About Journal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences (IJVS) is a scientific and open-access journal. Publishing under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY) license, this journal has been published quarterly by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq, since January 1988. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and ensure our submitted manuscripts' originality. A double-blind peer-reviewing system uses to assure the publication's quality. Since 1988 the journal has been published biannually; nowadays (starting from January 2021), due to the increasing numbers of...
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Relationship between the leptin, progesterone, body weight, and onset of puberty in ewe lambs

Mohammed Q. Al-Ali; Mohammed A. Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 833-837
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131232.1932

The current study aimed to determine the relationship between serum level of leptin, progesterone hormones, bodyweight with the onset of puberty in the ewe lambs. Eight healthy weaned local breeds of ewe lambs at the age of 90 days were introduced in the study. Body weights were recorded, blood samples serum was collected and stored at -20°C until hormonal assays. Ovaries and ovarian follicles were checked by ultrasound to measure follicular diameter until estrus was detected every two weeks. The result showed that the earliest estrus behavior was noticed at age 202. Significantly increased body weight was recorded during the trial times at P

Estimation of gestational age in Shami goats based on transabdominal ultrasonographic measurements of fetal parameters

Rozh S. Muhammad; Dhafer M. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 839-846
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131845.2011

Estimated gestational age is essential for breeding farm animals because pregnant females require special care and nutrition, which varies according to gestation. The study aimed to estimate the gestational age of Shami does by transabdominal ultrasonographic measurement of fetal parameters. Thirty-three Shami does aged 2-2.5 years with confirmed conception dates were used. The does were examined in a standing position using a transabdominal 3.5 MHz convex sector probe of real-time ultrasonography. The does were examined weekly starting on 21 days of pregnancy until parturition. Measurements of the fetal parameters that include; the crown-rump length, head diameter, chest diameter, trunk diameter were obtained from the ultrasonographic images using the software Screen Calipers. Results showed that the gestational sac and embryos were observed first on 21 and 35 days of pregnancy. The litter size of pregnant does range between two and three kids. Crown-rump length ranged between 24.68±1.32 - 71.71±1.84 mm on 41-60 days. The head diameter was 15.63±0.82 - 45.04±0.92 mm on 41-120 days. Chest diameter was 11.52±0.84 - 56.35±0.93 on 51-110 days, and trunk diameter was 10.69±0.85 - 57.38±0.85 mm on 41-130 days of gestation. The highest positive correlations were obtained between the gestational age chest diameter (r=0.935), crown-rump length (r=0.917), head diameter (r=0.917) and trunk diameter (r=903). In conclusion, transabdominal ultrasonography is a practical method for pregnancy diagnosis and embryo monitoring in Shami goats. Also, it is reliable to estimate gestation age starting on 41 days of pregnancy. The chest diameter was the best fetal parameter, but trunk diameter can be used for the longest period to estimate the gestational age of Shami goats.

Impact of parity, stage of lactation, and subclinical mastitis on the concentration of vitamin c in Shami camel milk

Razan Semsmia; Tarek Abed AL-Rahim; ِ Moatasem Bellah Al-Daker

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 847-851
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132279.2078

A study was conducted at Deir Al-Hajar Research Station for Shami Camels, Administration of Livestock Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) during 2019 and 2020 to find the relation between vitamin c concentrations in milk, and either stage of lactation, parity (lactation number) or the presence of mastitis. For this purpose, thirty lactating Shami camels from different parties were used.Milk samples were collected monthly over one entire lactation season lasting 11 months. The concentration of vitamin c was 35.01±9.81 mg/l milk during considered parities without significant differences in its concentration. However, vitamin c concentration was affected by lactation month P<0.0.5, and the values ranged between 18.99 and 53.03 mg/l milkduring lactation. An evident decline in vitamin c concentration in camel milk appeared with positive interactions for the California test. The average concentration of vitamin c in milk produced from healthy and infected udders was 35.01±9.81 mg/l and 22.99±1.30 mg/l, respectively. It has been concluded that vitamin c in milk is crucial indicator of udder health status

The moderating effect of Panax ginseng roots on the male reproductive system and heat shock protein 70 in heat-stressed Japanese quails

Suha A. Rasheed; Rana A. Asim; Heba M. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 853-859
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132356.2084

This research aims to investigate if ginseng may aid in the reduction of the harmful influence of heatstress on the male reproductive system and the level of heat shock protein70. Eighty mature quails were randomly distributed to four equal groups: the control one reared under normal temperature, the heat-stressed group reared under the temperature of 39±1°C for 4 hrs/day, the heat-stressed group treated with ginseng 500 mg/kg diet, and a group reared under normal temperature and treated with ginseng 500 mg/kg diet. The results showed a significant decrease in red blood cells, white blood cells, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total antioxidant capacity, body weight, testis weight, the total number of sperm, and percentage of living sperm, accompanied by a significant increase in MCV, MCHC, heterophil, H/L ratio, heat shock protein70, percentage of dead and malformed sperm in quails exposed to heat stress compared with control. Dietary supplementation of ginseng to birdsexposed to heat stress significantly increased the studiedparameters in comparison to the group under stress. While, the addition of the nutritional supplement ginseng alone led to a significant increase in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, TAC, low percentage of monocytes, H/L ratio, and heat shock protein70, compared to the control. We conclude that the administration of ginseng as a diet additive can ameliorate the effects caused by heat stress in quail, which is attributed to the antioxidant effect of Panax ginseng and its ability for scavenging free radicals.

The role of DMSO and MSM in treatment of tendinopathies affection in equine: A comparative study

Hamid Akbar; Fiaz Ahmad; Muhammad Abid Hayat; Muhammad Arif Khan; Muhammad Yasin Tipu; Muhammad Talha Sajjad; Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad; Fawad Khalil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 861-868
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132428.2088

Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury is a main cause of lameness in polo and racehorses inciting long-term lameness and recovery. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of topical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on bowed tendons in horses. Ten client-owned injured horses, aged between 5-15 years with an average age of 8.5 years and weighing approximately 400-500 kg, suffering from chronic tendinitis were selected and allocated into two groups: group A (DMSO) and group B (MSM). The group A animals (n=5) were treated with 60 mL of topical 90% DMSO aqueous solution, while Group B animals (n=5) received 60 mL of topical 90% MSM aqueous solution on the bowed tendon at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and day 42. Clinical examinations were performed to evaluate the severity of pain and lameness grade. Ultrasound scans of the superficial digital flexor tendon were taken at days 0, 21, and day 42. Images were placed in numerical form, and the fiber alignment score of the fibers (FS) and the echogenicity score (ES) of the superficial digital flexor tendon at the maximum injury zone (MIZ) were recorded. Results showed that pain reduction and lameness significantly (P<0.05) reduced from 21d to 42d in the DMSO animals compared with the MSM animals. The echogenicity score didn’t differ between the two groups at 0d, 21d, and 42d (P>0.05) however, it was significantly declined in group A at 42d than 0d (P<0.05). Fiber alignment in group A was (P<0.01) reduced at 42d compared with group B. This study concluded that group A horses showed very effective and long-term improvements compared to the group B horses.

The impact of various antioxidant supplementation on ram's sperm quality, fertilization, and early embryo development, in vitro

Saif O. Al-Hafedh; Fatin Cedden

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 869-876
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132426.2092

The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) is very stressful for gametes. Gametes are subjected during in vitro manipulation to many different types of stress; oxidative stress is the most prominent one, which will cause damage or alter the genetic material of the sperm and reduce the quality of the oocytes, and has a crucial impact on the possibility of developing embryos even after implantation. This study aimed to determine the influence of antioxidants on the achievement of In vitro culture (IVC) and sperm's ability to adhere to and penetrate further into In vitro maturated oocytes. For this purpose, we have incubated ram sperm using four different treatments in terms of antioxidants: melatonin, cysteamine, vitamin C, and vitamin E. They were incubated by the standard methods of maturation and capacitation of sperm. The oocytes were fertilized by spermatozoa that had been capacitated with two groups of fertilization media, the first group containing melatonin and the second group containing cysteamine. Compared with other groups, sperms treated with melatonin demonstrated hyperactivity, and the fertilization rate was significantly increased. As for the IVF medium containing melatonin, it was superior to cysteamine in embryo development rates. In conclusion, melatonin could be a promising tool for improving sperm competence for fertilizing oocytes and embryo development in sheep.

Effect of garlic oil nanoemulsion against multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from broiler

Amal S. El-Oksh; Dalia M. Elmasry; Ghada A. Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 877-888
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132430.2094

This work aimed to focus on the antibacterial properties of garlic nanoemulsion on some multidrug resistance (MDR) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaisolated from broiler farms and hatcheries in Sharkia and Ismailia governorates, Egypt. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 21.3% of collected samples. It was isolated from younger broilers 1-10 days with an incidence rate of 22% (11/50), older broilers 16% (8/50), dead embryo in shell 31.4% (11/35), and from hatcheries was 13.3% (2/15). There was a variable range of antibiotic resistance ranging from 66.7-100% against the isolated strains of P. aeruginosa. Tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim achieved the highest resistance rates, while penicillin and gentamycin were of a lower rate. However, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and colistin were the most sensitive antibiotics against examined MDR P. aeruginosa.16SrDNA gene was found in ten P. aeruginosa isolates. Theseisolates were found to be virulent as oprL gene was detected in all isolates 100%. In addition, tetA(A),blaTEM,arr, and mexRantibiotic resistance genes were shown positive 100% in all MDR P. aeruginosa isolates. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values showed that garlic nanoemulsion (GN) was effective against examined P. aeruginosa at different concentrations. GN had 29.61% sulfur compounds of active components with 0.52 ug/ml of IC50 and 40.94 nm size with polydispersity index: 0.165 using dynamic light scattering had a 19.6± 5.11mV. In conclusion, the application of garlic nanoemulsion is an excellent alternative candidate to antibiotics for treatment because it significantly reduced the gene expression levels of MDR P. aeruginosa in broiler farms.

Isolation and molecular detection of some virulence associated genes in avian pathogenic E. coli

Majid H. Hasan; Sameer M. Abdulla; Amjed H. Ulaiwi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 889-894
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132476.2095

There are 13 virulence-related genes in E. coli isolates. The10 genes of these isolates were selected from avian pathogenic E. coli in some Iraqi broiler farms. Six of these virulence-related genes (iroN, iucC, frz operon, iucD, papC, and R4) were investigated in these isolates by PCR. Eighty percent of the isolates had one or more virulence-associated genes. Two APEC separates carried just one gene, iroN or iucC. According to preliminary evidence, the iroN and iucC genes may express their pathogenicity independently. All of the strains had the same iroN gene, making them all pathogenic. The results of these isolates were confirmed by PCR to have the six pathogenic genes: 80% positive for iucC, 50% positive for iucD, 100% positive for iroN, 10% positive for frz operon, 10% positive for papC, and 0% positive for R4 respectively. These six virulence genes were detected with different percentages in isolates; the iroN gene was found in all isolates but the other virulence genes were found with different percentages in E. coli isolates.According to, detection the iroN and such genes are displaying their pathogenicity separately from each other.

Phylogenetic tree constructed of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from animals and humans in Basrah and Baghdad governorates, Iraq

Maitham S. Sadiq; Rasha M. Othman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 895-903
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132478.2096

The genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica sub sp. enterica isolated from human and animal origin has more interest as its data possibly will offer an essential confirmation for the source of human infection. This study aimed to determine the genetic relationship of S. enterica subspecies enterica isolated from human and animal sources. A total of 300 samples were collected from two primary sources, human and animal, from two different regions, Baghdad and Basrah governorates. For constructing the phylogenetic Tree of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, the sequencing of PCR product (positive samples) for each target genes 16s rRNA, avrA, and spvC were analyzed using BLAST analysis to determine the similarities and differences between the Iraqi strains and the existing global strains. The similarity rate in the first gene 97.77%, the second gene 98.29%, and the third 96.82%, respectively. The genetic Tree of each of the three genes was set up separately using two methods, Maximum Likelihood, and the second Minimum evolution. The phylogenetic analysis reveals that Iraqi strains of Salmonella are highly similar, and they share the same sequence of 16s rRNA gene with national Salmonella strains. However, their bases of avrA and spvC genes are not similar. This difference leads us to conclude that the Iraqi Salmonella evolution path was characterized by its path in developing global strains with some correlation in some samples; it may be linked with the same ancestors from which it emerged.

Molecular description of melatonin receptor 1A gene in Iraqi buffalo

Hassan N. Habib; Khalaf A. Al-Rishdy; Murthda F. AL-Hellou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 905-912
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132532.2103

The water buffalo has a seasonal reproductive pattern with reduced sexual activity during the longer photoperiod. The goal of this study was to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene in Iraqi buffalo cows and 3D structure of its protein and phylogeny with other sequences around the world. The 824 bp fragment of exon II of the MTNR1 A gene was amplified from 190 buffalo cows (4-5 years old) genomic DNA belonging to local breeders in Al-Chibayish Marshes, Southern Iraq. Amplified PCR products underwent custom sequencing at the two ends (5′ and 3′ ends). Five separate polymorphism sites, the 1st included 52 animals with 19 mutations (12 missense), the 2nd included 39 animals with 18 mutations (11 missense), the 3rd included 35 animals with 18 mutations (12 missense), the 4th included 32 animals with 18 mutations (12 missense) and the 5th included 32 animals with 14 mutations (8 missense). These polymorphic sites with accession numbers LC565046, LC565047, LC565709, LC565710 and LC565711 respectively were registered in gene bank. The phylogenetic tree reveals that in some of the Iraqi buffalo, the sequences of MTNR1A gene has identical to the Italian buffalo (GU817415), and the Brazilian buffalo (JN689386). Data revealed a marked difference in the fifth polymorphism sites' 3D protein structure because of the mutations. In conclusion, as a result of mutations, the gene MTNR1A in Iraqi buffalo has polymorphisms; these polymorphisms may be linked to gene function, Therefore, further studies are needed to connect the polymorphisms of this gene with the productive and reproductive traits.

Histomorphometrical and histochemical study of the pancreas on the local dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

Samyan L. Mostafa; Yahya Ahmed Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 913-922
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132567.2105

In the current study, ten adult healthy local dogs of both sexes were used to perform histomorphometrical study on their pancreases. The dog pancreas had an inverted V-shape consisting of left and right lobes joined by a body. The pancreas possesses both exocrine and endocrine parts. The exocrine portion was composed of numerous acini and fewer tubules as well as the duct system. The number, total diameter and cellular height of acini were significantly abundant, larger and taller in the right lobe compared those of the body and left lobe. Furthermore, the number and total diameter of large pancreatic islets were significantly abundant and larger in the left lobe despite with those of the body and right lobe. This result leads to consider the right lobe was a target region for enzymatic secretion, while the left lobe has a specific function for hormonal secretion. According to available literature, no such result and thus conclusion had been reported on dog pancreas previously. In all parts of the pancreas and with aldehyde fuchsin stain, only the large pancreatic islets contained α-, β-, δ-cells as well as non-staining cells. Only, the β-cells occurred as single cells between the pancreatic acini or even within the connective tissue septa. These single cells were more numerous in the left lobe, but they were infrequently located in the body and right lobe.

Clinical and molecular detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in the Iraqi camels

Mohammad H. Al-Hasnawy; Hamed A. Al-Jabory; Lina S. Waheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 923-930
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132573.2106

Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the most frequent zoonotic species of mites causing mange in camels worldwide. The prevalence of camel’s mange in Iraq is still little studied. Thus, this research is conducted to detect S. scabieiin camels in the four provinces of the Middle-Euphrates area: Al-Muthanna, Al-Diwaniyah, Najaf, and Babil, from January 2020 to December 2020. The Molecular technique depending on the conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) is performed for the direct detection of S. scabiei based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene from skin scrape lesion samples. The results reveal that 125 out of 425 samples (29.41%) of the examined camels are infested with S. scabiei. According to the sex of the infested animals, the infestation rate was higher in females than in males, 85 (30.91 %) and 40 (26.67%) respectively. In addition, the 1.5 year age shows the highest number of infestation (83 out of 85) with a percentage of 97.65%, but the percentages are 21 out of 60 (35%) and four out 68 (5.88%) in 2 and 7 years old animals, respectively. The results also record that infested animals found in Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah have the highest number of infestations, with of 36% and 35%, respectively. The findings also demonstrate that the highest infestation percentage is during the winter months (January and February), with of 92.31% and 80%, respectively. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis shows that the local isolates of the Iraqi camels are consistent with the isolates recorded in China.

Pregabalin potentiates the analgesic effect of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol in chicks: Isobolographic analysis

Qutaiba M. Mohammed; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 931-937
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132586.2108

The study aimed to reveal pregabalin’s median effective analgesic dose (ED50) and determine the type of analgesic interaction with tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks. The electrical stimulator device was used to detect pain before and after treatment, and through ascending and descending in doses and depending on the up and down method, the median effective analgesic doses were determined for all drugs used in the study, and then the interaction experiment was conducted at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of pregabalin with each of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol of their individual ED50 values, the results were subjected to the isobolographic analysis to determine the type of interaction. Results showed that ED50s for pregabalin, tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks were 156.5, 0.82, 5.65, and 10.74 mg/kg, respectively. Concomitant administration of drugs pregabalin: tramadol, pregabalin: diclofenac and pregabalin: paracetamol at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 36.2:0.18, 64.3:2.3 and 64.3:4.3 mg/kg respectively. Isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs interaction. The calculated interaction indexes were 0.45, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively. We conclude from the outcomes that the analgesic interaction was synergistic between pregabalin and tramadol significantly, while the analgesic interaction of pregabalin with both diclofenac and paracetamol was also synergistic, but to a lesser extent.

Molecular detection of mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dairy mastitis in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Omar H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 939-943
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132643.2115

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is universally the leading aetiologic cause of dairy mastitis. Additionally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogenic bacterium in veterinary medicine and public health. Sixty-six cattleʼs milk samples were collected randomly from different areas of the Nineveh Province from November 2018 to February 2020. In this study, the classical and molecular biology methods had used to identify the MRSA and detect the target genes. The results revealed that S. aureus was isolated and identified based on classical methods such as catalase, clumping factors, and coagulase test. In addition, the nuc gene was detected in all the positive S. aureus isolates 23 (34.8%), while the mecA gene was detected in 12 (52.2%) MRSA isolates by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The present work emerged that the results of classical methods and the PCR technique were similar. MRSA is regarded as a significant causative agent of various types of bovine mastitis in Iraq, and it can to resist all types of beta-lactams. MRSA isolated from different regions in Mosul city. PCR assay is a powerful method for detecting the different genes based on the target sequence of the specific gene.

Multi-drug resistant phenotypes of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli from layer chickens

Adewale Olopade; Asinamai A. Bitrus; Asabe H. Halimat Momoh-Zekeri; Pwaveno H. Bamaiyi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 945-951
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132655.2117

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and emerging public health problem worldwide. This research determines the occurrence of ESBL E. coli and antimicrobial resistance profiles of E. coli on eggshells from selected layer chickens. The shells of 270 egg samples were swabbed to detect the presence of E. coli. E. coli isolates were recovered from 73(23%) of the 270 samples collected. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using six panel antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, gentamicin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin) using the disk diffusion method. The isolates showed the highest resistance to Ampicillin 95.9%, closely followed by tetracycline 89%, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim 72%, gentamicin 41.1%, and imipenem 1.4%. Also, 78% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. A 56/73 (76.7%) out of seventy-three isolates were screened as presumptive ESBL-E. coli by culture on ESBL CHROM agar and 42/56 (75%) of the isolates yielded ESBL-producing E. coli based on the production of ESBL by double disc diffusion method. The questionnaire survey results showed that all farms used antimicrobial agents for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. Also, not all the farms had suitable biosecurity measures. The findings of this study indicated that eggshells are potential reservoirs for multi-drug resistant E. coliand ESBL-Producing E. coli.

Molecular identification of virulence genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from fish (Cyprinus carpio) in Mosul city

Asmaa J. Altaee; Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 953-958
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132660.2119

Depending on the nature of the fish's environment, they are susceptible to many pathogens, including bacterial causes, so the goals of the current study are isolation and molecular identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with its prevalence rate and detected virulence genes from fresh common carp fish. The swabs were taken from the gills, skin, intestine and muscles of 75 fish samples from variable localities from Mosul city during the period September to December in the year 2021. The prevalence percentage of bacteria was 26.66% which was confirmed by traditional microbiological tests which included (phenotype culture, microscopically features and API-test) and molecular identification. The isolates formed 42.5, 37.5, 15, 5% from gills, skin, intestine and muscles, respectively. The molecular results of forty isolates determine that Pseudomonas aeruginosa have rpoB 100%, and virulence genes oprL, toxA, and algD, which are express the outer membrane protein, exotoxin A and alginate respectively occur as 97.5% for the oprL gene and 100% of both toxA and algD genes.

Morphometric characterization of purebred Arabian horses for galop racing (Born and raised in Algeria)

Ahmed R. Benia; Sidi M. Selles; Naceur Benamor

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 959-966
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132670.2120

The average size at the withers of the subjects (n=95) was 152.15±05.07 cm, and the thoracic girth was 166.44±06.43 cm. Compared to the height at the withers, the rump size was slightly lower 151.61±04.79 cm, and the body length was almost identical 152.82±06.30 cm with an average weight of 395.83±40.51 kg that is considered minor. Our sample horses appear pretty thick relative to their size with an average circumference of the anterior and posterior guns of 18.30±01.70 cm and 19.68±0 1.79 cm respectively, and in extent arm lengths 30.90±02.66 cm and forearm 31.77±02.81 cm. The various calculated indices qualify our horses as compact horses, light, square and long. The reading of the dress color of our model presents the dominance of the Alazan at 51.57%, and the shape of the chamfer is mostly Camus at 56.84%, giving it a short head with a broad forehead and concave chamfer. Statistical analysis determined that males were more significant than females and adults compared to young.

Assessment of ova collection with or without centrifugation after ovarian slicing for In vitro fertilization of slaughterhouse specimens of Iraqi Awassi ewes

Faten F. Mustafa; Uday T. Naoman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 967-972
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132707.2122

This study aims to determine the most appropriate method for oocyte collection based on their quality and quantity by slicing with or without centrifugation and testify its ability for in vitro embryo production (IVP). The ovum was collected in the Artificial Insemination Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul city between 1/9/2020 to 1/11/2020. A total twenty females Genitalia slaughtered at local abattoir were collected. In vitro fertilization was done according to private lab protocols (Soran laboratory related to Soran Private Hospital for fertility disease and embryo transfer) in Irbil city/Iraq. Results of the study show no significant changes between the two methods in the extraction of Grade A oocytes. However, the slicing method, which was 33.60% of ova recovery than centrifugation ORC techniques 22.73%, ORCs method in presence Grade C oocyte higher than ORCs method which were 29.09 and 20.00%, respectively also results of in vitro fertilization show that slicing method produces embryo in high percentage 45.4% than ORCs method 25.0%. We can conclude that the best method for oocyte collection was the slicing method and this method results in the best embryo production during in vitro fertilization compared with the ORCs method.

Comparing efficacy of the platelet rich plasma and advanced platelet rich fibrin on tibial bone defect regeneration in dogs

Sarah A. El-shafey; Abd El-mageed F. El-Mezyen; Ahmed S. Behery; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 973-980
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132765.2129

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and advanced platelet rich fibrin(A-PRF) on regeneration of induced tibial bone defects in dogs. A 7mm circular and 10mm deep tibial defect was made at upper end of the right and left tibiae of 12 adult clinically-proven healthy male mongrel dogs. The animals were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, PRP group and A-PRF group. Regeneration of the tibial defect was evaluated by radiography, computed tomography (CT), and histopathological examination at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively (PO). At 6 weeks PO, the tibial defect, in the control group, was partially filled with fibrous tissue and appeared radiolucent under radiography. While in PRP group, the defect was shown to be partially filled with newly formed bone and appeared more radiopaque than it did with the control group. As for A-PRF tibial defect, it was completely closed with newly formed bone and appeared more radiopaque than the PRP group did. At 12 weeks PO, the tibial defect was partially filled with newly formed bone and looked more radiopaque in control group and completely closed with newly formed bone and seemed radiopaque in PRP group. Interestingly, the tibial defect of the A-PRF group was completely closed with newly formed bone and couldn’t have been differentiated from the neighboring normal bone tissue. In conclusion, using of PRP and A-PRF improved bone healing. However, using A-PRF is more likely to heal tibial defect in the early weeks of injury than PRP would.

Morphohistopathological alteration in the gills and central nervous system in Cyprinus carpio exposed to lethal concentration of copper sulfate

Adeeb F. Saied; Shahbaa K. Al-Taee; Nidhal T. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 981-989
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132781.2131

Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) is the most used in aquaculture as chemotherapeutic bath against bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases but it is very toxic for fish so the goal of this study was to determine the lethal concentration of CuSO4 and evaluate it is toxicity in the gill and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) in Cyprinus carpio. Fish exposed to 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L for 24 hours, each concentration with three replication each have six fish. The mortality rate was 100% at concentration 10 mg/L, which represented lethal concentration, while medium lethal concentration (LC50) was determined by Trevan method and it is 5mg/L. The fish with LC100 concentration exhibit abnormal respiration with gasping swimming, nervous sings with up down and stay at basin then die at 2-3 hours. The histopathological examination of the gills revealed circulatory disturbances, cellularity reaction, progressive and regressive alteration, this microscopic alteration was evaluated as semi-quantities analysis and there was variable significant (P≤0.05) in the pathological alteration and gill indexes between two treatments. In the brain and spinal cord, the lesions are represented by vasogenic edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells with atrophy in the neuronal body cells and hemorrhage. It is concluded from this study that the use of copper sulfate is within limited concentrations because increasing its concentration leads to fish toxicity, and it was observed that the gill tissue is more sensitive to toxicity than the central nervous system

Clinicopathological and imaging features of hypertrophic osteopathy in dogs

Shimaa A. Ezzeldein; Yasmin Bayoumi; Eslam F. Eisa; Mohamed Metwally; Noura E. Attia; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 991-997
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132804.2133

Hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) is a diffuse periosteal reactivity of long bones and of poor prognosis as most cases died after short time or euthanized at the time of diagnosis. Early diagnosis is greatly important. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the clinical and different imaging features of HO in 12 dogs and hematological and biochemical changes. Twenty-two dogs were included in this study; 10 apparently healthy dogs were used as controls, and 12 dogs were diagnosed with HO. Diagnosis of HO-affected cases was based on a range of clinical, laboratory, and histopathological examinations as well as different imaging techniques. Two forms of HO were diagnosed: pulmonary (n=5) and extrapulmonary (n=7) HO. In pulmonary HO, pneumonia was recorded in five dogs. However, in extrapulmonary HO, mammary gland tumors and skin tumors were recorded in five and two dogs, respectively. Symmetrical non-edematous soft tissue swelling at the lower parts of the limbs with intensive bone proliferation and periosteal reactivity in the tubular long bones was observed. Anemia and leukocytosis, mainly lymphocytosis 50% or neutrophilia 45%, and elevated serum globulin, alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein levels were the significant associated laboratory findings. The use of different diagnostic techniques was greatly important in the diagnosis of HO in dogs and provided information on the prognosis of such cases.

Copper chitosan nanocomposite as antiviral and immune-modulating effect in broiler experimentally infected with chicken anemia virus

Dalia M. Elmasry; Mai A. Fadel; Farida H. Mohamed; Asmaa M. Badawy; Hanaa H. Elsamadony

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 999-1009
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132826.2135

In the last few years, inorganic nanosystems, or nanometals, were of great interest to conventional therapy. In this study, Copper Chitosan Nanocomposite (CuCNP) was monitored for its antiviral, immune-stimulant, and lowering agent of Cu residue roles by using Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) as a model. CuCNP is a metallic oxide nanocomposite with specific properties, such as sphere shape, no aggregation, and narrow size distribution 24.71±1.68 nm PdI: 0.691±0.02. We grouped 100 broiler chicks into four groups. Group 1 served as a regular negative control group. In drinking water, G2 was treated with CuCNP 1 mg/ml for five days. The G3 was infected with 0.2 ml I/M of CAV strain (MN339532) at one day old with CuCNP 1 mg/ml in drinking water for five days. G4 virus-positive control group with viral 3.987×106 virus copies/ml. Different serum and organ tissue homogenate samples were collected at different time intervals to measure residues, CAV viral concentration in organs, and serum to monitor cellular and humoral immunity. The excellent results of CuCNP are improving the innate immune response phagocytic activity, lysozyme, and NO, also cytokine levels mRNA of IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 in G2 and G3 and elevating CAV antibody titers with decreases the CAV viral load in organs with a noticeable decrease of its residues in G2 and G3. The current study provides evidence of the immunostimulatory effect of CuCNP on CAV infection. It clarifies a constant reduction of CuCNP residues in broilers muscle and liver tissues, keeping its levels below Cu maximum residual limits (MRLs). 

Interaction of meloxicam and phenylbutazone on the level of cyclooxygenase-2 in mice

Yaareb J. Mousa; Khalil A. Khalil; Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1011-1016
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132859.2140

The reason for the recent study was to inspect the therapeutic efficacy of meloxicam and phenylbutazone alone with their analgesic interaction and their subsequent inhibitory interaction at the level of cyclooxygenase-2 in mice. Meloxicam and phenylbutazone had the analgesic-median effective doses (ED50s) of 15.57 and 119.73 mg/kg, i.p., respectively, given once to mice separately as determined by the up-and-down procedure using a hot plate method. The estimated analgesic ED50s for meloxicam and phenylbutazone combination were at 12.84 and 98.75 mg/kg, i.p., correspondingly when given together at a ratio of 1:1 of their ED50s. The isobolographic analysis reveals that the analgesic interaction between meloxicam and phenylbutazone was antagonistic, as indicated by the interaction index of 1.65. The ELISA technique was used to estimate the cyclooxygenase-2 activity, reflecting that meloxicam or phenylbutazone significantly inhibited the cyclooxygenase-2 activity by 72 and 90%, respectively, compared to the control group. The combination composed of meloxicam and phenylbutazone has a lower limit of inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-2 activity (33%) in comparison to meloxicam or phenylbutazone. Meloxicam and phenylbutazone coadministration were significantly different from the control, meloxicam, and phenylbutazone groups concerning the cyclooxygenase-2 activity in mice. The sum of the data concluded that meloxicam and phenylbutazone have an excellent analgesic efficacy when administered alone. In contrast, the mixture of these two drugs has no benefit because of the antagonistic interaction at cyclooxygenase-2 in mice.

Genetic variants of the bone morphogenetic protein gene and its association with estrogen and progesterone levels with litter size in Awassi ewes

Marwa A. Ali; Alaa H. Kadhim; Tahreer M. Al-Thuwaini

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1017-1022
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132903.2143

This research aimed to assess the genetic polymorphism of the BMP15 gene concerning sex hormone levels and birth type in Awassi ewes. The genome DNA of 138 Awassi ewes was isolated (52 ewes produced a singleton and 86 produced twins). The BMP15 gene exon-2 was amplifiable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), so two genotypes were identified based on 141 bp amplicons: TT and TA. A sequencing reaction revealed a novel mutation, c.50980646T>A, in the TA genotype. This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed a high association (P≤0.01) with sex hormone levels and litter size, sheep containing this SNP had higher levels of sex hormones and larger litter sizes than sheep without it. Ewes with the TA genotype had a 1.89 litter size than their TT counterparts. Logistic regression confirmed that the c.50980646T>A SNP increased litter size. In conclusion, the c.50980646T>A SNP appears to be significantly related to reproductive traits (especially sex hormone levels and litter size) in Awassi sheep. With these results, mutations of the BMP15 gene are suitable for developing marker-assisted selection programs to increase Awassi sheep litter size. 

The protective impacts of lipoic acid on diclofenac-induced hepatorenal toxicity in broiler chicks

Marwa R. Abdul-Ghani; Ahmed S. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1023-1027
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132915.2148

Alpha-lipoic acid is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound that shows free radical scavenging actions and potent antioxidant properties on the metabolites of other cellular oxidants. The investigation of the defensive activity of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) counter to diclofenac triggered liver and kidney damage in broiler chicks was the goal of this research. Chicks (7 days old) were distributed into four groups of six chicks each. The first group was the control received propylene glycol, the second group was injected intraperitoneally with Alpha-lipoic acid 80 mg/kg, the third group was injected intraperitoneally with diclofenac sodium at a dose of 2 mg/kg, and the fourth group was treated with ALA at 80 mg/kg and diclofenac at 2 mg/kg together. The trial continued for seven days. One day after the latest treatment, all the chicks were sacrificed by cutting jugular veins; blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Diclofenac causes a significant increase in ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea, while the coadministration of ALA with Diclofenac caused a significant decrease in ALT, AST, Creatinine, and Uric acid. Alpha-lipoic acid may benefit from counteracting diclofenac-induced hepatorenal toxicity due to antioxidant effects.

Multivariable binary logistic regression model to predict risk factors of peste des petits ruminants in goat and sheep

Abdelrahman A. Sobeih; Khiry M. El-Bayoumi; Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany; Ahmed A. Abuel-Atta; Sherif A. Moawed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1029-1034
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132934.2151

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) highly contagious illness that affects domestic and wild small ruminants, causing significant economic losses. The goal of this study was to use a multivariable logistic regression model to determine risk factors for PPR. A total of 113 healthy non-vaccinated goats and sheep (63 goats and 50 sheep) more than five months (1st group from 5-12 months,2nd group above 12 months), subject to a seroprevalence study by competitive ELISA which was used to detect antibodies against PPRV antibodies in serum sample during the period between April 2018 and March 2019. The incidence of PPR in autumn was significantly increased compared with the spring. Additionally, animals had a 4.08 more likelihood of being infected with PPR in the autumn compared with the spring season. There was a significant difference between male and female groups; The female group had 5.236 times increased odds of being infected with PPR than the male group. Moreover, the old age group had 2.771 times higher odds of being infected with PPR than the young age group. On the other hand, the test model found no evidence to support any significant differences between sheep and goat species. According to finding, PPR is common in females and mature small ruminants. Furthermore, throughout the spring season, the incidence of PPR was significantly reduced. Indeed, the current study may help plan an effective vaccination program against the PRP disease in Egypt.

Impact of sodium butyrate on stimulating of some host defense peptides and body performance in broiler vaccinated with different avian influenza (H9N2) vaccines

Mohanad B. Ghanim; Fanar A. Isihak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1035-1040
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132960.2153

Our study is designated to determine the impact of SB in the induction HDPs, including AvBD-10 and CATH-B1, accompanied by two different inactivated H9N2 vaccines and their effect on body performance. One hundred fifty, day-old chicks were separated into five groups (30 chicks for each, three replicates): groups A and C were vaccinated with classical avian influenza H9N2 and developed H9N2P inactivated vaccines, respectively, but groups B and D were treated with sodium butyrate (SB) by a dosage of 1gm/liter of drinking water daily till the end of the trail, and these groups (B and D) received the same type of vaccines as they given to group A and C respectively, while group E is a control group. The results illustrated that SB improved the AvBD-10 level significantly in the treated group (B and D) at 14 days in comparison with groups A and E, but without significant with group C. Whereas at 35 days, this improvement occurred distinctly in treated groups B and D. The same improvement revealed with CATH-B1 at 35 days of experiments. Moreover, the supplementation of SB improved FCR in groups B and D at 35 days of the experiment, respectively, but no influence on WG between all groups at the same age. Thus, we concluded that supplemented SB enhanced innate immunity by stimulating the induction of AvBD-10 and CATH-B1. Also, these supplementations improved FCR but did not influence WG.

Molecular analysis of Cryptosporidium species in domestic goat in central Iraq

Akeel M. Al-Musawi; Abdul Hussein H. Awad; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1041-1045
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132974.2155

Cryptosporidium spp. is a significant parasitic disease that results in diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans and animals worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular diversity of Cryptosporidium species in domestic goats. A total of a hundred feces samples were collected from four locations in Babylon city in central Iraq. All the samples were investigated phenotypically using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain method and genotypically using conventional and nested PCR methods based on a partial sequence of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes, and finally, phylogenetic analysis method. The molecular results showed five species of Cryptosporidium, including C. parvum, C. hominis, C. ryana, C. xiaoi, and C. bovis. The phylogenetic results of partial sequence of gp60 gene for C. parvum and C. hominis isolate two subtypes were established IIdA21G1 and IIdA19G1 belong to C. parvum. For C. hominis, three subtypes were detected: IbA21G2, IbA13G3, and IbA19G2. This study showed that Cryptosporidium parvum (zoonotic) is more prevalent than other Cryptosporidium species in goats from this area. This suggests that zoonotic transmission is the primary mode of transmission of Cryptosporidium infection in Babylon province.

Coprological detection of Toxocariosis in domicile and stray dogs and cats in Sulaimani province, Iraq

Zana M. Rashid; Sadat A. Aziz; Othman J. Ali; Nawroz K. Kakarash; Hardi F. Fattah Marif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1047-1051
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132976.2157

Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are ascarid nematodes, belong to the Toxocaridae family and genus Toxocara, causing toxocariosis in dogs and cats. The disease is mainly transmitted between animals and humans through ingestion of contaminated food with the embryonated eggs of the parasite. In addition, vertical transmission of the Toxocara larvae from pregnant bitches to their offspring through placenta and milk has been reported. Nowadays, stray dogs and cats, which are unvaccinated or not treated against the parasites, play a significant role in introducing the disease and seem to be a common public health concern. The study aimed to identify the rate of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati infection among the domiciliary and stray dogs and cats that presented to the veterinary clinics, using direct fecal smear and fecal floatation techniques. The results showed that stray cats were highly infected 47.62% in comparison to domiciled cats 5.56%. In contrast, the T. canis infection among domiciled and stray dogs was about 11.11% and 11.76%, respectively. Adult cats and dogs were found to have a higher infectious rate cat; 30%, dogs; 14.81% than younger age groups cats; 27.58%, dogs; 8%. There was a moderate and highly significant positive correlation between the lifestyle and infectious rate in cats. In conclusion, stray cats and dogs are the leading risk factor for transmitting the disease. 

Assessment of multiplex PCR for detection of FMDV, BVDV, BTV, and possible coinfection with Pasteurella multocida in cattle

Gawhara J. Abdelmonem; Ali M. Amer; Elsayed A. Hussein; Zeinab R. Aboezz; Ahmed R. Habashi; Saad S. Sharawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1053-1059
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132983.2158

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay is a nucleic acid amplification method that is considered reliable and practical means for several pathogen detections in a single reaction, especially when multiple pathogens are suspected. In this study, a novel mPCR assay was validated for the detection of four notifiable diseases in cattle, including foot and mouth disease (FMD), Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), Bluetongue (BT), and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS). The assay was operated in a two-step procedure. The first one was a reverse transcription of viral RNA, then mPCR of viral cDNA and bacterial DNA. The optimized mPCR was applied on blood (26) and vesicular epithelium (10) samples collected from 26 clinically infected animals from three governorates (Qalubia, Sharkia, and Gharbia). mPCR detected at least 10 pg of microbial nucleic acid extracted from the local isolates. The mPCR results showed that 22/26 (84.6%) of clinically infected animals were positively infected by single or dual infection. Mixed infection of FMDV and Pasteurella multocida was recorded in 11 animals (42.3%), while single FMDV infection was recorded in 5 animals (19.2 %). Single BVDV infection was detected in 5 animals (19. 2 %) and dual infection with FMDV in 1 animal (3.8%). Notably, BTV was not detected in any of the clinical samples. The assessed mPCR was a rapid, accurate, and sensitive test for diagnosing single and mixed infections in cattle and could be used to screen the notifiable diseases affecting cattle.

Protective effect of propolis on liver and kidney injury caused by methotrexate in chicks

Maab A. Fadel; Manahel A. Abdullah; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Imad A. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1067-1061
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133021.2162

The current study aimed to explain propolis's protective effect on the liver and kidney damage caused by methotrexate (MTX). A total of 80 chickens at one day old were used and divided into three groups; the first group was the control group, the second group received the propolis, the second group was treated with MTX, and the fourth group received both propolis and treated with MTX. After 15 days of experimental, all chickens were euthanized, and blood samples and liver and kidney tissue were collected. The result showed that the treated group with MTX showed an increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, AP, urea, creatinine, and uric acid in comparison with both the control and propolis group, while in the group treated with both Propolis and MTX showed serum level of AST, ALT, AP, urea, creatinine, and uric acid similar to that recorded in both in the control group and MTX group. The liver sections treated with methotrexate showed hyperplasia of fibrocytes in the portal area with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells represented by macrophages, and coagulative necrosis in affected hepatocytes, clear vacuoles in the hepatocytes, massive infiltration of macrophages. Sections of the liver treated with methotrexate and propolis explain a marked decrease in fatty degeneration, with few infiltrations of mononuclear inflammatory cells around portal areas. The liver section from the propolis-treated group and the control group showed typical hepatic tissue architecture. The kidney sections treated with methotrexate showed coagulative necrosis in the endothelial cells, glomeruli appearing irregular in shape, and hemorrhaging in the extracellular matrix. The sections of the kidney treated with methotrexate and propolis explain a marked rise in the renal tubules with the typical feature of a healthy one. The section of the kidney from the propolis treated group and control group showed typical architecture of renal tissue. In conclusion, propolis greatly protects against MTX's toxic effect on chicks' liver and kidneys.

The histological and histochemical features of the esophagus in local breed dogs (Canis familiaris)

Mohammed S. Dawood; Dhyaa A. Abood; Aseel Y. Hameza

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1069-1074
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133034.2164

A total of eight samples of the esophagus of local breed dogs are used to investigate the histochemical features of the esophagus. The specimens are processed according to paraffin embedding technique protocols and the tissue sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and masons trichrome combined with Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS. The esophagus folds the mucosa which is covered by keratinized to non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium which contains numerous excretory common ducts of esophageal glands. The epithelial thickness of cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts of the esophagus are 221.95±3.41µm, 212.46±5.38 µm, and 173.15±4.09 µm respectively. The lamina propria of the cervical part of the esophagus lacks the muscularis mucosa, while the muscular mucosa in the thoracic part of the smooth muscles appears as scattered interrupted bundles. The esophageal glands are a type of compound tubular mucoserous constructed of the predominated mucous alveoli and little serous acini. When combined with Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS stain, the esophageal glands show strong acidic mucopolysaccharides within the mucous alveoli and light blue color within serous acini that denote weak acidic zymogen granules. Tunica muscularis is striated muscle fibers in cervical and thoracic parts and smooth in the abdominal part of the esophagus. The measured thickness of tunica muscularis of cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts are 568.76±6.90 µm, 703.29±7.54µm, and 338.98±7.26 µm respectively.

The potential of Kebar grass extract on histopathological changes in kidneys of mice offspring from the parent exposed to carbofuran during the lactation period

Epy Muhammad Luqman; Ernestine Sisca Priyatna; Maslichah Mafruchati; Hani Plumeriastuti; Widjiati Widjiati; Viski Fitri Hendrawan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1075-1082
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133065.2170

This research aims to know the potential of kebar grass extract (Biophytum petersianum) in reducing the impact of kidney damage in mice offspring during the lactation period from parents exposed to carbofuran. Carbofuran, kebar grass extract, and vitamin C are exposed orally postnatal day 1st until the 14th postnatal day after delivery. Forty-two mice adults in the lactation period were randomly into seven groups. This group consisted of K (aquadest control), P1 (carbofuran ¼ LD50 0.0125 mg/day), P2 (carbofuran 1/8 LD50 0.00625 mg/day), P3 (kebar grass extract 3.375 mg + carbofuran ¼ LD50), P4 (kebar grass extract 3.375 mg + carbofuran 1/8LD50), P5 (vitamin C 0.2 cc + carbofuran ¼ LD50), and P6 (vitamin C 0.2 cc + carbofuran 1/8 LD50). On the 15th day of experimental, offspring were randomly selected and dissected, and the kidney was taken to make a histopathology sample. This study shows that carbofuran caused increased tubular degeneration, necrosis, and inflammation (p<0.05). Kebar grass extract could decrease tubular degeneration, necrosis, and inflammation (p<0.05). Kebar grass extract was more effective than vitamin C in reducing kidney damage in mice offspring during the lactation period from parents exposed to carbofuran(p<0.05).

Molecular Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat at Mosul city retails using PCR technique

Ibrahim M. Jawher; Muntaha G. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1083-1087
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133086.2173

Pseudomonas has been recognized as a unique meat spoiling organism. The proliferation of these spoilage organisms might influence the organoleptic meat quality. Therefore, the current investigation is being carried out to detect pseudomonas associated with meat displayed in Mosul city retails. A total of 150 meat samples of beef, mutton and chicken meat (50 of each) were collected. Molecular identification of pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat is performed by targeting the16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene. Fifty-three isolates of pseudomonas species were obtained from all types of meat (35.33%), including 23 (46 %) for beef meat,11 (22%) for mutton and 19 (38%) for chicken meat. Enumeration of pseudomonas species in beef and mutton were 1.47*104, 1.92*104 CFU/g, respectively, while counts were 21.3*104 CFU/g in chicken meat. Polymerase chain reaction results revealed the presence of 16SrRNA gene in all tested isolates 53/53 (100%). pseudomonas aeruginosawas isolated at (39.62%) from meat samples according to the detection of the rpoB gene.In conclusion, the prevalence of pseudomonas in meat at Mosul city retails negatively impacted meat quality and consumer confidence. Also, the PCR approach aids the rapid detection of pseudomonas as spoilage organisms in meat to reduce financial loss.Therefore, hygienic measurements should be applied to reduce meat spoilage and conserve consumer health during meat production and preservation.

Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities of crude flavonoid extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole in chicks

Suleiman D. Suleiman; Jian S. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1089-1095
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133120.2176

In the current study, crude flavonoid extract ofMatricaria chamomilla L. (MC) was used to evaluate anticonvulsant, and antioxidant activities on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsion in chicks. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring brain tissue neurotransmitters (gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA and glutamate), oxidative stress biomarkers in serum (catalase CAT, glutathione reductase GR, malondialdehyde MDA, and 8-isoprostane), serum electrolytes (potassium Ka+, sodium Na+, chloride Cl-, ionized calcium iCa2+, total calcium TCa2+), pH of serum, and glucose level in serum. Seventy-two broiler chicks (2 weeks old) were randomly divided into six groups (n=12): The first group (negative control) received the normal saline subcutaneous injection, the second group (positive control) received PTZ 90 mg/kg subcutaneous injection, and the third group treated with sodium valproate (SV) 200mg/kg orally. The fourth, fifth and sixth groups treated with 20, 40, 80 mg/kg of crude flavonoid extract of MC respectively orally for six days before PTZ injection. Thirty minutes post-treatment of the last dose, the chicks in the (third to sixth) groups received PTZ. The results showed that the crude flavonoid extract of MC attenuated the convulsion signs and mortality dose-dependently. The pretreated crude flavonoid extract at the dose of 80mg/kg showed a significant increase in the serum level of Na+ and iCa2+, and a decrease in 8-isoprostane. In conclusion: the crude flavonoid extract of MC 80mg/kg possesses mild to moderate anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects.

Immunohistochemical expression of proliferation markers in canine osteosarcoma

Waseem H. Al-Jameel; Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Firas M. Abed; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1097-1102
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133138.2177

Canine osteosarcoma is an extremely malignant bone tumor that often arises in the bones of the limbs. It is a highly metastatic disease distinguished by proliferative bone lesions and a tendency for pulmonary metastasis. Overexpression of proliferative proteins are associated with bad prognosis in human osteosarcoma. Here, we tested the expression of the different proliferative proteins (p53, p16, vimentin, and mdm2) in nine archival samples with canine osteosarcoma. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections were confirmed by histopathology and stained by immunohistochemistry for p53, p16, vimentin and mdm2. Positive expression of these proteins was evaluated as the ratio of positive cancer cells and the intensity staining was assessed in several areas. Histopathologically, 95% of samples were grade II and III. All high-grade osteosarcomas were particularly cellular. The cancer cells were generally large spindle-shaped and large nucleus with distribution of osteoid between the cancer cells. Immunohistochemical detection of p53, p16, vimentin and mdm2 was 89%, 56%, 78%, and 89% of samples respectively. The staining intensity for p53, p16, vimentin and mdm2 was particularly nuclear in 81%, 66%, 78%, and 79% of the cancer cells respectively. Our present work suggests that p53, p16, vimentin, and mdm2 were detected in grade III canine osteosarcomas samples. In addition, these proliferative markers are the significant biomarkers in canine osteosarcomas and can be used as a predictor for diagnostic and prognostic value and allowing cancer differentiation. This primary data supports that both canine and human osteosarcomas share same molecular characters which are approved by expression of proliferative genes.

Histomorphological and carbohydrate histochemical study of the pancreas in native ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos)

Saffanah K. Mahmood; Naziha S. Ahmed; Ghada A. Sultan; Mowaffak J. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1103-1110
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133156.2183

In the current study, the histomorphological and histochemical characteristics of the pancreas in native ducks are examined with a particular emphasis on the structure of pancreatic acini and Langerhans islets (LI). Five adult male native ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) are examined from the local market of Mosul. All samples are processed routinely for histological and histochemical analyses. Hematoxylin & Eosin, PAS-AB (pH 2.5), Toluidine blue, and Masson's Trichrome stains are used. The morphological examination reveals that male ducks’ pancreas is made up of three major lobes (dorsal, ventral, and third lobes). The pancreas is a small, semi-wide structure with a pale to white pinkish tone located between the duodenum branches. The findings show that the pancreas is enveloped in a thin layer of loose connective tissue capsule and mesothelial; septa extend from the capsule into parenchyma dividing it into many lobules. The study concludes that the pancreatic lobules are composed of a large area of exocrine acini and a small amount of LI, with an exocrine component consisting of round or oval acini with zymogen granules. The endocrine component is represented by three distinct LI types and lacks defined boundaries. Alpha islets are formed of alpha cells (ACs) and a few delta cells (DCs); beta islets are composed of peripherally located beta cells (BCs) and a few (DCs); and mixed islets are composed of alpha, beta, and delta cells. The present study sheds light on the morphological, histological, and histochemical characteristics of the indigenous duck pancreas. However, future research should focus on the pancreas of other bird species as well.

The histologic effects of high doses of botulinum toxin a on the rabbit's salivary gland

Luma I. Khalel; Jawnaa Khalid Mammdoh; Abdullah A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1111-1117
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133149.2184

The exact mechanism of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on submandibular salivary gland (SMG) regarding its function and histology remains unclear. The goal of this work is to clarify the histological effects of BTX-A (at high doses) in SMG in rabbits after one week. Thirty adult male rabbits were used in this study and they arranged as group 1 includes rabbits which received any treatment and kept for one week duration. Group 2 includes rabbits which received 8 units of BTX-A. Group 3 includes rabbits which received 16 units of BTX-A. Animals were euthanized with ether after one week. Specimens of SMG from all rabbits were taken to perform a routine histological preparation and examination. Sections of rabbits of group 2 and group 3 showed evidence of edema that is surrounding striated ducts, congested blood vessels, and even necrosis of both serous and mucous acini. Some sections exhibited features of degeneration of mucous acini. Hemorrhage was noticed in some sections. Injection of either 8 or 16 units of BTX-A induces several alterations in the submandibular glands’ histology.

Acute toxicity events of ivermectin in chicks’ model

Tamara K. Al-Najmawi; Muna H. Al-Zubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1119-1124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133188.2188

Ivermectin is a very safe drug; however, there are many studies on its toxic effects in different animals due to sensitivity, misuse, or accidental overdose. This study aimed to further characterize the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin in chicks and identify possible therapeutic strategies for use in cases of ivermectin toxicity. The LD₅₀ of ivermectin was determined by the Dixon method. The acute toxicity signs of ivermectin were induced at doses of 131.5,2629 and 394.5 mg/kg orally. The therapeutic effect of flumazenil on ivermectin poisoning was also studied. Administration of repeated doses of ivermectin for five consecutive days was recorded to measure the neurobehavioral within the open field and tonic immobility test. The oral LD₅₀ of ivermectin was 525.9mg/kg. The acute signs of poisoning on ivermectin-treated chicks were lethargy, ataxia, tremor, diarrhea, recumbency, and death. Flumazenil at a dose of 0.1mg/kg significantly reduced the toxicity signs induced by the ivermectin in chicks, especially tremor and ataxia, and prevented death. The administration of ivermectin at 26.3, 52.6, and 105.2 mg/kg doses led to a significant decrease in motor activity through a significant increase in the time of starting the movement and a decrease in the number of cross lines. We concluded that ivermectin has a neurotoxic effect in chicks when used in high doses; the results also indicate a potential clinical application of flumazenil for treatment side effects and toxicity of ivermectin, as well as ivermectin, has depressant effect in chicks represented by open-field activity.

Effect of exogenous oxytocin on the expression of oxytocin receptor gene and uterine involution in local Iraqi cows

Barra D. Al-Watar; Khawla A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1125-1132
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133212.2190

The present work aimed to study the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection on the expression of the oxytocin receptor gene and the duration of uterine involution in the local Iraqi breed of Karradi cows. Twenty cows were divided into two groups. The first group was considered a control; the second group was injected with 100 IU/IM of oxytocin twice weekly for four weeks postpartum. The uterine involution velocity was monitored using ultrasonography by measuring the endometrium thickness, ovarian diameter, cervix diameter, uterine horns diameter, serum progesterone, and estrogen levels by indirect ELISA, and the expression of oxytocin receptor gene was monitored by conventional PCR. The result of the treated group showed that the progesterone concentration was significantly decreased. The estrogen concentration was significantly increased. Moreover, the endometrium thickness was significantly decreased in the second, third, and fourth weeks, also, the ovarian diameter was significantly decreased in the first and second weeks, but it has significantly increased in the fourth week. In addition, the cervix diameter was significantly decreased in the first and second weeks, and the uterine horns diameter was significantly decreased in all weeks compared to the control group at POTXRs gene overexpression, where OTXRs gene expression was increased in the oxytocin group in comparison with the control group. This result was present in a coordinated manner with the result of the estrus cycle and ovarian reactivation. We conclude that injection of exogenous oxytocin at 100 IU/IM twice weekly for four weeks postpartum will increase the expression of the oxytocin receptor gene, leading to a decrease in the duration of uterine involution. Accelerate the occurrence of estrus in the local Iraqi breed of Karradi cows.

Food safety and sanitation practices survey in very small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States

Omar Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133219.2191

To determine the level of food safety and sanitation practices and make comparisons between very small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States, we conducted two web-based surveys by using a similar questionnaire and similar data collection methods. Among the 80 halal slaughterhouses included in this study, 56.25% (45 out of 80) participated, while 63.75% (51 out of 80) participated in the non-halal slaughterhouse survey. The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between halal and non-halal slaughterhouses in term of food safety and sanitation practices and food safety technologies and microbiological testing practices. All halal and non-halal slaughterhouses conducted generic E. coli (100%) for beef carcasses. The most common interventions used in halal slaughterhouses were a combination of treatments (cold water + hot water (180 °F) + organic acid) (31.1%). Whereas the most common interventions used in non-halal slaughterhouses were hot water (180 °F) only (33.5%). The findings of this study can be used to describe food safety and sanitation practices in the halal meat industries and find areas for the improvement.

Molecular identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from meat and meat products

Raad A. Al-Sanjary; Yousra Abdulrazaq Abdlla; Raad Abdulghany Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133244.2192

The aim of study is to diagnose diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from meat and their products by conventional polymerase chain reaction technique using uidA gene for confirmation the bacterial isolated as E. coli and used multiplex PCR technique to detect the virulence genes of these bacteria by using two groups of primers (stx1, stx2, aggR, esth, eae) and (invE, daaC, estp, elt, bfpA). In this study these primers applied on a total of 100 E.coli strain isolated from 782 samples of meat and meat products included fresh meat , minced meat ,burger , pastterma and chicken in the period of February to November 2020.
The results showed that all isolates of Escherichia coli were positive to gene uidA and showed bands with a molecular weight of 147 base pairs. also in this study, we detect 95 ( 12.15%) pathogenic species related to virulence genes by using multiplex PCR . The highest percentage of pathotype is ETEC , at a rate of 46.32% and the lowest percentage is due to the DAEC type at a rate of 1.05% , while the percentage of the other pathotypes were 20.05, 14.74, 6.32, 6.32 and 5.26% for each of STEC , EHEC , aEPEC , EAEC and EIEC respectively. The high contamination rate with DEC that was seen in this study is associated by poor hygiene conditions during the slaughter process, and poor food storage in the shops, which may pose societal health risks to people when consumption of these products .

Effects of ProbChick® on immunological response after New Castle virus using LaSota stain vaccination in broiler

Ali Riyadh Mohammed; Saevan S. Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133248.2193

The vaccination process and immunological status of chickens during their life period have great importance in the poultry industry. We aimed in the current study to evaluate the effect of ProbChick® on the immunological status of broiler chickens after vaccination with Newcastle vaccination using the LaSota strain. A total of 200 one-day-old chicks were divided randomly into five groups. The first group is considered a control group. The second group consumes ProbChick® with drinking water. The third group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine (LaSota strain). The fourth group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine the after 7 days the ProbChick® was consumed. The fifth group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine and consumed ProbChick® on the same day. The result showed that ProbChick® enhances the weight gain, food conversion ratio, and relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and spleen, in addition to that ProbChick® will enhance the antibody titer if it's added to drinking water on the same day of vaccination and give good antibody titer in compare to control groups and in comparison to a group where it is added to drinking water after 7 days of vaccination. We conclude that adding ProbChick® to the broiler at 1 g/litter of drinking water at the same of vaccination by Newcastle vaccine using the LaSota strain will enhance the immune response during vaccination and after vaccination, this will improve the efficiency and titer of antibody production.

Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae amino acids as anti Aeromonas hydrophila enterotoxin in vivo

Dahliatul Qosimah; Dahliatul Qosimah; Sanarto Santosa; Maftuch Maftuch; Husnul Khotimah; Loeki Enggar Fitri; Aulanni&rsquo;am Aulanni&rsquo;am

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133332.2205

Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic freshwater. These bacteria cause gastroenteritis and septicemia in animals and humans. Hemolysin and aerolysin, are important in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila. Prepupae Black soldier fly (BSF) can be used as an antibacterial using its active substance against hemolysin and aerolysin. This study aimed to determine how the interaction of prepupae BSF amino acids with A. hydrophila enterotoxin in silico and protein level in various substrates in vivo. The study consisted of BSF larva of T1 (fed fruit waste), T2 (fed fermented fruit waste), T3 ((fed tofu waste), T4 (fed fermented tofu waste), and T5 (fed fermented fruit waste and tofu waste). Data on the difference of protein level of prepupae among groups were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA test. The study showed that the highest protein content of BSF prepupae was found in treatment T3 dan T4. Protein docking analysis showed that L-arginine had the most hydrogen interaction (11 H-bonds) with aerolysin and 10 H-bonds against hemolysin, indicating an antibacterial role. The most favorable interacting residues of 17 amino acids against hemolysin were ARG73, ASP74, THR541, ALA523, and ASN483, while the residues of the active site against aerolysin were ASP92, ARG394, SER354, TYR348, ARG356, VAL396, PRO395, and ASP350. Amino could inhibit the hemolytic toxin of Aeromonas by interacting with binding site residues. The better the nutritional value of the substrate given to BSF larvae, the higher the protein content of BSF prepupae. Proteins from BSF prepupae can be antibacterial candidates against A. hydrophila.

Prevalence and Some Risk Factors with Therapeutic Trial of Sheep Dermatophytosis in Egypt

Elshaima Fawzi; Mohammed Abd-Elmegeed; Mamdouh El-Mekkawi; Abdelkarem Mansour Morsi; Eman Abd-Elfatah; Eman El-Diasty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133376.2214

Dermatophytosis is a fungal disease that affects superficial skin layers and hair of farm animals with worldwide distribution including Egypt with great public health concern and devasting economic losses in form of skin and hide damage and long course of treatment in spite of self-limiting nature of the disease in addition to loss of body weight. This study was undertaken to determine the most prevalent species of dermatophyte in sheep, identification of incriminated species both microscopic and culture methods with assessment of animal and environmental risk factors moreover, evaluated the effectiveness of three antifungal compounds (Ticonazole cream and clotrimazole spray and fluconazole capsule), on twenty-four naturally infected sheep were employed. Out of one hundred and three examined sheep with clinically suggestive lesion from Sharkia and Dakahalia Governorates during 2018 to 2019, 47.6% was proved to be positive of dermatophyte infection either by clinical signs, microscopic or culture or both with great infection rate was registerated in male, young age ˂ 6 months and in winter season. Three antifungal medications were used for 1st time in treatment of ovine dermatophytosis and were successes to subside of skin lesion with hair growth and return to normal clinical picture with 100% curative rate with preferable and easily applicable of topical ones especially ticonazole cream was highly curative in short time with easily applicable and good alternative to usual antifungal medication in sheep. Consequently, minimize the role of animal source in spread of infection and may allow adaption of efficient control measures.

Molecular and Serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii in three species of wild birds of Babylon Province, middle Iraq

Ameer Ibrahim Alanad; Basim Hashim Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133394.2219

Birds are intermediate hosts that play a significant role in Toxoplasma gondii epidemiology and infection transfer to humans by eating their raw or undercooked meat.The aim of this study was to diagnosis the Toxoplasma gondii infection in three species of wild birds (Columba livia, Streptopelia senegalensis and Passer domesticus) in the province of Babylon from May 2021 to August 2021, using a latex agglutination test and molecular diagnosis with Nested-P.C.R for SAG1 gene identification. Results showed that antibodies were detected in 56/144 (38.88%) samples. Furthermore, results of the Nested PCR technique for detection of SAG1 gene revealed that 41 (73.21%) of the samples positive for the latex test were only found in three species of birds. These three species of birds were found infected with T.gondii with possible transmission to human beings. For the first time, it was recorded that the species, S. senegalensis, was infected with the T. gondii in Iraq.


Buthaina Al-Sabawi; Hanan Sadoon; Mohammed saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133402.2222

This study aimed detection the liver histopathological changes of hydatid cysts sheep infestation. Seventeen infested liver's sheep with hydatid cysts were gathered from the local butchers. The specimens sectioned, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and some special stains such as Gomori's aldehyde fuschin, Van Gieson, Toluidine blue, Alcian blue, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Mansso's trichrome. The results of hematoxylin and eosin stain of infected groups revealed presents of the laminated membrane of hydatid cyst in a different area of hepatic tissue surrounding by infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increase fibrous tissue and between severe necrotic hepatic tissue. The special stains firstly as in Gomori's aldehyde fuschin stain revealed the protoscolex in green colour and elastic fibres of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst with its laminated membrane in purple colour. Van Gieson stain showed dark brown-purple colour of the elastic fibres reduplication of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst, while Toluidine blue stain sections revealed the dark blue stain of acidic components of hydatid cyst laminated membrane and necrotic hepatocytes. Alcian blue stain revealed the blue colour reactivity of the proteoglycans of the connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst. PAS reaction stain revealed the magenta colour reaction of the intact hepatocytes in the control group comparing with depletion pf magenta colour in necrotic hepatocytes surrounding hydatid cyst. Masson's trichrome stain revealed increased collagen fibres of the connective tissue. The findings revealed that infection with hydatid cysts causes a variety of histopathological alterations that appeared through several tissue stains

Neurobehavioral Toxicity of Copper Sulfate Accompanied by Oxidative Stress and Histopathological Alterations in Chicks' Brain

Yamama Z. Alabdaly; Shahad Alnuaimi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133416.2224

The aim is to investigate the sub-acute neurotoxic effects of copper sulfate in chicks on motor and neurobehavioral activity and its relation to oxidative stress and histopathological changes in chick brain tissue. Thirty chicks were employed in this experiment, randomly separated into 5 groups of 6 chicks. They were given the following concentration 2.5 %, 5 %, 10 %, and 15 % of LD50. Each of the chicks is put through the following behavioral tests response to tonic immobility test, righting reflex, testing the motor activity of the chicks inside the open field box. Orally LD50 was 772 mg/kg, Recording an inhibition in the animal's movement in the open field, and an increase in the chicks' dormancy duration. The effects are in direct proportion to the increase in the chicks' dose. Copper sulfate in 2.5%, 5%, 10, and 15% of the LD50 showed a significant increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde while 15% of LD50 recorded a significant decrease in glutathione and cholinesterase activity. All doses had a substantial decrease in total antioxidant capacity in brain and liver tissue. Chick brain of copper sulfate 15% of LD50 shows in the cortex of cerebrum severe gliosis, satellitosis, perivascular and periaxonal edema, necrosis (karyorrhexis) of neuron, and apoptosis. The rest of the concentrations had histopathological alterations that were proportionate to the rise in the given dose. We concluded from this work that high concentrations of copper sulfate in the brain generated oxidative stress and histopathological alterations,

Microscopic and PCR-based detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in camel females from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq

Monyer A. Abdulameir Al-Fatlawi; Ghaidaa Abass; Zainab Hussein chaid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133428.2226

This study was carried out to identify the etiological pathogens responsible of protozoal-like disease conditions occurred in camel females from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. For this reason, 125 camel females (one blood sample per animal) that showed signs of weakness and pale mucus membranes were considered for the study. The samples of blood were explored microscopically and via the use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that the targeted glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSII) gene for identifying Babesia bovis and 18S rRNA gene for detecting B. bigemina. The results of the microscopic technique uncovered the occurrence of babesia spp. in 76 (60.8%) of the examined samples, which encourage the use of the PCR to identify the protozoal species. The PCR findings demonstrated that B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 8 (8.9%) and 11 (12.22%), respectively, of the positive microscopic samples. The study findings reveal that weakness and paleness of mucus membranes in camel females can be attributed to the presence of infections by blood protozoa, mainly Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina.

Morphometrical and Histochemical study of glandular stomach (Proventriculus) in local domestic male ducks (Anase Platyrhchos)

Ammar Ghanim Al-Haaik; Ghada Abdulrhman Sultan; Adnan Ali Alhasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133451.2233

Present study intended to explore the morphometric and histochemical foundations of the wall of proventriculus in adult domestic male ducks. To achieve this study, six healthy adult ducks were purchased from local vendors at Mosul province. All of the birds were sedated and their stomachs were removed after they were dissected to achieve the gross description and measurements of proventriculus which include the length and diameter of (cranial, middle and caudal ) regions of the proventriculus. Small tissue pieces 6-8 mm length from three regions of proventriculus were processed for histomorphological studies by using Hematoxyline and Eosin stain,, combined (PAS-ABph2.5 ) stain, Toluidine blue and Masson's Trichrome stains. The finding showed that the proventriculus connects with esophagus from cranial side and with muscular stomach from caudal side, it was thin elongated oval tubular organ.
Histologically, the mucosa of proventriculus revealed presence of folds and sulci like structures which covered by simple columnar epithelium, tunica submucosa consist of many and large of simple and profound sub-mucosal glands that were supported by connective tissue septa and extended from the base of the branched tubular gland through the lamina propria, which was organized in a conical manner ( adenomere ). Tunica Muscularis appeared as double layer coordinated in form of inner longitudinal one and outer circular one. Finally the serosa consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, adipose tissue and nerve plexuses covered by mesothelium.

Curative and protective potentials of decoction of Moringa oleifera leaf on the streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes mellitus in albino Rats

Nahla Ahmed Refat; Moustafa Abou El-Fattouh; Mohamed Mohamed Metwally; Tarek Khamis; Mohamed Abdalla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133509.2242

The present study was designed to investigate the protective and curative potentials of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves powder against streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in rats. Fifty adult Wistar male albino rats were randomized divided into five equal groups: The normal control group, the Moringa group, The diabetic group, the therapeutic group, the diabetic rats (3 days after STZ injection) were received MO for successive 8 weeks and the prophylactic group, the rats were received MO for 2 weeks before STZ induced diabetic rats and lasted for 8 weeks. The protective or treated oral administration of 1 ml freshly prepared aqueous leaf decoction of MO revealed a significant upregulation on the mRNA expression of PDX-1, Ngn3, VEGF, IGF-1 and GLUT-2. Additionally, it induced a significant downregulation of FBG level in comparison with that of the diabetic group as well as a significant reduction in the level of MDA and a significant elevation in the TAC level. Furthermore, the histopathological observations of pancreas, liver and kidneys tissues affirmed the improvement in treated and prophylactic groups in comparison with STZ-diabetic groups and the improvement in prophylactic group was most distinct than treated group.MO aqueous leaf extract can treat and protect against STZ-induced T1DM, via its antioxidant action (increase the TAC and decrease MDA). Thus, it has the potential for utilization as a prophylactic against diabetes.

Effects of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac in chicks

Rafal Luqman Abdulah; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133592.2260

The aim was designed to determine the impact of oxidative stress (OS), induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on the ketorolac plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics in the chicks. A significant decrease was observed in the total antioxidant status (TAS) measured on day 7th, 10th, and 14th of chicks age by 39, 29, and 41%, respectively in comparison to the control (H2O) group. By measuring the analgesic median effective dose (ED50), Ketorolac’s analgesia has been amplified 16% in the stressed (H2O2) group. Ketorolac concentration in plasma was investigated at multiple measured times of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after the administration (14 mg/kg, IM) to 110.38, 181.46, 66.24, 13.08, 10.11, and 4.12 µg/ml at the H2O group and significantly elevated in all times measured except 0.25 and 24 h after ketorolac administration by 24, 38, 54, 199, 93, and 59 % to be 136.45, 250.88, 102.03, 39.13, 19.55, and 6.55 µg/ml in the H2O2 group, respectively. The values of AUC0-∞, AUMC0-∞, Cmax, and Kel in the stressed chickens that were administered ketorolac were elevated by 59, 19, 38, and 43%, respectively, whereas other parameters like MRT, t1/2β, Vss, and Cl were reduced by 25, 30, 56, and 37% respectively compared to H2O group. The results showed the H2O2-induced OS amplified the analgesic action of ketorolac in a chick model; besides its modification of the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac.

Molecular Evaluation of E198A SNP in the iso-type 1 β – tubulin gene of Haemonchus contortus isolated from sheep in Al-Diwanyiah-Iraq

Akram Madlool Alzyadi; Mansoor Jadaan Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133596.2261

This study investigated the benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus parasitic nematodes from sheep from October 2021 to December 2022 in AL-Diwanyiah city/Iraq and samples were processed at the laboratory of Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine College of Al-Qadissyiah University through the detection of E198A mutation and SNP polymorphism of the β-tubulin gene at this codon position. A total of 90 adult H. contortus samples collected from abomasum of sheep (n = 400) and then tested by qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Of these, three different genotypes have been found for E198A SNP: heterozygous (RS), homozygous (SS), and homozygous resistant genotype (RR). The frequencies for these genotypes were 31.11% heterozygous, 57.77% homozygous, and 11.11% homozygous resistant. The current study indicated for the first time the spread of benzimidazole resistance for H. contortus of sheep in Iraq / AL-Diwnayiah by utilizing qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. It is speculated that the BZ-resistance is due to excessive and irregular H. contortus drug abuse and inter-species transfer between ruminants at the commonly grazing pastures and from imported sheep as well.

Amelioration activity of vitamin E in rabbits with brain histological alteration induced by zinc-oxide nanoparticles

Atheer Nabeel Taha; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133599.2265

The Zinc-oxide in the form of nanoparticles suggested to be one of the crucial nanoparticles due to its expanse implementation in many industries, like electrons, food supplements, and maquillage and makeup this led to more exposure of the individual to ZnO NPs through inspiration, and skin penetration. This study object or designed to estimate the toxic impact of ZnO NPs on cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in male rabbits by studying the gross and histological changes by using the light microscope. 24 adult male rabbits divided randomly to 4 groups, each of them comprising six animals. Control group left without treatment; second group treated with 100 mg / kg B.W. of vitamin E orally, third group treated intraperitonially with ZnO NPs 600mg/kg B.W., Fourth group treated with I/P 600mg/kg B.W. of ZnO NPs in addition to 100mg/kg B.W orally of vit. E twice weekly for twenty-one days. The histological results showed degenerative, necrotic with vascular and inflammatory response in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum in 2nd group of rabbits treated with ZnO NPs while the treated rabbits with ZnO NPs and vitamin E revealed slight improvement in histological picture of brain layers. Also, there was alteration in the level of acetylcholine in all groups in comparing with control group.

The impact of Nano Zinc oxide particles on the histology of male reproductive system of adult male rabbits

Atheer Nabeel Taha; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133632.2270

The goal of our research is evaluating histological impact of nano ZnO particles (NZnO) on the testis and epididymis of adult male rabbits treated with intraperitoneal of 600mg/kg B.W. of nano ZnO particles twice a week for six weeks and illustrate the protective effect of vitamin E versus the effect of nano zinc oxide particles. Twenty-four adult male rabbits have been used in this research divided to four groups, control group injected intraperitoneal distal water, second group injected with 600mg/kg B.W of nano Zno particles intraperitoneal twice a week for three weeks, third group injected 600 mg / kg B.W. of nano Zno particles intraperitoneal and co-administrated with 100 mg / kg B.W. of vitamin E orally, while fourth group received 100mg/kg B.W of vitamin E orally. The histological results showed that the nano ZnO particles treatment cause obvious changes in testis and epididymis characterized by thickening of tunica albuginea of testis, degenerative and necrotic changes of germ cells lining the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis, giant cell formation also observed, degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells lining epididymis canals, the canals are free from sperms is observed. As for the group of animals treated with nano ZnO particles co-administrated with vitamin E showed improvement in the histological changes compared with control group and group treated with vitamin E only which showed normal architectural of testis and epididymis, moreover there is decreased in the level concentration of testosterone of the animals treated with nano ZnO particles compared with other groups.

Molecular Evidence of Schmallenberg Virus Associated by Ovine Abortion with Fetal Anomalies in Nineveh Province, Iraq

Fahad Yaseen Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133665.2276

In late of 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was observed in Germany using genomic analysis. The virus is transmitted through haematophagus insect vectors and vertically from females to their offspring across the placenta. In adult sheep, the virus causes a short viremia followed by lethargy, abortion, and dystocia when giving birth to malformed lambs. RT-PCR for virus detection and commercial ELISAs for antibody detection were rapidly developed. There have been no previous studies to detect SBV in sheep in Nineveh province. Thus, this study was therefore intended to investigate the presence of SBV in ovine aborted fetuses and to describe the macroscopic lesions that associated with it. Fifteen aborted lambs, aged between 70 to 135 days, between October 2021 and January 2022 were collected. Brain stem, spinal cord, spleen, liver, lung, and abdominal fluid were collected and stored at -20ᵒC for molecular analysis. Viral RNA was extracted from these collected samples and reverse transcription was performed in one step. RT-PCR was applied to amplify the SBV gene (S segment). Three of fifteen lambs showed marked malformations in vertebral column, arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, cerebral and cerebellar hypoplasia and porencephaly. SBV was detected in malformed aborted lambs by RT-PCR with 474bp product size. These findings indicate that SBV causing abortion with malformations. Further studies on this topic should be conducted and include isolation and characterization of virus and SBV epidemiology.

Detection of extended spectrum beta lactam producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cyprinus carpio in Mosul city

Ebtehal N. Mahmmoud; Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135604.2497

Extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli constitute an emerging health problem globally, fish act as a potential reservoir for ESBLs E. coli and serve as a vehicle of transmission of ESBL resist genes to others strains of bacteria. A total of 75 samples of Cyprinus carpio were collected from the local fish market of Mosul city during the period between) October 2021 to February 2022(. each sample was placed separately in a sterile plastic bag and transported directly under cooling conditions to the microbiology lab, College of Veterinary Medicine. ESBLs producing Escherichia coli were isolated and characterized using MacConkey agar medium supplemented with 2 mcg/ml cefotaxime. Twenty-six isolates 34% of fish gut samples were obtained. A polymerase chain reaction was carried out to confirm the results of the isolation using special primers for E. coli (ECO223-f, ECO223-r). Resistance genes assay were performed using the primers Cefotaxamase (CTX-M) and sulphydryl variable (SHV). All isolates showed that possessed the CTX-M gene 100%, while none of the isolates possessed the SHV gene. This study showed that fish play a major role in the transmission of broad-spectrum beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli to humans as a result of handling or marketing it, or by consuming contaminated or infected fish.

Pathological and bacteriological study of bovine renal lesions slaughtered in Mosul region

O.A. Abdullah; H.Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 51-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145565

This study was carried out on 100 Kidney Samples collected from clinically healthy cattle slaughtered at Mosul abattoir to investigate the renal lesions and to isolate the bacterial causes of these lesions. The bacterial isolation included E. Coli 32%, Corynebacterium spp 27%, Proteus spp 16%, Staphylococus spp 12%, Streptococsus spp 7% while 6% of samples showing no bacterial isolation. The most common gross lesions were seen included multifocal white spots, swallen pale kidneys, congested enlarged kidneys, hyperemic hemorrhagic kidneys. The common observation in histopathological examination reveled to multifocal infiltration of inflammatory cells (Monocytes, Macrophages and Lymphocytes), degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells lining renal tubules with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues with atrophy of glomerular tufft. Additionally cysts were observed in kidney tissues.

Prevalence of Anaplasma ovis infection in Angora goats of Duhok province, Kurdistan region-Iraq

I.A. Naqid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145599

Acute Anaplasma ovis infections can cause severe clinical symptoms and might lead to significant economic losses in small ruminant flocks. However, little information has been provided related the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Angora goats. The study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma ovis serologically (cELISA) and microscopically (Giemsa stained blood smears) among Angora goats from Duhok districts of the northern part of Iraq. A total of 92 blood samples were randomly collected from three localities of Duhok city; Zakho, Batel and Sumil during the study period from April to October 2009. The infection rate of A. ovis was 38.04% by Giemsa stained blood smear and 66.3% by cELISA. The prevalence of A. ovis in female goats was higher than that in males, but statistically not significant difference (P>0.05) by using both methods. The prevalence was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in goats more than three years old than in younger ones. The highest prevalence of A. ovis was found in Zakho, whereas the lowest was reported in Sumail. Results of hematological parameters indicated microcytic hypochromic type of anemia.It is concluded that A. ovis can infected Angora goats in district Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq and this might be due to high distribution of the disease and its transmitters which were lead to substantial effect followed by high mortalities

Detection the some developmental stages of Babesia spp in hemolymph and midgut of adult females of Boophilus microplus naturally on cattle in Mosul city

E.G. Suleiman; A.F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-75
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145600

This study involved the detection of vermicules of Babesia spp in the hemolymph of Boophilus microplus adult females naturally fed on cattle after their remaining a live for 5 to 8 days under laboratory conditions and the detection of some developmental stages (schizonts, rupture of schizonts, small dark collar bodies and migration of vermicules from the hemolymph to different tissues of tick). Both vermicules of B. bovis and B. bigemina were diagnosed. The vermivules of B. bovis appeared as croissant or club-shaped bodies with a broad anterior ending and pointed posterior one and having a central nucleus and a vacuole in the anterior end with a curved or semi curved tail. The vermicules of B. bigemina had a croissant or club –shaped bodies with a lesser width in their anterior end than in B. bovis with no vacuole and with a straight tail. The average length of B. bovis was 13.92 ±1.34 µ with a range of 11.8-15.8µ and average width of 3.23±0.44 µ with a range of 2.7-4µ. The average length of B. bigemina was 11.39±1.12µ with a range of 9.5-13µ and average width of 2.2±0.51µ with a range of 1.5-3µ. The results of current study revealed that their was a direct and proportional relationship between the parasitemia of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle blood smears and the number of vermicules in the hemolymph of female of Boophilus microplus. No significant differences were noticed between (number and percentage of Boophilus microplus females) infected with vermicules of Babesia spp at different aged cattle.

Effect of endurance exercise on sweat constituents of athletic Iraqi Arabian horses

B.J. Mohamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 95-100
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145604

It is well known that Iraq has dry hot weather, especially during summer, so horses sports competitions are stopped. The aims of our research were to study the effect of endurance exercise on sweat constituents of Iraqi Arabian horses. The results show that, after trot, the body temperature was 37.600±0.058, the heart rate was 45.875±0.819, and the respiration rate was 35.750±0.708. After canter, the body temperature was 38.512±0.058, the heart rate was 76.000±0.819 and the respiration rate was 49.250±0.708. After gallop, the body temperature was 39.512±0.058, the heart rate was 99.875±0.819, and the respiration rate was 60.875±0.708. All mean values were significantly different at P≤0.01. The mean of body weight was 460.5 kg. The total body surface mean was 396.1Cm2. The mean values of albumin, globulin, Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca++, Mg++, Fe++, Cu++, and Zn+, in trot were 3.512±0.089, 3.875±0.725, 3.637±0.072, 2.062±0.086, 5.962±0.141, 0.167±0.006, 0.987±0.007, 4.875±0.700, 0.712±0.515, 11.750±0.422 and 0.180±0.002, respectively, while the results in canter were 3.925±0.086, 4.750±0.111, 4.787±0.104, 3.637±0.285, 6.637±0.090, 1.487±0.953, 0.161±0.008, 5.537±0.105, 0.987±0.666, 12.262±0.106 and 0.236±0.007, respectively. In gallop were 5.612±0.107, 6.012±0.158, 6.675±0.144, 5.062±0.138, 7.550±0.090, 2.750±0.122, 0.256±0.009, 6.400±0.070, 1.600±0.845, 12.650±0.073 and 0.276±0.004, respectively. Our results indicate clearly a high loss of essential proteins and minerals during sweating which must be compensated by food additives specially during summer, to prevent many healthy problems so we believe that ratios of these proteins and minerals must be calculated according to many factors like, weather climate, the type of the horse jobs (jump, polo, races, show,…..etc.) and the body weights and ages.

Femur fractures and treatment options in 20 dogs admitted to our clinic from January 2013 to December 2015

M. Abd El Raouf; N.H.M. Mekkawy; A.M. AbdEl-Aal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145608

The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment of 20 dogs with femur fractures. Twenty (20) dogs with different ages, breeds, and gender admitted to the clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology-Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Zagazig University from January 2013 to December 2015 with a complaint of hind limb lameness and were diagnosed as femur fractures through clinical and radiographic examination. German shepherd dogs (85%) and immature dogs (70%) were more susceptible to femur fractures. The most common site of the fracture was the femoral diaphysis (65%) followed by metaphysis (20%). Open reduction and internal fixation techniques were applied using intramedullary (IM) pins with or without cerclage wire (40%) and bone plate (15%) for treatment of diaphyseal fractures, and two cross pins (30%) for treatment of metaphyseal and distal physeal fractures. Pin migration after complete healing (1 case) and bone re-fracture due to jumping (1 case) was the postoperative complications. It was concluded that open reduction and internal fixation methods are the proper treatment for femur fractures if the proper surgical techniques were applied.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Molecular identification of new circulating Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum from sheep and goats in Duhok governorate, Iraq

Shameeran Ismael; Lokman Tayib Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126330.1298

Because there was no such study done on identification of tick species by PCR technique in in Duhok Governorate, therefore present study was done to identify tick species by using molecular study by using of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. About 1000 ticks were collected from both sheep and goat, form Duhok Governorate including: Barwaria, Zakho, Sumeil, Mangeshik, Sersing, Shekhan and Akre, between May and June 2016, between April and June 2017. The result found during this study were six species under two genera of the hard ticks were identified by molecular study and sequencing including: three species were under the genus Hyalomma and three species were under the genus Rhipiciphalus that infect small ruminants in Duhok governorate from these species a new species under the Hylomma genra (Hyalomma asiatium asiaticum) with accession number (MN594484), was first time reported in Duhok governorate. Also phylogenetic tree was constructed depend on the 16S rRNA.

Lambing and mortality rate in Ouled-Djellal sheeps in Tebessa region-Algeria

M. Douh; C. Aissaoui; A. Hicher; S. Abdelmajid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 267-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153863

The aim of this work is to study lamb births and mortalities in Algerian sheep Ouled Djellal breed distributed in different zones of Tébessa region, which is divided according to bioclimatic stage, staff in livestock and area agricultural vocation, into four distinct zones: northern (A, B), middle (C) and southern zone (D). During two years 2015-2016, birth numbers (BN) and mortality rates (MR) of 355 sheep flocks were recorded using a questionnaire. Concerning BN the total number was 21244 lambs representing a mean 59±31 per flock. No significant differences between the birth means of C and D (75±28 vs 83±30) were registered. Birth mean was significantly higher (P<0,05) in B (40±17) than A (29±10), when comparison with C and D, the births of A and B were highly significantly (P<0,001). According to (BN) the studied region were classified into 3 zone groups: (a) with high lambing rate (C, D); (b) with medium lambing rate (B); (c) with low lambing (A). In regard to mortality rates, the total rate was 24±6%. The (MR) in A (27±5%) was significantly higher (P<0,05) as compared to other zones (B) 24±4%, (C) 23±7% and (D) 22±4%. However, no significant differences between B, C and D were revealed. According to the results of (MR) the studied region was classified into two groups: (a) with low MR (C, D), (b) with high MR (A, B). Our result showed that zones influence the (BN) and (MR) in Tébessa region, and southern zones especially D seems the appropriate to practice breeding of Ouled Djellal breed.

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

Some insights of novel COVID 19 virus: structure, pathogenicity and immunity aspects

Ammar M. Al-Aalim; Mohammad A. Hamad; Ali A. AL-ledani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 287-293
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126898.1408

COVID- 19 is highly infectious disease where the first infected case reported in Wuhan city-China, then it was spread worldwide. The causative agent belongs to novel enveloped single linear positive-sense stranded RNA Coronavirus, which is also called SARS-CoV-2 and has an affinity to lung cells. The genetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that this novehtm hgn l strain may be developed from the animal. origin by recombination between a bat SARS-like CoV and a coronavirus of unknown origin. The ability of rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus from person to other is similar or even more than to other human viruses like influenza or plague leadding to be announced as a pandemic by WHO in 2020. The mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 increased day by day and this led the scientists to search ways to control the virus. Most of the deaths in aged patients may be due to immune response complications where 70% of patients showed lymphopenia. This review, provided some details about structure, pathogenicity and immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The facts in this review lead to suggest that in most cases the death in SARS-CoV-2 may occur via loss of systemic inflammatory response control which leading to lung injury followed by pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure, hence the death especially in old patients. In concluding the early effective control of both innate and adaptive immunity may be the critical. key factor in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

Comparative study of some local therapeutics for endometritis in cows

M. B. Taha; E. B. Basheer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2008, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5721

The present study was conducted on 57 local breed cows suffering from various degrees of endometritis. The clinical examination included visual examination of vagina supported by uterine palpation per rectum; the laboratory examination included the bacterial isolation from the uterine swabs and histopathological examination of the uterine biopsies. Animals were randomly divided in to three groups of 15 cows each and 12 cows were considered as a control group received no treatment and observed for three consecutive estrous cycles. The first group was treated with a mixture of oxytetracycline (4 g) and tylosin (2 g), second group was treated with cephquenome sulfate 0.5 g, and the third group was treated with lugol's solution (30 ml) 2 %. These treatments were applied as a single intrauterine infusion and the clinical recovery was evaluated at the next estrous cycle by considering the absence of abnormal vagina discharge as an indicator of clinical recovery. Cows that showed clinical cure were inseminated artificially and the pregnancy diagnosis was preformed at least 75 days after insemination by rectal palpation. Retained placenta was the most important predisposing factor of endometritis 50.8 %, results of the bacterial examination demonstrated that E. coli was the most prevalence bacteria (27.4 %). Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy showed a high incidence ratio of chronic endometritis (42.1 %). Results of the treatment showed a higher response and conception rate in the second group (using of cephquenome) 73.3 % and 63.3 %, respectively, followed by first group (using mixture of oxytetracycline and tylosin) 60 % and 55.5 %, respectively, then the third group (using of lugol's solution) 40 % and 50 %, respectively. The lowest cure and conception rates were observed in the control group 25 % and 33.3 %, respectively. This study pointed out a positive relationship between the nature of the vaginal discharge and each of the bacteriological and histopathological examination and revealed the importance of the early treatment of endometritis especially using of cephquenome sulfate.

A statistical study to evaluate the initial weight for fattening in local calves

N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2008, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 69-73
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5664

Data of twenty one local breed bull calves (Sharabi and Janoubi) were collected from previous work for this study, their ages ranged from 8-18 month with initial live body weight of 125-300 kg. They were fed for 100 days period a standard ration which consisted of 60:40% concentrate to roughages ratio and contained 12.4% crude protein, 19.9% crude fiber and 2.2 Mcal/kg ME. Feed was offered at 3% of live body weight. Calves weights were sorted out into three groups, according to their means of body weight and were 140, 210 and 280 kg. The first group of calves had a significant increase daily gain more than the other two groups and were 1200, 850 and 830 g, respectively. Also, feed conversion rate of the first group was better than the other two groups, and were 6.2, 8.9 and 9.9 kg. ration/1 kg weight gain, respectively. Cost of feeding to produce one kg of weight gain in the first group was more efficient than the other two groups, and were 1860, 2670 and 2970 I.D., respectively. No differences were found in carcass traits among the three groups of calves. The results of this study suggest that it is better to choose local bull calves at live weight less than 200 kg for fattening purpose, to obtain more economical benefit.

Study of the relationship between the production of milk and some of its components with the growth of lambs in two breeds of Iraqi sheep

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163172

A total of 1116 records Awassi ewes and 432 of Hamdania ewes were collected and which belong animals resource department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors in milk production and some of its components from birth until weaning. The results showed significant effects (p≤0.05) for the breed and highly significant effects (p≤ 0.001) for the year, mother's age, sex, and type of birth in the daily milk production. There was a highly significant effect of year in milk fat, protein, and lactose. same there was a significant effect for age at weaning on birth weight, and highly significant effects for the breed, year, age of dam, sex, type of birth, and age at weaning on birth, weaning and weight gain from birth to weaning. The highest value for repeatability was 0.398, 0.309 in Awassi ewes for weight gain and in Hamdani ewes for daily milk yield respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between protein and lactose in Awassi ewes 0.507 and 0.410, and in Hamdani ewes 0.641 and 0.157 respectively were highly significant.

Diagnosis of causes of suppurative arthritis in sheep in Mosul, Iraq

Q. J. Khaleel; M. M. H. Al-Jammly; S. H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2009, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5730

The prevalence of suppurative arthritis in one hundred sheep from both sexes and different ages were studied. Aspiration of synovial fluid from knee joint of animals showed signs of lameness with reluctant to move in addition to decrease in the body weight and loss of appetite. Physical and bacterial examination of the synovial fluid was revealed green color, turbid and containing pus. Mucin clot showed difference in degree of clotting, and increased number in leukocyte, neutrophile but decreased in lymophocytes and monocyte. The result showed that Streptococcus dysagalactiae was predominate 61.1% while Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the less 5.5%, also the result showed that all the strains were more sensitive to the Ciprofloxacin. This study is considered to be the first attempt to isolate bacteria from Sheep joints in Mosul-Iraq.

Effect of body weight of ewes and milk yield in productive performance of lambs, milk yield and components of Awassi sheep

Khalid Sultan; Mohammed Reyad Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125555.1074

In the current study, 32 Awassi ewes 2 -3 years aged were used with their lambs for 12 weeks, to evaluate the effect of Body Weight (BW) and Milk Yield (MY) on Body weight BW, Body Weight Gain (BWG), MY and milk components. After lambing, ewes were weighted directly, then at the 1st week of lambing, ewes were milked for 2 consecutive days, in order to determine the milk yield, Ewes divided randomly to 4 groups depending on their body weights and milk yield, the groups were: 1st group: ewes with high BW and high MY, 2nd group: ewes with high BW and law MY, 3rd group: ewes with low BW and high MY, 4th group: ewes with low BW and low MY. The result showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in BW in heavy ewes (HE) groups at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, the best significant interactions (P≤0.05) were recorded in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd group at 8th weeks. Also, there is a significant increase (P≤0.05) in BWG in the HE at 8th week. The effect of MY was evident in milk production, MY of HW and high milk (HM) increased significantly at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks. Also a significant increase (P≤0.05) in milk fat% in HM ewes at 2nd, 6th and 8th weeks after lambing. On other hand the results revealed a significant increase (p≤0.05) in lactose % in Light Ewes Milk (LE) at 8th week and Low Milk Ewes (LOM) at 4th week, also solid non-fat components % increased significantly in LE at 2nd week and HW ewes. In conclusion, the body weight of the lambs that born from the ewes with (heavy weight and high milk production) were significantly higher than other lambs, also, milk production of these ewes was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than other groups.

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