 17 isolates recovered from buffalo milk infected ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Volume 32, Issue 2 , December 2018, , Pages 175-182

Abstract
  Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results ...  Read More

Fetal anomalies in prolonged gestation in Awassi ewe: A case report

U. T. Naoman; B. D. Al-Watar; E. H. Lazim; E. K. Hussein

Volume 32, Issue 2 , December 2018, , Pages 195-197

Abstract
  This report was described the observation of five types of congenital anomalies with a Hydramnios Syndrome in prolonged gestational (6 months) three years old awassi ewe bearing an abnormal fetus for first time, ultrasonography revealed signs of pregnancy with numerous small cotyledon, high amount of ...  Read More

Veterinary Parasitology
Detection the some developmental stages of Babesia spp in hemolymph and midgut of adult females of Boophilus microplus naturally on cattle in Mosul city

E.G. Suleiman; A.F. Altaee

Volume 31, Issue 2 , December 2017, , Pages 67-75

Abstract
  This study involved the detection of vermicules of Babesia spp in the hemolymph of Boophilus microplus adult females naturally fed on cattle after their remaining a live for 5 to 8 days under laboratory conditions and the detection of some developmental stages (schizonts, rupture of schizonts, small ...  Read More

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