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Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences is a global, scientific and refereed journal published by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
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Evaluation of the isolation protocols of primary cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) skin tissue

M. Hasoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 119-125

In this study, pieces of skin from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish were collected freshly from juveniles from a privet fish farm in Duhok city, Kurdistan-Iraq. Those pieces of skin were cultured In Vitro by using two methods of explanting; direct explants and enzymatic pre-digested explants of tissue fragments. The results showed a highest cell yield (5×103 cell/ml) on passage 2 of enzymatic pre-digested tissues and higher cell growth rate in compare with cell yield (38×102 cell/ml) gained from direct explant tissues. Both procedures showed forming of clumped cells colonies in initial passages (P1 and P2), and the morphological changes were developed in both cells to show a fibroblast like appearance thereafter. Such findings are important and advantageous to suggest a faster and more efficient protocol for tissue culture cells isolation with lower cost and better isolation success as well.

Effect of bee venom on rat glucocorticoid receptor beta: a therapeutically model of rheumatoid arthritis

A. Al-Hassnawi; R. Mahdi; H. AL-Rubaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 127-133

This study aim to use bee venom as alternative medicine for treatment of rats induced with rheumatoid arthritis. Forty rats used for this purpose which divided into four groups, three groups induced with rheumatoid arthritis and one group considered as control group that subdivided into control negative and control positive (rheumatoid group). All the groups induced with rheumatoid arthritis injected with bee venom with different doses (high 40 μg/kg and low dose 10 μg/kg) and different times (after 5 days and after two weeks from CFA injection and along with CFA injection). Glucocorticoid receptor beta used as a biomarker which suggested function as negative regulator determine glucocorticoid sensitivity in target tissues and as an endogenous inhibitor for glucocorticoid action. The high and low dose showed significantly decrease in GCRβ as compared with control group and non-significant between rheumatoid and both along CFA and after 5 days of CFA injection. The pretreatment high and low dose revealed significant decrease in GCRβ compared with Rheumatoid group and non- significant as compared with control group in low dose bee venom treatment. Also, depending on hand paw edema assessment, a weak evidence about anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom has shown. From our data we concluded that bee venom prevents GCRβ elevation especially in pre-treatment group this may result assess to anti-inflammatory effect but the safety of this toxin still needed for another study. Clinically no evidence about the treated effect of bee venom on rheumatoid arthritis in rat.

Histological and fluorescent microscope studies for evaluation carbon accumulation in trachea and bronchi of birds in polluted area in Wasit province

H. K. Karadi; A. M. Al- badri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 135-141

The aim of this study was to detect the accumulation of carbon and determination its appearance in different areas of groups of ducks. Using special dyes to detect deposits of carbon particles. Also, using AO/ EB stains to detect early and late (progress) apoptosis that occurred due to the precipitated of carbon in both areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) but late apoptosis occurred in bronchi of brick factories area more than oil field area. The histological examination of trachea showed no any indicator of accumulation of carbon in three different areas, whereas in bronchi showed the presence of carbon in polluted areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) in different amounts. 

Reproductive efficiency and serum progesterone concentration on dairy cattle based on blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations

K. Y. Putri; P. Srianto; T. D. Lestari; S. Utama; Wurlina Wurlina; I. Mustofa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 143-148

The objective of this study was to identify the levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and its relation to the reproductive efficiency and serum progesterone concentration in lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. Data were obtained by stratified random sampling from population to get 18 dairy cows, which divided into three groups. The first, second, and third groups each with milk yield of less than 17, between 17-21, and over 21 liters/day, and with calving interval of less than 365, between 365-450 and more than 450 days. Blood was collected from the coccygeal vein at the time of insemination (D0), 7 day (D+7) and 22 days (D+22) after insemination. BUN and progesterone concentration were measured. Data analysis showed no significant difference (P>0.05) on the observed parameters. Data regrouping based on BUN concentration showed that the mean of services per conception (S/C) was lower and conception rate (CR) was higher (P<0.05) in dairy cattle having BUN<18 than those of with BUN>18 mg/dL. The mean of progesterone concentration at D+22 was higher (P<0.05) than those at D0 and D+7 in pregnant dairy cows and with BUN<18 mg/dL, as well as those at D+22 in non-pregnant dairy cows with BUN>18 and BUN<18 mg/dL. This study concluded that high BUN concentration affect the reproductive efficiency of dairy cows by decreasing CR and increasing progesterone serum concentration.

Effect of lecirelin acetate, hCG or progesterone administration on day 7 post-insemination on conception rate and progesterone concentration in cross-bred cattle

M. S. Akhtar; S. Saleem; T. Ahmad; E. Ahmad; M. H. Lashari; M. M. Ayaz; L. A. Lodhi; I. Ahmad; I. Hussain; M. A khtar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 149-153

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of administration of lecirelin acetate, hCG and progesterone after AI on ovarian picture, serum progesterone concentrations and first service conception rate in cross-bred cattle. A total of 160 lactating cross bred (Friesian x Sahiwal) cattle were divided into 4 groups after AI. The groups were treated as follows: control (injected i.m with normal saline 2ml, n=40), d 7-LA (injected i.m with lecirelin acetate100 µg, n=40), d 7-hCG (injected with hCG 3300 IU, n=40) and d 7-P4 (injected i.m with Progesterone 0.5 mgdaily for 4 days, n=40) group. The hormonal treatments were given to animals on day 7 after AI. The ultrasonography and blood sampling was done before treatment and then 7 days later. All animals were examined for pregnancy through ultrasonography at 40 ± 1 day after AI. The diameter of SCL on 7 days after treatment was higher (P < 0.01) in group d 7-LA and d 7-hCG group cows as compared to control cows. In contrast, the diameter of SCL in d 7- P4 treated cows did not differ from control cows. Formation of ACL was observed only in 50 % & 80 % cows in d 7-LA and d 7-hCG group respectively. No ACL was observed in control and d 7- P4 cattle on day 7 after treatment. The P4 concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in d 7-hCG treated cattle as compared to control at 7 days after treatment. As compared to 10 percent First Service Conception Rate (FSCR) in controls, an increase (P < 0.05) of 50 percent and 40 percent was observed in each treatment group (d 7-hCG & d 7-LA), non-significant (P > 0.05) difference in FSCR was observed between control and d 7-P4 group. It was concluded that the use of hCG or LA, 7 days after AI is a beneficial tool to improve conception rate in cross-bred cattle whereas use of parental P4 post-breeding has no effect on SCL diameter and conception rate.

Incidence rate of breast cancer, clinical and ultrasound approaches to diagnosing the same in dogs

V. Salautin; V. Gorinsky; A. Molchanov; G. Demkin; N. Pudovkin; S. Salautina

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 155-159

Mammary gland tumors in dogs rank second among all newly diagnosed tumors in this species. Research goalwas to study clinical/morphological characteristics of breast cancer in dogs with the use of ultrasound investigation. 34 dogs of different breeds and age groups with spontaneously emerging neoplasms of mammary glands were chosen for the study. To classify malignant tumors, the histological classification was applied. Complete examination of breast tumors was carried out with the help of clinical observation, ultrasound, radiologic, hematological and ultrasonographic methods applied. The largest percentage (23.5%) of animals with mammary gland neoplasms are mongrel female dogs. The breed predisposition was detected in dogs of the following breeds: Miniature Schnauzer - 11.9%, Standard Dachshund - 11.9%, American Bulldog, American Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle - 8% each. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 29 animals (85.3%), 100% of those cases in the nodular form with microcalcifications in the tumor parenchyma. The horizontal orientation of growth is more often typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs I and II at the initial stage of carcinogenesis, and is characterized by an inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure with sufficiently pronounced boundaries detected during the ultrasound investigation. The vertical orientation of growth is mainly typical of breast cancer in the mammary gland pairs III, IV and V from the very beginning of the disease. The ultrasonography usually shows: inhomogeneous hypoechoic structure containing inclusions in the form of cords or foci of a higher acoustic solidity; also clearly defined lateral acoustic shadows and dorsal echo enhancement; as well as unevenness and indistinctness of borders. The performed histological study within the current research revealed a multifocal, infiltrating epithelial neoplasm with distinct edges, surrounded by a large amount of fibrous tissue. The tumor consisted of a number of acini with a tendency of forming a network structure. The shape of cells was detected from round to irregular, the cytoplasm was found scarce, often with uneven borders, with the large central core, with chromophilic substance and 1-2 nucleoli. The cells were characterized by the pronounced anisocytosis and anisocariosis, and a great number of mitotic figures. Lymphatic invasion was observed. Ultrasound investigation of the mammary gland allows for performing percutaneous minimally invasive interventions and differential diagnostics of cystic and solid lesions of the mammary gland (96-100% accuracy), mastopathy and carcinoma conditions.

Assessment of alterations in some blood biochemical and mineral contents concentration before and during pregnancy period in Iraqi ewes of Salah-edin province

M. A. Ismaeel; A. H. Awad; N. N. Dhahir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 161-165

Thirty local Iraqi ewes reared in Tikrit – Salah-edin province from first the of October-2016 to the first of March-2017 were used in the current study to investigate the influence of pregnancy on levels of some biochemical and minerals contents in the blood serum. Blood samples were collected from ewes before and monthly during pregnancy (first, second, third, fourth and fifth month), serum separated and stored at 5 °C until samples analysis. All samples were analyzed by spectrophotometer with special kits for each parameter. Results demonstrate significant decrease (P ≤0.05) in concentration of total protein, cholesterol and glucose as pregnancy advanced, while there is no effect of pregnancy on the concentration of creatinine and magnesium, however, there is a significant increase (P ≤0.05) in calcium concentration as pregnancy proceed. In conclusion the pregnancy has clear influences on the concentration of total protein, cholesterol, glucose and calcium. The measurements of these parameters give best assessment for nutritional and health status of Iraqi ewes during pregnancy.

Plasmid transformation and curing of nalidixic acid gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from buffaloes mastitis and workerʼs hands

D. A. Khaleel; R. M. Othman; B. Y. Khudaier

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 167-174

The present study was designed to detect resistant site of nalidixic acid through transformation and plasmid curing of S. aureus strains isolated from buffalo milk with subclinical mastitis and workers’ hands. A total of 37 S. aureus isolates including 17 isolates recovered from buffalo milk infected with subclinical mastitis, in addition to 20 isolates recovered from workers’ hands. All 37 isolates were investigated by detection of the 23S rRNA gene and various other species specific genes including coa, nuc and clfA. The antibiotic resistance of S. aureus isolates was performed by the discs diffusion method using 19 antibiotics. Plasmid transformation method was carried out by transferring the plasmid isolated from S. aureus into competent Escherichia coli HB 101 in order to detection the resistant site of nalidixic acid. Plasmid curing was accomplished by preparing different concentrations of nalidixic acid (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/ml) and cultured transformed E.coli on LB agar supported with each of the aforementioned concentrations. The molecular results showed that six isolates (five isolates from milk samples and one from workers’ hands) were identified as S. aureus by coa, nuc, and clfA species specific primers. The six S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to at least 5 antibiotics which included the nalidixic acid. The results of plasmid transformation revealed that E. coli was able to grow on LB agar supported with 100µg/ml, 150 µg/ml, 200 µg/ml and 250 µg/mlof nalidixic acid and failed to grow on 300 µg/ml concentration.

Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 175-182

Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results of the collections show that all the dogs, which were the subject of this survey, are infested by ticks during the period between March and August in different areas of the northeastern of Algeria. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the predominant tick species. It has been observed with a frequency of 88 % in the area of El-Tarf, 100 % in Souk-Ahras, 95 % in the Tébessa region and 72 % in Guelma, (average of 89 %). Climatic conditions seem to play the essential role for this distribution of ticks. The other tick species collected are: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Hyalomma anatolicum. The latter were present with very low a proportion, which gives them the appearance of accidental parasitism in dogs. Rhipicephalus sanguineus has significant infestation intensity in spring and summer, peaking in August in the semi-arid region (Souk-Ahras). In humid regions (El-Tarf), the peak of infestation recorded by this arthropod is in April. The second aspect of study of the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus shows the seasonal nature (Spring-Summer) of the brown tick of dog.

Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital

L. J. Shaebth

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 183-188

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and16SrRNAgenes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

Effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) barks of root and stem (alcoholic extract) on the viability and fatty acids content of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro study

R. S. Al-Juwary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 189-194

The present study was aimed to determine the scolicidal effect of stem and root alcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) on the viability and fatty acids content of Ecinococcus granulosus protoscolices. The study elucidate the scolocidal effect of both stem and root extracts. Its seemed that the scolocidal effect of root extract was higher than that of stem extract ie. LC50 and LC90 of stem extract were 5 and 9 mg/ml respectively while LC50 and LC90 of root extract were 3 and 8 mg/ml respectively. GLC analysis of E. granulosus protoscolices was stated presence of nine fatty acids esters, which were Lauric (C12:0); Myrisitic (C14:0); Palmatic (C16:0); Stearic (C18:0); Archidic (C20:0); Behenic (C22:0), which were saturated fatty acids, and Oleic (C18:1); Linoleic (C18:2); Linolenic (C18:3) which were unsaturated fatty acids. Treating E.granulosus protoscolices with LC50 of pomegranate stem bark was showing slight and swing effect on fatty acid content, while treated the protoscolices with LC50 of root bark were resulted in obvious increase in short length fatty acids like Lauric, Myrisitic and Palmatic in compare with control group. In contrast the long chain fatty acids concentration like Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic were decrease.

Fetal anomalies in prolonged gestation in Awassi ewe: A case report

U. T. Naoman; B. D. Al-Watar; E. H. Lazim; E. K. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 195-197

This report was described the observation of five types of congenital anomalies with a Hydramnios Syndrome in prolonged gestational (6 months) three years old awassi ewe bearing an abnormal fetus for first time, ultrasonography revealed signs of pregnancy with numerous small cotyledon, high amount of bright turbid fluid (Hyper-genic), with no signs of heart beat and small abnormal ribs. Vaginal examination indicated that complete closure cervix with pale mucous membrane.

Commercial oil of Nigella sativa as growth promoter in lambs rations

S. El-Naggar; J. A. Abou-Ward; A. Y. El-Badawi; A. M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 199-204

This study aimed to investigate the impact of supplementing different levels of Nigella sativa oil in rations of growing lambs. In a feeding experiment lasted 90 days, 18 growing Ossimi lambs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided by weight into three equal groups (6 animals each). Individual animals in all groups were fed a uniform total mixed ration, offered at 3% of body weight, where the first group was without supplement (R1), while Nigella sativa oil was supplemented at 0.1 (R2) and 0.2% (R3) of dietary DM. Results indicated that additions of N. sativaoil didn’t influenced feed intake, but it increased average body weight gain and feed efficiency. Nutrients digestibility values and dietary nitrogen utilization were higher with N. sativaoil rations than control. Ruminal fermentation parameters showed comparable pH values among groups at 0, 3 and 6 hrs. of feeding. Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower and TVFA concentration was higher for animal fed R2 and R3 rations than control. It’s concluded that N. sativa oil could be added at 0.2 % of the daily feed as a natural growth enhancer of lambs.

Detection of virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different animals by using bacteriological and molecular methods

B. S. Noomi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 205-210

The aim of this study was to detect the presence of virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different animals. For this purpose 120 samples were collected and examined to detect fourteen virulence factors by using biochemical  and molecular methods. The results showed that the highest isolation rate was recorded in doges (29.6%) among studied animals, and highest isolation rate was recorded in milk samples (26.8%) among the studied samples. The virulence factors were detected in different ratio, and highest of them were capsule detected in 50% from skin isolates, amylase enzyme detected in 28.5% from milk isolates, hemolysin enzyme detected in 75% from wound isolates, protease detected in 100% from skin isolates, phospholipase enzyme detected in 56.1% from milk isolates, urease enzyme detected in 50% from skin isolates, gelatin liquefaction detected in 100% from skin and ear isolates, β -lactamase production detected in 100% from skin and wound isolates, pigments production detected in 100% from skin and ear isolates, oprI, oprL and exoT detected in 100% from skin and wound isolates, exoS detected in 100% and 85.7% from skin and milk isolates respectively. We conclude from his study that the dogs are more sensitive in compare with studied animal, while the milk sample is more susceptible to contamination by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Regarding the virulence factors we noticed that the appearance of it basis on infection state.

Effects of cadmium chloride on some endocrine glands (thyroid and adrenal) in male rats (Rattus norvegicus)

K. H. Al- Derawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 211-217

This study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on thyroid and adrenal gland of male rats (Rattus norvegicus). Thirty six male rats were used and randomly into three groups each of 12 rats, the first group(G1) kept as at control. The 2nd and 3rd groups (G2 and G3) were administrated orally cdcl2 at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg.B.W. respectively for 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed, then thyroid and adrenal glands were removed and processed for light microscope. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland with (15mg/kg.B.W.) showed increase in the size of follicles, some of these follicles appeared empty from any colloidal substance and heavily infiltrated by inflammatory cells, with depletion of parafollicular cells. Vaculated follicles may be clear in other sections, and showed congested blood vessels, vascularized stroma, hyperplasia of thyrocyte in rats treated with 20 mg/kg.B.w. Results also noted changes in different regions of adrenal gland related to rats exposure tocdcl2 with 15 mg/kg.B.W., these includes cellular debris, necrosis of cortical cells, amorphous material in the zona fasciculate and focal necrosis in zona granulosa with disruption of normal structure and replaced by necrotic cells and inflammatory cells, also obvious adipocytes infiltration which appeared clear in medulla. Most changes occurred within the adrenal cortex and appeared more severity than that in the medulla region. Hypereosinophilia, pyknotic nuclei, congested blood vessels, hemorrhage, degeneration and inflammation also seen in both regions (cortex and medulla) of adrenal gland from rat exposed to cdcl2 at 20 mg/kg.B.W.

In Vivo evaluation of the novel nanocomposite porous 3D scaffold in a rabbit model: hematology and biochemistry analysis

S. J. Mahmood; Md. Z. Zakaria; I. Sh. Abdul Razak; L. M. Yusof; A. A. Abubakar; Z. K. Mahmood; M. Q. Bin Ab Latip

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 219-230

Issues of safety are very crucial with biomaterials and medical devices. Sixteen male New Zealand White rabbits equally into four groups: Group A, rabbits had part of their radial bone (2 cm, mid shaft) and left empty as a control. Group B, rabbits were implanted with scaffold 5211. Group C, rabbits were implanted with scaffold 5211GTA+Alginate. Group D, rabbits were implanted with 5211PLA. All scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying method. Blood samples were collected at day 0 and 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 8th week after implantation. The blood examination included complete hemogram and certain serum biochemical parameters. The results showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among each treatment group in comparison with control group (day 0). However, red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocyte, plasma protein, inorganic phosphate, sodium, chloride and urea were significantly increased (P<0.05) among treatment groups at week 8. An abnormal architecture of viscera was observed in all animals, thus indicating a form of toxicity related to the degrading scaffold materials. The severity of histopathological lesions in viscera was not coated polymers dependent nor development materials. In conclusion, implantation of 5211 scaffold with or without coated framework has a significant impact on histopathological and certain hematological and biochemical parameters.

Quality enhancement of cryopreserved spermatozoa of sutchi catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) with honey addition

N. A. Fanni; M. B. Santanumurti; T. w. Suprayogi; s. s. Bendryman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 231-236

Sutchi Catfish is one of the important fish commodities in Indonesia. Unfortunately, its seasonal spawning pattern causes limited supply. Cryopreservation is a solution to solve limited supply since it can store the spermatozoa in low temperature so that physiological, biological and morphological functions still remain. Improving the quality of cryopreservation is important to increase the success of Sutchi Catfish aquaculture. Adding honey in cryopreservation process is expected to increase the quality of spermatozoa since it contains with sugars as a source of spermatozoa’s energy. This study tried to compare the effectivity of honey in cryopreservation process with no addition. The treatments used in this study were T1 (0% honey), T2 (0.2% of honey), T3 (0.4% of honey), T4 (0.6% of honey) and T5 (0.8% of honey). 30 days after stored, the spermatozoa were checked their motility, viability, abnormality, fertility and hatching rate. This study showed that honey addition could increase the motility significantly (P<0.01) to 23.14% better than control. The viability increased significantly (P<0.01) to 23.17% better than control. The abnormality test did not show significant difference between honey addition and control although the abnormality value in control was the highest (10.75%). The fertilization rate increased significantly (P<0.01) to 28.85% better than control. The hatching rate increased significantly (P<0.01) to 29.78% better than control. The success of all test indicated that the addition of honey in cryopreservation process of spermatozoa could be performed on Sutchi Catfish to increase its production even though the limited spawning pattern.

The effect of adding turmeric and artemisia herba powder to ration on productive performance of white laying hens

N. A. Mutlag; M. Al-Norri; S. M. Farhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 237-242

The study was aimed to improve the productive performance of white laying hens, using two types of medicinal herbs, including turmeric and Artemisia Herba. In the experiment 63 laying hens (white shevar) were used at an age of 24 weeks, hens were divided randomly in to three treatment 21 hens pre treatment with 3 replicate of 7 hens per replicate. A standard ration was used without any addition, which was considered as the control treatment (T1), the basic ration, plus turmeric powder (0.5%) (T2), while the treatment (T3) represented the basic ration plus Artemisia Herba powder by 0.5%. The study included the measurements of egg production, egg weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and egg mass. The results showed a significant improvement (P<0.05) in the characteristics of egg production ratio, feed conversion ratio and egg mass for the treatment with the addition of Artemisia Herba flower (T3) compared with other treatments, and significant decrease (P<0.05) in the amount of feed consumed (T2, T3) as compared with the control treatment (T1), while the results did not show any significant differences to addition of turmeric to the ration (T2) in the productive performance as compared to the control treatment. It was concluded from that the addition of Artemisia Herba to the ration resulted in a significant improvement in most of the productive performance of laying hens as compared to other treatments

Effects of Newcastle disease vaccine on the liver and antioxidant enzymes of chicks

N. G. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 243-247

Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild birds result in huge economic losses due to extreme morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility of the harmful impact of Newcastle disease vaccine on certain biochemical profiles regarded to chicken liver. This study conducted during January-April 2014, one day old - 53 chicks were divided into two groups; vaccinated (with Newcastle disease vaccine) group at the age of 1, 3, and 7 days and unvaccinated group. Results show damaging effects of vaccination on the liver glycogen and malondialdehyde concentrations, serum superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase activities. In contrast, studied parameters look to return to their usual range at the age of 30 days. From the convincing outcome of our investigation, it can be concluded that Newcastle disease vaccination has a detrimental influence on the liver of chickens, nonetheless this effect can be overwhelmed by the time.

The effect of duration of preservation on the quality, MDA level, and DNA damage of post-thawed Bali cattle bull sperm

H. Dwinofanto; R. Rimayanti; E. Mustofa; S. Susilowati; T. Hernawati

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 249-252

Frozen semen quality is one of many factors that promote successfully of artificial insemination. Preservation at 5ºC is one of the steps of semen freezing to obtain high fertility sperm after added with the extender. This study was aimed to determined the sperm quality (motility, viability, and membrane integrity), MDA level and DNA damage of post-thawed sperm after being preserved at 5ºC for different duration. Bali cattle bull semen collected by artificial vagina. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of ejaculate was conducted first. Qualified semen was diluted in Tris Aminomethan-Egg yolk and then devided into two treatment group: preserved at 5ºC for 4 hours (first group) and 22 hours (second group), and continued to processed into frozen semen, and stored overnight. Pre-freezing and post-thawed of semen analysis was conducted based on SNI: 4869-1:2017 of The National Standardization Agency of Indonesia. Measurement of levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) was conducted by spectrophotometry at 532 nm wavelength, meanwhile measurement of sperms DNA damage percentage was performed by Toluidine blue staining. The result of showed that quality of post-thawed sperm (motility, viability, and membrane integrity) was higher (P<0.05), and MDA level and DNA damage were lower (P<0.05) in preservation at 5°C for 22 hours compared to those of 4 hours. It could be concluded that preservation at 5°C longer (22 hours) means sperm had longer chance to adapt with the extender, this implies the higher quality and lower lipid peroxidation.

The effects of dietary vitamin C and Citrus Sinensis peel on growth, hematological characteristics, immune competence, and carcass characteristics in broilers exposed to heat stress

Y. S. Abdulameer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 253-260

This study investigated the role of vitamin C and Citrus Sinensis peel (sweet orange peel (Sop)) on growth, carcass characteristics and health status in 160 one day old broiler chickens (Ross308) which were randomly divided into four equal groups consisting 4 pens. Each pen having 10 birds (5 male and 5 female) for 35 days. All chicks were exposed to heat stress (330C) during all the experimental period (35 days). Group one considered as control, groups 2, 3, 4 were given feed containing vitamin C (500ppm/ feed), sweet orange peel (Sop) (1,2 % respectively). Sop 2% significantly increased average body weight gain and feed intake during the grower period (16-28) (P<0.05). The birds fed Sop 2% during the whole experimental period had higher FI and greater feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) compared to the other groups. The mortality rate tended to be the lowest in the birds fed the feed additives (P<0.05). The relative weight of internal organs, blood profiles pictures were not affected by Sop with two tested levels (P<0.05) or vitamin C compared with the control group. Broiler fed vitamin C or Sop levels had greater primary and secondary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and against phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P) antigen compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). Sop and vitamin C increased antibodies titer against Newcastle disease during the secondary antibody response (P<0.05). Overall, Sop as feed additive improved immune responses in broiler chickens under heat stress. Also the result indicate that the Sop 2 % during the grower period had a positive effect on growth performance of broiler chickens under heat stress.

Morphological and phylogenetic study of Hyalomma anatolicum in Al-Najaf, Iraq

M. A. AL-Fatlawi; M. J. Ali; H. H. Albayati

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 261-266

Studies had been previously conducted to genetically identify species of ticks in Iraq. Therefore, the current investigational study was conducted to recognize the species of 50 ticks collected from infested skin of cattle. The current study defined the ticks to be from Hyalomma genus depending on theirmorphological features. Using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CoxI) gene, 16 ticks were further confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two PCR products were subjected to DNA sequencing to name the species of the ticks and compare them to some other known ticks in neighbor and world countries. The sequencing results identified the ticks to be Hyalomma anatolicum. One isolate is closely similar to Indian and Iranian isolates, and the other isolate is clustered alone by itself. The results indicated that H. anatolicum is one of the wide-spread ticks that affect cattle in Al Najaf province, Iraq.

Lambing and mortality rate in Ouled-Djellal sheeps in Tebessa region-Algeria

M. Douh; A. Hicher; A. Saddek; C. Aissaoui

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 267-273

The aim of this work is to study lamb births and mortalities in Algerian sheep Ouled Djellal breed distributed in different zones of Tébessa region, which is divided according to bioclimatic stage, staff in livestock and area agricultural vocation, into four distinct zones: northern (A, B), middle (C) and southern zone (D). During two years 2015-2016, birth numbers (BN) and mortality rates (MR) of 355 sheep flocks were recorded using a questionnaire. Concerning BN the total number was 21244 lambs representing a mean 59±31 per flock. No significant differences between the birth means of C and D (75±28 vs 83±30) were registered. Birth mean was significantly higher (P<0,05) in B (40±17) than A (29±10), when comparison with C and D, the births of A and B were highly significantly (P<0,001). According to (BN) the studied region were classified into 3 zone groups: (a) with high lambing rate (C, D); (b) with medium lambing rate (B); (c) with low lambing (A). In regard to mortality rates, the total rate was 24±6%. The (MR) in A (27±5%) was significantly higher (P<0,05) as compared to other zones (B) 24±4%, (C) 23±7% and (D) 22±4%. However, no significant differences between B, C and D were revealed. According to the results of (MR) the studied region was classified into two groups: (a) with low MR (C, D), (b) with high MR (A, B). Our result showed that zones influence the (BN) and (MR) in Tébessa region, and southern zones especially D seems the appropriate to practice breeding of Ouled Djellal breed.

Effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma on skin healing in dogs

S. M. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 275-283

This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of using platelet– rich plasma (PRP) on wound healing. The study performed on ten adult male dogs, aged 2-3 years and their weight were 18-25 kg. Under the effect of deep sedation and local subcutaneous anesthesia at the site of wound, four of (2x2) cm of full-thickness square cutaneous wounds were induced, two on each side of the lateral thoracic region of each animal. A pair of left wounds was treated by injection with 5 mL of autonomous PRP (treatment group), 2 mm lateral to the wound edges and in the wound center., immediately after wounding while, right wounds, were injected with a single dose of 5ml of sterile saline (control group) by using the same procedure as in treatment group. The clinical and histopathological evaluation of each group for five weeks, histological biopsies were taken in the days (3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35) of the experiment. The clinical evaluation of PRP treated wounds showed that the wound healing process (% contraction, % re-epithelization and % total wound healing) were significantly more (P<0.05) than the control wounds during the five weeks study. The histopathological results revealed that PRP treated wounds have enhanced cellularity, increased vascularity, with increased amount of granulation tissue accompanied by increase numbers of skin appendages suggesting enhanced cutaneous regeneration, than those in untreated wounds. Depending on the clinical and histopathological findings, this study confirms that local implantation of PRP leads to acceleration and improvement cutaneous wound healing.

Recognizing the effectiveness of the diode laser 850nm on stimulate the proliferation and viability of mice mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue

Z. J. AL-Timimi; F. H. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 285-290

Low Power Laser Irradiation therapy raises the levels of proliferation for the variety of cells. Although despite very little is recognized about its effect on the proliferation levels and possible nuclear morphological changes of mice mesenchymal stem cells, which derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. This study examined the effects of the different fluence of 1, 2, 3 and 4 j/cm² with different dose durations on promoting proliferation, viability and possible nuclear morphological changes of mice mesenchymal stem cells. The growth curves have been used to analyse the proliferation of all the applications. Fluorescent stain (DAPI) (4’-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining used to check the nuclear alterations at 72 hours, while the trypan blue assay used to test the cell viability. Mesenchymal stem cells that derived from bone marrow responded to LPLI in a dose-dependent manner. The higher cell growth determined once the cells irradiated with a fluence of 4 j/cm², especially after 24 hours (P<0. 01). Whereas adipose tissue-derived stem cells responded better to a fluence of 2 j/cm² after 48 hours (P<0. 05). There was no significant change in nuclear alterations and in cell viability detected in the studied groups. LPLI permits a significant increase in the proliferation of stem cells, without causing nuclear alterations, therefore, increasing the number of differentiating cells for tissue engineering, regenerative, and healing processes. 

Isolation and identification of ectoparasites in single humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Cholistan area, Pakistan

M. F. Qamar; M. M. Ayaz; M. M. Nazir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 291-297

Thirty herds comprising four hundred and fifty camels (Camelus dromedarius ) ranging from 5 months to 17 years of age were subjected to external examination of ectoparasites (ticks, mange mites and flies) during November 2010 to July 2011 at Cholistan, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. An overall prevalence of Ectoparasites was 55.55%. Ticks were the most frequent ectoparasites harboring on dromedaries. The ticks in order of their infestations were; Rhipicephalus spp (28.95%) Hyalomma dromedarii (26.48%), Dermacentor spp (18.29%) H. anatolicum (12.47%), H. marginatum (6.69%), Ornithodoros spp. (4.89%) and Amblyomma variegatum (2.20%). The Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli (42.22%) was identified as most dominant mange mite. 40.88% camels were infested with two species of dipterans i.e.; Chrysomyia spp. (10%) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (16.67%) which are most frequently causing preputial and vaginal myiasis. Cephalopina titilator fly (1.11%) was found to cause camel nasal myiasis. The district wise prevalence was as Rahim Yar Khan (60.87%), followed by Bahawalnagar (49.75%) and Bahawalpur (41.05%). The tick load per animal was higher during summer especially in July (64.52%) followed by the lowest ticks load during December (25.58%).The infestation of ectoparasites was higher (69.53%) in camels ranging the age from 5-7 year however the lowest infestation (23.08%) was noted in camels less than one year of age.

Molecular study of Anaplasma marginale parasite in carrier cattle in Al-Nasiriyah city

N. R. Al-Kasar; M. M. Flayyih; A. D. Al-Jorany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 299-301

To detect Anaplasma marginale among carrier cattle by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, 64 blood samples, fromhealthy cows in abattoir of Al-Nasiriyah city were collected from June till August, 2017 in this study. By targeting MAR1bB2 gene with the molecular weight of approximately 265 bp, Anaplasma marginale were detected in18 samples (28.125%). One of these positive sample was recoded in National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI; Gene Bank.

The histological and histochemical changes in the kidney of rabbit induced by diazinon

S. A. Sadiq; M. T. Jarjees

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 303-308

Diazinon (DZN) is a commonly used Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide to control a variety of insects in agriculture and in the environment. The aim of this project is to study the effects of organophospherous pesticide (Diazinon) on histological and histochemical of kidney in male rabbit. The present study is based upon observations made on 24 male Baladi rabbits, which was divided into: 3 groups: Eight animals each, the whole body of the rabbit was dipped in 10 liters of the diazinon solution, while sparing the head for 10 seconds. Group one (control group) was dipped in water only. Animals of Group 2; were dipped in diazinon solution dipped every 2 days for 4 weeks, and Group 3 were dipped in diazinon solution every 7days for two months. Decreased in body weight was noticed in group 2 and group 3 may be due to increases in the exposed doses and increased accumulation of DZN in the blood of the exposure animals. Histological changes in group 2 and 3 are similar, renal tubules were severely damaged with cytoplasmic vacuolation and atrophy of some glomeruli. Blood capillaries in between the degenerated tubules were congested; the urine spaces are widening, and fibrosis inters tubules in group 3 only. Exposure of animals to diazinon caused extensive changes in histopathologicaly as well as histochemicaly in the kidney of group 2 and group 3. But very marked changes in group 3.

The possibility of using Acridine orange compared to Giemsa stain in the diagnosis of parasite Babesia spp in cattle

E. G. Suleiman; A. F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

The current study included the possibility using fluorescent Acridine orange stain in the diagnosis of Babesia spp in cattle in Mosul city/Iraq, this dye is easily applied and takes no more than 2-5 minutes in the diagnosis of Babesia spp using of fluorescent microscope versus 45 minutes of Giemsa stain by using light microscope. The benefit of Acridine orange stain is in its uses in epidemiological and survey studies and for the control programs against Babesiosis but it is considered to be of little value in study of morphological features of small blood protozoa with low parasitemia comparing with the golden Giemsa stain in the study of morphological and specifications of Babesia spp.

Evaluating the sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine and it’s interaction with chloropromazine in chicks

M. M. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 9-13

The aim of this study was to evaluate the sedative effect of xylazine alone or as a combination with chloropromazine, and to check the possibility to induce analgesia by the use of sedative (sub analgesic) doses of this combination in chicks. The analgesic ED50 of xylazine (S.C.) and chloropromazine (I.P.) was 0.9756 and 8.598 mg /kg respectively. Depending on Isopolographic analysis, the drug interaction between xylazine and chloropromazine at ratios of 1:1, 0.5:1 and 0.5:0.5 of the analgesic ED50 of xylazine and the sedative ED50 of chloropromazine was synergistic interaction. The injection of sedative (non – analgesic) doses of xylazine (0.5 mg/kg body weight, S.C.) and chloropromazine (4.3 mg/kg body weight, I.P.) together induced deep sedation with excellent analgesia in 100% of the animals in comparison with each drug alone at the same doses. There were no significant differences in glucose levels between the group of xylazine (0.5 mg/kg body weight, S.C.), a group of chloropromazine (4.3 mg/kg body weight, I.P.) or group of xylazine (0.5 mg/kg body weight, S.C.) and chloropromazine (4.3 mg/kg body weight, I.P.) together compared with the control group. Therefore, the combination sedative doses of xylazine and chloropromazine (low doses) can be considered as an ideal mixture for good analgesia in chicks.

Effect of reducing barley grain degradability on lambs weight, colostrum, milk production, their composition and some biochemical blood trats in Awassi ewes

O. D. Almallah; M. N. Abdullah; N. Y. Abbo; S. A. Tawfeeq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 15-22

This study was conducted in research department of animal resource / Al-Rashidiya, by using 21 of Awassi ewes in the last two months of gestation, ewes were divided according to their body weight, age and milk production during the previous season into three groups, daily feed intake in all groups was restricted with 1.5 kg / ewe on rations consist of barley, wheat bran, soybean meal, urea and straw. the first group was fed on ration contained barley untreated with formaldehyde (T1), while barley grain treated with formaldehyde in the ration of second group (T2), the third group fed on formaldehyde treated barley in late gestation and switch directly after lambing to the untreated barley (T3). Results indicated that differences was non-significant in colostrum yield 138±16.41, 163±19.26 and 127±19.43 g/ hr and in its components, milk yield was increased (P<0.05) in T2 1411±99.04 g/ day as compared with T1 and T2 1080±77.02 and 940±34.54 g/ day respectively, while no significant differences was noted in milk composition. Efficiency of protein and energy intake for milk production significantly higher (P<0.01) in T2 which were 26.42±2.01 and 42.24±3.55% compared to T1 (20.56±1.59 and 34.31±2.99%) and only in energy efficiency as compared with T3 which were (17.70±0.78 and 30.62±1.34%). Result of blood parameters after four week postpartum was indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in cholesterol concentration in T1 69.60±4.85 mg/ dl compared to T2 and T3 56.55±3.67 and 54.73±3.99 mg/ dl, blood creatinine concentration decreased (P<0.05) in T3 5.03±0.53 mg/ dl as compared to T1 and T2 which were 9.60±0.77 and 9.35±0.53 mg/ dl respectively. In conclusion, reducing barley grain degradability improve feed efficiency and ewes performance, while the directly change of the feeding after lambing from low degraded barley to the normal barley grain had a negative effect in performance.

Cellular assessment of nasal swabs from sheep showing rhinitis in Mosul city

K. H. Al-Mallah; A. S. Ali; A. K. Mohammad; Z. M. Abdul Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 23-28

Nasal swabs were obtained from 28 adult sheep attended to teaching hospital belong to the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, which showed rhinitis with serous or mucopurulent nasal discharge. Smears were made on clean glass slides, stained with giemsa and examined by oil immersed lens for cellular assessment. Cells have been counted, percentages and averages then calculated for each type of cells, a statistical comparison of average values have been made between samples of the two types of nasal discharges to identify the significant differences using one way analysis of variance and Dunkan tests at P≤ 0.05. The results showed presence of epithelial cells lining nasal cavity, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and red blood cells at percentages 29.63%, 14.42%, 13.83%, 0.29%, 14.58%, 5.79% and 20.23% respectively at serous nasal discharge samples and at percentages 30.02%, 26.65%, 1.96%, 0.54%, 17.58%, 6.21% and 16.84% respectively at mucopurulent nasal discharge samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant elevation in percentage ratio of neutrophils at mucopurulent exudate than serous exudate. We concluded from the current study that most cases of rhinitis examined in sheep had an infectious nature rather than allergic.ببخn caliculated r averages havelens for cellular assessment .  or mucopurulent nasal discharge hospitalized at the teaching vet

Effect of zinc sulphate and cadmium chloride on heat shock protein 70 and some sex hormones in adult male rabbits

A. J. Abdulwahid; A. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 29-35

The present research was designed to study the effect zinc sulphate (15 mg/kg/orally) and cadmium chloride (25 mg/L) with drinking water on the level of Heat shock protein 70 , testosterone and luteinizing hormone in adult male rabbits for six weeks. Twenty adult male rabbits randomly divided to four groups of five males per group: control group, the cadmium chloride group, the zinc sulphate with cadmium chloride together group and zinc sulphate group alone. Blood samples were withdrawn every two weeks of experiment. To investigate Heat shock protein 70, testosterone and luteinizing hormone by using ELISA technique. The result show that treatment of male rabbits with cadmium chloride resulted in a significant increase in HSP70 in 6th week, accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of testosterone and luteinizing hormone 2nd, 3rd, 6th week compared to control group, supplement with zinc sulphate and cadmium chloride together resulted in a significant decrease in HSP70 in 6th week with a significant increase in testosterone and luteinizing hormone in 2nd, 4th and 6th, week compared to the cadmium chloride group. The treatment with zinc sulphate alone caused a significant decrease in HSP70 in 6th week and significant increase in the level of testosterone in 2nd, 4th, and 6th week and luteinizing hormone in 6th week compared with cadmium chloride group. We concluded that has an effect on the level of Heat shock protein and male sex hormones and that giving zinc with cadmium together reduced the effects of cadmium as well as zinc supplementation improve the negative effect on the level of sex hormone in adult male rabbits.

Cholinesterase inhibition in chicks treated with manganese chloride

M. H. Al-Zubaidy; W. M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 37-42

 The aim of the study was to examine the effect of manganese chloride in drinking water at 1 g/L on the plasma and brain chicks AChE activity in vivo and in vitro. At 14-day-old manganese caused significant decrease in the acetycholinestrase activity in the brain of chicks about 36%. While there was no significant inhibition in plasma AChE. Dichlorvos at 7 mg/kg, orally significantly inhibited plasma and brain AChE activity. Dichlorvos at 0.5 and 1 µl significantly inhibited plasma and brain cholinesterase activity in vitro, while manganese not affected on the cholinesterase activity in vitro. manganese with dichlorvos caused decrease in ration of AchE inhibited at 7 days old in brain and plasma AChE to 59% and 69% respectively, while increased in the ratio of inhibition at 14 days old in brain and plasma AChE activity of chicks to 64% and 91% respectively. The results suggested that manganese chloride caused decrease inhibition of AChE activity in brain of chicks manganese with dichlorvos causes decrease in the inhibited ratio of plasma and brain at 7 days old while causes increased the ratio of inhibition at 14 days old.

Detection of some species of lice and ticks infestation on local buffalo in Mosul city

B. Y. AL-Lahaibi; A. F. AL-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 43-50

 The current study included examination of 1525 buffaloes from (11) districts in Mosul city for detection of lice and ticks. Results showed that the total percentage of lice infestation was 48.63%, particularly blood sucking lice Haematopinus tuberculatus. Buffaloes reared in Al-Shalalate and Al-Kabate showed 100% lice infestation, sucking lice H. tuberculatus was diagnosed by thorax plate which was rectangular with the presence of anterior process on each side. The length of male was 3.5-4 mm while the length of female was 4.5-5 mm. Total tick infestation was 49.1%, with a heights percentage of 80% was noticed in Al-Kabat. Three species of hard ticks were identified, namely Hyalomma anatolicum, Boophilus annulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. H. anatolicum was diagnosed by the following characteristics: half circular capitulum; chilecera consist of 3 long pieces, bifurcated first coxa, breathing plate is comma shape, festoon is present with the presence of 2 sub anal plates project out of the body. In R. sanguineus, the capitulum is six angled with short mouth parts. The first coxa was bifurcated with presence of festoon. Breathing plate was comma shape. In B. annulatus the capitulim was six angled with short mouth parts. The first coxa was triangular in shape with short legs and absence of festoon while the breathing plate was oval or rounded in shape.

Histological and fluorescent microscope studies for evaluation carbon accumulation in trachea and bronchi of birds in polluted area in Wasit province

H. K. Karadi; A. M. Al- badri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 135-141

The aim of this study was to detect the accumulation of carbon and determination its appearance in different areas of groups of ducks. Using special dyes to detect deposits of carbon particles. Also, using AO/ EB stains to detect early and late (progress) apoptosis that occurred due to the precipitated of carbon in both areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) but late apoptosis occurred in bronchi of brick factories area more than oil field area. The histological examination of trachea showed no any indicator of accumulation of carbon in three different areas, whereas in bronchi showed the presence of carbon in polluted areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) in different amounts. 

Reproductive hormones profile of Iraqi Awassi ewes immunized against synthetic inhibin-α subunit or steroid-free bovine follicular fluid

S.S.A. Kafaji; J.A.A. Al-Sa; aidi; K.K. Khudair

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 0-0

The current study was conducted to investigate the impacts of active and passive immunization against synthetic inhibin-α subunit and steroid-free bovine follicular fluid, respectively, on reproductive hormones profile out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Follicular fluid was aspired from mature bovine follicles, treated with activated charcoal, used for immunization of male rabbits, and obtaining of SFBFF antiserum. Forty non-pregnant Awassi ewes were allocated into 4 groups (n = 10 each). At day 38 of experiment, ewes were treated with intra-vaginal sponge impregated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 60 mg for 12 days. Ewes were treated at 0, 28 and 50 days with 4, 2 and 2 ml of normal saline (control; C-ve), 400, 200 and 200 µg of ovalbumine (C+ve), 400, 200 and 200 µg of inhibin (SI group), and 4 ml of normal saline at 0 day, and 4ml and 2ml of SFBFF antiserum, at 28 and 50 days, respectively (AI group). Blood samples were collected at 24 and 48 hours before and after sponge withdrawal for assessment of FSH, LH, inhibin-B, Activin-A, E2 and P4. Before sponge withdrawal, FSH level increased in SI ewes, whereas only after sponge withdrawal, FSH, LH, activin-A and E2 levels increased in SI and AI ewes. Opposite results were shown of inhibin-B level. In conclusion, active or passive immunization against inhibin in Awassi ewes could augment reproductive functions out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes.

Case Report: Prevalence and significance of aspergellosis in commercial broiler chicken: Pathological study

S.H. Eassa; M.H. Mohammed; A.M. Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 0-0

The present study was carried out to evaluate the pathological effects of aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus Spp. in commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we discussed few outbreaks of Aspergillus infection of chicks a week aftter hatching in broiler farms of Duhok-Kurdistan region of Iraq during the period from February to May 2015 on the basis of clinical signs, post-mortem, histopathological and cultural findings. The main clinical signs of the disease in the infected flock included a 3-day onset of labored breathing and neurologic disorders displayed by incoordination, torticollis, and paralysis. Other clinical features included depression, ruffled feathers and gasping. Gross lesions were represented by cheesy granular materials in the air sacs, lungs, and trachea. Histopathology revealed fungal hyphae in sectioned lung tissue. Aspergillus was isolated by culturing in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar from the lesions. The present study deals with the incidence of acute aspergillosis in broiler chicks from Duhok, Kurdistan-Iraq.

Femur fractures and treatment options in 20 dogs admitted to our clinic from January 2013 to December 2015

M. Abd El Raouf; N.H.M. Mekkawy; A.M. AbdEl-Aal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 0-0

The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment of 20 dogs with femur fractures. Twenty (20) dogs with different ages, breeds, and gender admitted to the clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology-Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Zagazig University from January 2013 to December 2015 with a complaint of hind limb lameness and were diagnosed as femur fractures through clinical and radiographic examination. German shepherd dogs (85%) and immature dogs (70%) were more susceptible to femur fractures. The most common site of the fracture was the femoral diaphysis (65%) followed by metaphysis (20%). Open reduction and internal fixation techniques were applied using intramedullary (IM) pins with or without cerclage wire (40%) and bone plate (15%) for treatment of diaphyseal fractures, and two cross pins (30%) for treatment of metaphyseal and distal physeal fractures. Pin migration after complete healing (1 case) and bone re-fracture due to jumping (1 case) was the postoperative complications. It was concluded that open reduction and internal fixation methods are the proper treatment for femur fractures if the proper surgical techniques were applied.

Effect of endurance exercise on sweat constituents of athletic Iraqi Arabian horses

B.J. Mohamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 0-0

It is well known that Iraq has dry hot weather, especially during summer, so horses sports competitions are stopped. The aims of our research were to study the effect of endurance exercise on sweat constituents of Iraqi Arabian horses. The results show that, after trot, the body temperature was 37.600±0.058, the heart rate was 45.875±0.819, and the respiration rate was 35.750±0.708. After canter, the body temperature was 38.512±0.058, the heart rate was 76.000±0.819 and the respiration rate was 49.250±0.708. After gallop, the body temperature was 39.512±0.058, the heart rate was 99.875±0.819, and the respiration rate was 60.875±0.708. All mean values were significantly different at P≤0.01. The mean of body weight was 460.5 kg. The total body surface mean was 396.1Cm2. The mean values of albumin, globulin, Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca++, Mg++, Fe++, Cu++, and Zn+, in trot were 3.512±0.089, 3.875±0.725, 3.637±0.072, 2.062±0.086, 5.962±0.141, 0.167±0.006, 0.987±0.007, 4.875±0.700, 0.712±0.515, 11.750±0.422 and 0.180±0.002, respectively, while the results in canter were 3.925±0.086, 4.750±0.111, 4.787±0.104, 3.637±0.285, 6.637±0.090, 1.487±0.953, 0.161±0.008, 5.537±0.105, 0.987±0.666, 12.262±0.106 and 0.236±0.007, respectively. In gallop were 5.612±0.107, 6.012±0.158, 6.675±0.144, 5.062±0.138, 7.550±0.090, 2.750±0.122, 0.256±0.009, 6.400±0.070, 1.600±0.845, 12.650±0.073 and 0.276±0.004, respectively. Our results indicate clearly a high loss of essential proteins and minerals during sweating which must be compensated by food additives specially during summer, to prevent many healthy problems so we believe that ratios of these proteins and minerals must be calculated according to many factors like, weather climate, the type of the horse jobs (jump, polo, races, show,…..etc.) and the body weights and ages.

Comparison between Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests for detection of the antibrucella antibodies in serum of sheep in Mosul city

S. A. Asmaeel; Kh. J. Hussain; S. H. Arslan; S. D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 89-92

The aim of the present study was to determine seroprevalence of brucellosis in non vaccinated sheep in different areas in Mosul city, and make a comparison between Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests for the diagnosis of the Brucellosis in sheep. The study included examination of 228 serum samples representing 1906 sheep distributed in ten flocks.The results of Rose Bengal test showed that total seroprevalence of brucellosis was (8.7%), being highest in Talkaf (40%), while no seroprevalence of Brucellosis was recorded in Al-Rashedia, Bazwaya and Al-Chaban areas. Using indirect ELISA test the total seroprevalence was (23.6%) and the highest percentage (100%) was in Al-Namrood area, but lowest (5.2%) in Bazwaya area. The results showed that the compatibility between the two tests was (0.380) on Kappa value which indicated that the indirect ELISA test is more sensitive when compared with Rose Bengal test in detection of antibodies of Brucellosis in serum sheep.

Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 35-41

A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis) were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

The effect of autotransplantation of bone marrow with laser irradiation on the healing of non-union fractures in the femoral bone of dogs

O H Al-Hayani; B T Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 109-121

In this study, the effect of autotransplantation and laser irradiation on the healing of experimental induced non-union fractures in the femoral bone were investigated clinically and radiographically in 12 dogs. The fractures were left without fixation for 40 days and over, and following the occurrence of non-union state the fractures were treated at 3 different schedules in the experimental animals, which were divided into three groups, each containing 4 dogs:
Group 1 (control): the non-union fractured femoral bones were treated by the routine surgical procedures using intramedullary fication achieved with Steinmann intramedullary pins.
Group 2 (intramedullary fixation with autotransplantation of bone marrow): following the surgical treatment of non-union fractured femoral bone and their fixation by the Steinmann intramedullary pins (by the same procedure applied in group 1), 4-6 ml of fresh bone marrow was implanted at the fracture site. The bone marrow was aspirated freshly and aseptically from marrow cavity of the opposite femur from the same dog.
Group 3 (autotransplantation of bone marrow with He:Ne I.R. laser irradiation): in addition to the procedures applied in group 2, the surgical site was exposed to laser irradiation type He:Ne I.R. with a total dose of 2.7 J/cm2 for 12 irradiation sessions. Each daily irradiation session was for a period of 5 min for 3 successive days, followed by one-day rest.
The concluded results were:
1-autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow at the site of the treated non-union fractures has a role in accelerating or improving the healing process, by promoting excessive callus formation, whereby the fracture line disappeared at the end of the 4th post-treatment week.
2-the use of laser irradiation with autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow, greatly improved the healing process by increasing the periosteal reaction and callus formation, and lead to disappearance of the fracture line at the end of the 3th post-treatment week. Furthermore, this technique improved the functional use of the affected limb in comparison with groups 1 and 2.
3- the laser irradiation made the remodeling stage shorter (finished within about 3 months) in comparison with group 1 and 2, in which it continued for more than 3 months.

Detection of broiler feeds contamination with Aflatoxins using rapid immunochromatographic test strips

B.S.S. Khalaf; N.M.A. Younis; N.T.M. Sideeq; Y.S.M. Sultan; A.M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 0-0

Twenty pellet broiler feed samples (started or finished) were collected through October to December 2013, from 12 broiler
flocks and 8 feed mills in Nineveh governorate, for the detection of Aflatoxins residue using total Aflatoxins rapid test strips
kit. Results show that 3 (15%) of the feed samples were positive while 17 feed samples (85%) were negative to residual

Isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from suspected enterotoxaemia cases in lambs

N. S. Mechael

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 29-32

Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens), while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Prevalence and distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis antibodies in dogs in Mosul City

D.M.T. Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 63-67

The purpose of the current study to investigate of visceral leishmaniasis antibodies in blood of dogs. One hundred and fifty six samples of blood of stray and domestic dog blood samples of different ages and sexes and from various regions of Mosul city were collected. The study began from July to August 2010. The area of the study (Mosul city) was divided geographically in to two main areas i.e. right and left coasts of Mosul city. Also, another subdivision was followed in which each major areas was divided into six administrative parts, having other residential quarters. A qualitative membrane based immunoassay (rK-39) was followed for detection of antibodies of visceral leishmaniasis. However additional conformation of the parasite was done by blood smears and impressions smears obtained from the liver and spleen of the sacrificed dogs. The finding showed that visceral leishmaniasis antibodies were recovered in the dogs of southern and south eastern parts of Mosul city representing a total infection rate of (14.1%). However, infection rate was higher in the dogs of left coast (16.66%) than that in the right coast of Mosul city (11.11%). It can be concluded that high prevalence rate was found in the southern and south eastern parts of Mosul city.

Diagnostic study of microfilariae in blood samples of cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

E. T. Butty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 219-224

The result of this study revealed to diagnosis the infection of microfilaria in blood samples of cattle which were collected from veterinary hospital and Mosul abattoir. The total percentage of infection was 25.76% and the high percentage of infection appeared in May was 35.7%, with no significant differences in percentages of infection between the months of this study. There were significant differences in the infection rate between male and female of the cattle, and the high percentage of infection appeared in female was 37.97%. High percentage of infection appeared in age 3 years and more was 37.09% with significant differences from age less than one year with P-value (P<0.01).

Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from ruminant’s milk and their resistance to antibiotics in Ninevah governorate

O. H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 109-114

A bacteriological study was conducted on the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from ruminant milk (Buffaloes, Cow, Sheep, Goat). Four hundred milk samples were collected from these animals (100 samples from each) from different locations in the Ninevah governorate during the period from October 2008 till May 2009. The results showed that the percentage of Staphylococcus aureus isolation from the above mentioned animals was as follows: Buffalos (78%), Cow (55%), Sheep (65%), Goat (49%). Sensitivity test applied on the isolated organisms showed different result between milk samples of different animals and within the same species. It is interesting to note that some of our S.aureus isolates were resistant to methicillin, and thesis resistance was 50% in buffaloes; 20% in cow and sheep and 20% in goat.

Salmonella serotypes isolated from local cheese in Mosul city

H H Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 27-30

Total of 60 random samples of local fresh, non-salted cheese collected from different markets of Mosul city were found to be contaminated with Salmonella 7 (11.7%). Three different Salmonella serotypes were identified with S. agona was the most prevalent serotype accounting for 3 (42.86%) of all isolates followed by S. typhimurium 2 (28.57%) and S. anatum 2 (28.57%).

Diagnostic study of infection with Schistosoma spp in sheep and cattle in Ninevah Governorate

E. Gh. Suliman; S. S. Aghwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 215-227

Through the examination of 78 fecal sample of sheep and 52 fecal sample of cattle collected from different region in Ninevah governorate, the percentage of infection with schistosoma eggs in sheep and cattle were 7.69%, 19.23 respectively with significant differences between sheep and cattle, two types of eggs of schistosoma had been identified in sheep they were : S. bovis and S. indicum (first record) while in cattle S. bovis, S. indicum and S.intercalatum (first record) were diagnosed. Infection with S. bovis formed highest percentage in sheep and cattle 83.3%, 70% respectively. The results revealed significant differences between type of infection in sheep with significant difference between the type of infection in cattle, and the single infection formed highest percentage in sheep and cattle 83.33%, 70% respectively. The percentage of infection appeared with high rate in sheep and cattle with aged more than 3 years 9.8%, 40% respectively with significant difference between groups of age in cattle. No significant difference appeared between males and females of sheep and cattle.
The worms of S. bovis were diagnosed in portal hepatic and mesenteric veins of sheep in Akra area(first record) and a number of sheep in this area were died.

Print ISSN: 1607-3894

Online ISSN: 2071-1255

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