About Journal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences (IJVS) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1988. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is also used to assure the quality of the publication. Since 1988 the journal published two issues per year, nowadays (starting from January 2021) due to...
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Effect of sodium benzoate on some biochemical, physiological and histopathological aspects in adult male rats

Safa A. Al-Ameen; Eman H. Jirjees; Fadwa Kh. Tawfeeq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 267-272
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129935.1705

Sodium benzoate SB is a white powder, used as preservative and food additive. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of SB been tested in adult male rats. Twenty-four adult albino male rats aged100 day and weighted 250-350 g were used. Animals were divided into 4 groups. The first group considered as control, which received normal saline orally, other groups treated with SB by 300, 400, 500 mg/Kg of body weight respectively for 30 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected from retro orbital sinus. Heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were obtained for weight recording. The results indicated a significant decrease of super oxide dismutase SOD activity and a significant increase of nitric oxide NO level of treated group 500 mg/Kg of body weight. Moreover, findings revealed that there are no significant changes in growth hormone GH activity and body weight. A significant reduction of heart weight of treated group 500 mg/Kg of body weight were observed. The histopathological changes ranged from mild to severe in the brain cortex, as focal gliosis, satellitosis, mild vacuolation and vasogenic edema in treated groups with SB by different doses. Also, some changes were observed in liver represented by congestion of portal vein, mild hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, stenosis of sinusoids, steatosis and necrosis of hepatocytes in treated groups with SB compared to control group. It concluded that short-term exposure to high doses of SB may be considered an oxidant substance that caused oxidative stress. Furthermore, SB can harm various organs in the body. 

Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and some risk factors in cross breed and imported breed dairy cows in Mosul, Iraq

Mohsin H. Ali; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 273-277
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129949.1707

Although ongoing control strategies are attempting to minimize certain metabolic disorders such as hyperketonemia, factors such as genetics, management, environment, and geography still present a potential challenge to the achievement of the desired results. In light of this, this study was conducted (i) to determine the prevalence of subclinical and clinical ketosis based on the concentration of ketone bodies (BHB) using ELISA Kit, and (ii) to examine a number of epidemiological risk factors related to the conditions. From October, 2020 to the January, 2021. A 80 blood samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey in different areas of Mosul. Data included age, management systems, parity, and origin. At the cut-off point ≥1.2-≤ 1.4 mmol / L, the prevalence of subclinical ketosis was 27.5% and for clinical ketosis it was 5%. Results revealed that the animals aged > 3 years were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to animals aged ≤ 3 years RR = 2.6471. Multiparous animals were more at risk compared to the primiparous (two or less births) RR = 2.0652. No significant difference between the animals’ origins RR = 0.6863. Indoor and outdoor system animals were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to the indoor system only RR = 2.1389. In conclusion, hyperketonemia is prevalent in Mosul. Certain risk factors should be taking into account when planning control programs. Attention should be paid to diagnosis, management, and control of this disease during the risk stage to avert economic loss to the dairy farmers.

Evaluation the antihyprlipidemic effect of apigenin flavonoid in mice

Zena S. hamed; Ahmad Sh. Altaweel; Khalid A. Shaban; Ghada A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 279-283
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130008.1718

The study’s aim was to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of apigenin in mice as a model. Healthy adult albino mice of either sex were selected to use for this study. Four groups of animals were formed of 5 mice each. Animals Group 1 served as a negative control and fed the standard diet and tap water. Groups 2,3 and 4 were fed fatty diet and 1% water with H2O2 for 90 days to induce hyperlipidemia. After hyperlipidemic induction, group 2 served as a positive control, whereas group 3 was treated orally with apigenin 50 mg/kg/day for 14 constitutive days. Group 4 was treated by rosuvastatin (an antihyprlipidemic drug) orally at 7 mg/kg for 14 constitutive days. Blood samples were collected from all of the animals at the beginning of the study to measure the lipid profile. Then these were rechecked again after 12 weeks of feeding a high-fat diet, and then at the end of the experiment for the treated groups. The results demonstrated that the apigenin at 50mg/kg significantly reduced hyperlipidemia manifested by decreased TC, LDL-C, Triglyceride and elevation of HDL-C in comparison with the positive control group. The results, obtained by apigenin were the in accordance with those of the standard drug rosuvastatin for TC and LDL-C. This study concluded that apigenin lowered plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels in mice. 

The effect of lipopolysaccharide extracted from Escherichia coli on total WBCs, granulocytes and on phagocytic activity in female rats

Aziz T. Koro; Adeba Y. Sharif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 285-289
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130030.1721

The present study was conducted to compare the total white blood cells count, granulocytes and phagocytic activity in female rats immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from two different isolates of Escherichia coli, one normal isolate from the gut of healthy adult and the other was pathogenic strain isolated from patients suffering from urinary tract infection. The study was included 35 female albino rats divided randomly into seven groups, three groups injected with different concentrations of LPS of normal flora of E.coli 90, 120 and 150 microgram/kilogram body weight respectively and the other three groups were injected with the same concentrations of LPS extracted from pathogenic strain of E.coli, the last group (7th) represented the control group which given normal saline only. The results showed that the LPS from normal isolate causes a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes, granulocytes and phagocytic activity in animals immunized with the concentration of 120 µg/kg compared with the control group, and the concentration of 150 µg/kg of the same extract resulted in a high significant increase in phagocytic activity and the concentration of 90 µg/kg did not stimulate any significant differences in all the variables, while immunization with the extract of pathogenic strain increases the total leukocytes at a concentration of 90 µg/kg only with a significant increases in phagocytic activity at all concentration, and it also did not cause any significant differences in the granulocytes count.

Histomorphometrical and histochemical postnatal development of cornea in indigenous rabbits

Omar Y. Younis Altaay; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 291-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130031.1722

The present study aims to clarify corneal development via analyzing of the histomorphologic and some histochemical parameters in local rabbits. Samples were collected from 25 Rabbits divided into five different age groups at 1, 10, 15, 30, and 40 postnatal day (PND), then the samples sectioned, processed, and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson’s trichrome stain. Some sections were further stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and toluidine blue (TB) stain for histochemical evaluation. Measurements of corneal layers performed for morphometric comparison among age groups. The finding revealed thickening of corneal epithelium, stroma, and corneal endothelium progressively with age and decrease of corneal layer’s cellular density concurrently with alteration of corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium cell’s type. The histochemical finding revealed late appearance of bowman’s and Descemet’s membranes after eyelid opening which responded strongly to PAS technique while stroma became metachromatic strongly responded to toluidine blue stain. In conclusion, cornea showed highly active histological development and cellular differentiation before and after eyelid opening.

Protoscolex metabolites of Coenurus cerebralis as antigenic-produced humoral immune response in sheep

Sura S. Alkhuzaie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 297-301
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130043.1727

The purpose of the current experiment was to test the immunization against Coenurus cerebralis in sheep. Sixteen animals (6 months old, from 1 October 2020 to 30 March 2021 in Najaf city) were recruited to perform the experiment, in which eight of them were injected twice at 21-day interval using the cellular metabolic antigen of C. cerebralis protoscolex cultivated and then emulsified by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The shots were injected intramuscularly at a dose of 1 ml (15 mg of antigenic protein determined in a separate experiment). The second group of eight sheep served as controls (injected intramuscularly with 1 ml sterile saline only at the days of injections). Blood samples were collected from all animals at day-0 (before injection) and at day 10, 18, and 24 after the first injection, and at day10, 16, 26, 40, 48, 53, 61, 80, 85, and 89 after the second injection. Serum activity was studied by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The findings, by iELISA, revealed that the cellular antigen of C. cerebralis protoscolices is an active stimulator of antibody response. Day-10 (after the first injection) showed significantly (P<0.05) 3.4 to 9.9 time-higher antibody levels compared to those from day-0. This elevation in the titer of antibodies was increased after receiving the second dose showing 6.3 to 12 time-higher antibody presence even at the final days of blood collection compared to those from day-0. No changes were noticed in the sera of the control animals. The obtained data allow us to conclude that metabolites synthesized by cultivation are active immunogenic components that activate the humoral part of the immune system manifested by the increases in the antibody titers. This gives a solid ground for future work regarding alternative methods of discovering immunization techniques against cestodes.

Phenotypic characterization and antibiogram of extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from sheep

Fatma R. Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 303-307
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130112.1732

This study aimed to isolate and characterize extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC producing E. coli in sheep in Mosul city. A total of 260 milk and fecal samples were collected aseptically from healthy ewes (n=60), their respective lambs (n=60), and ewes with clinical mastitis (n=40). Standard bacterial isolation and identification on special culture media were performed to isolate ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli. While special antibiotic discs D68C MASTDISCS® Combi AmpC and ESBL ID set were used to characterize positive ESBL/AmpC E. coli. The results showed that 99/260 (38.1%) of tested samples were ESBL-E. coli positive and distributed as follows, 7/60 (11.7%) and 39/60 (65%) from milk and feces of clinically healthy ewes, respectively, and 37/60 (61.7%) from feces of clinically healthy lambs, while 4/40 (10%) and 12/40 (30%) from the milk and feces of ewes with clinical mastitis, respectively. However, we could not obtain any AmpC positive isolate from all tested samples. The high recovery percentages of ESBL from feces or milk of sheep reflect the arbitrary use of the antibiotic in sheep farming. This could significantly increase the resistance of the bacterial population that might represent a potential source for transmission of antibiotic resistance to humans.

Histopathology and Immunohistochemistry of tumors in animals attending veterinary teaching hospital

Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Khalil W. Khalil; Abdull Rahman R. Edreesi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 309-314
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130114.1733

We aim in the current study to investigate the pathology and incidence of tumors that are excised surgically in Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This study collected the tissue samples from animals from 1 October 2020 until 1 April 2021. These samples were collected from animals that undergo surgical procedures to remove neoplastic growths in their body. After tissue grossing, samples were collected from tumor mass, then fixed in neutral buffered 10% formalin for 72 hours, then processed to embedded in paraffin wax. A routine Harris’s hematoxylin and eosin stain were also used, histochemical stains such as Masson’s trichrome and PAS techniques were used as needed. In exceptional cases, IHC protocol was used for diagnostic steps to some types of tumors included in the current study. The antibodies that were used are Vimentin for canine osteosarcoma, P53 for squamous cell carcinoma, Mdm2 for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, and CD10 for neoplastic lymphocytes. The result of the current study showed that the prevalence of tumor recorded was Marek’s diseases 22.8%, squamous cell carcinoma 22.8%, ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma 15.4%, third eyelid adenoma 15.4%, canine osteosarcomas 7.4%, venereal transmitting tumors 7.4%, and feline mammary gland tumor 7.4%. Histological examination of feline mammary gland tumor composed from server infiltration of neoplastic cells, these neoplastic cells identified as lymphocytes in a fibrous stroma. Third eyelid adenomas in cats and dogs were composed of well-demarcated nodules containing neoplastic sebaceous cells present in glandular form and combined by hyperplasia of epidermis extended inside the neoplastic mass. Venereal transmitting tumor in cat composed from cells with a round to oval shape and the cytoplasm is poorly defined by routine stain, with dense fibrous tissue. Osteosarcoma in a dog has a pleomorphic nature with an anaplastic form composed of islands of osteoid materials, and the tumor is composed of three types of osteoblast, chondroblast, and fibroblast. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma in sheep composed of a nodular formation containing dense collagen fiber deposition with transformation of cells lining alveoli into cuboidal or columnar cells can also be observed in other air passages. Squamous cell carcinomas are primarily found in skin lesions associated with the formation of pathognomic lesions known as keratin pearls. This lesion is composed of the acentric layer of keratin produced by neoplastic keratinocytes. Marek’s disease was observed in visceral organs such as liver, lung, kidney, intestines, and spleen composed from pleomorphic lymphocytes, diffusely proliferating small-to-medium-size lymphoblast. In conclusion, the incidence of tumor in animals that attending Veterinary Teaching Hospital belong to the College of Veterinary Medicine, the University of Mosul was in general high in comparison to other studies in Iraq and other countries, this high incidence should pay attention to the causes of these cancerous conditions and their relation to environmental etiology. 

Detection of canine distemper virus in stray and pet dogs in Mosul city, Iraq

Muhanad M. Saaed; Qaes T. Alsarhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 315-319
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130127.1739

The current work was carried out during the period from September, 2020 to March, 2021 in Mosul city, Iraq, with the objectives to detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) for the first time in Mosul using microscopic examination of blood smears, rapid serum antigen test and sandwich ELISA test as well as determine the agreement between the different diagnostic methods. A total of 92 blood samples were collected from suspected dogs with CDV (69 stray dogs and 23 Pet dogs). A primarily detection of CDV in blood smear by the presence of inclusion bodies in erythrocytes and leukocytes, followed by detection of CDV antigen in serum using rapid test and sandwich ELISA test. Results indicate that the infection rates of CDV in dogs were 32.6%, 13%, and 19.5% using microscopic examination, rapid test and sandwich ELISA test respectively. A statistically significant higher infection rate was reported in stray dogs compared to pet dogs based on all diagnostic tests used in this study. Based on Kappa values 0.413, 0.675, 0.745, there were moderate agreement between microscopic examination and rapid test, and substantial agreement between microscopic examination and sandwich ELISA test, also between rapid test and sandwich ELISA test respectively. In conclusions, CDV is widespread in dogs in Mosul city, Iraq and all tests used in this study are efficient for detection CDV based on compatibility between them.

Protective effect of quercetin against corneal toxicities induced by cisplatin in male mice

Semaa A. Baker; Mahdi A. Ali Abdullah; Ali A. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 321-326
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130145.1741

The Aim of study was conducted to evaluate the potential protective role of quercetin against the corneal toxicity which caused by administration of cisplatin in male mice. Thirty-six adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups; Group I control, Group II cisplatin mice injected as single dose I.P of cisplatin 10 mg/kg, and Group III mice received Q 75 mg/ kg with cisplatin 10 mg/ kg. The treatment continues for eight days then the tissues were collected for histopathological study. The histopathological changes in the cornea of eye were demonstrated in groups of mice received cisplatin. The changes represented by damages of superficial epithelial layer, vacuolar degeneration, hyperplasia, separation of stromal layer and sever damage of the stromal hemorrhage, and perforation of sclera, edema and inflammatory cells infiltration as well as separation of descement membrane from stroma layer. While these changes were diminished when the mice are treated with Q in the combination of cisplatin in comparison to treated cisplatin alone mice. Cisplatin induced structural and histopathological changes in the cornea of adult albino rat that could be ameliorated by concomitant treatment with quercetin.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the broiler chicks model

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 327-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130163.1746

No former studies are dealing with the pharmacological (pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics) interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the chicks' model. The median effective doses (ED50s) for nefopam and tramadol produces analgesia has been estimated each alone as 9.24 and 0.83 mg/kg, IP, respectively. The interaction concerning nefopam and tramadol combination was estimated by isobolographic analysis to be 2.91 and 0.25 mg/kg, IP. The kind of interaction between nefopam and tramadol was synergistic as indicated by the interaction index 0.61. The analgesic efficacy of the combination was significantly different from nefopam and tramadol administered alone. Nefopam plasma concentration 18.48 mg/kg, IP for different measured times 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours 33.25, 27.10, 15.05, 13.61, and 2.45 µg/ml while the concentration was increased once coadministered with tramadol 1.66 mg/kg, IP by 22, 26, 43, 45, and 81% been 40.72, 34.27, 21.53, 19.76, and 4.43 µg/ml, respectively. Nefopam pharmacokinetic profile comprised of area-under-curve (AUC), area-under-moment-curve (AUMC), mean-residence-time (MRT), half-life (t1/2β), maximal concentration (Cmax) amplified after tramadol is coadministered with nefopam by 52, 260, 23, 15, and 22%. The elimination constant (Kel), distribution volume (VD), clearance (Cl) were diminished 13, 25, and 29%, similarly. The sum results suggested a synergistic interaction between nefopam and tramadol along with a modification in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which improve the therapeutic efficacy of nefopam in the chickens besides, advocate using these two drugs as preanesthetics in veterinary medicine.

Molecular characterization and microbial resistance of different bacterial isolates in some dairy products

Waleed K. Alkhafaje; Zakia A. Olama; Safaa M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 333-339
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130206.1764

Bacterial contamination of milk and dairy products is a common problem. In the last two years, the foodborne diseases caused by the intake of milk and dairy products have been mostly disturbed with Salmonella entertica, Listeria monocytogenes Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Campylobacter jejune. The study aims to isolate multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria in dairy products and study of the molecular characterization of that isolates. MDR bacteria were found in 30 out of the 131 bacterial isolates. The incidence of MDR bacterial isolates revealed the abundance of Staphylococcus sp. with 43.3%, Bacillus sp 16.7%, Salmonella 13.3%, E. coli 10 %, Enterococcus 6.7 % Psedoumonas 3.3 %, Shegella 3.3 % and Proteous 3.3 %. Molecular studies of genes presence or absence for class A contain TEM, CTX and BSHV, class B contain VIM, IMP, KPC and NDM, class C contain FOX and class D contain OXA-10, OXA-24 and OXA-58 were tested. NDM, TEM, CITM and OXA -10 genes were the most abundant the selected bacterial isolates. The results of this study indicate that cheese made from unpasteurized milk can pose a significant risk to consumers. Product manufacturing processes should be subject to health control-to-control pathogens. The novelty in this work depend on screening of gene responsible of the resistance from the bacteria isolated from dairy product using the molecular technique.

A review analysis of global Bluetongue virus-related research articles from 2000 to 2020

Ibrahim M. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 341-347
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130222.1770

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus, causes bluetongue (BT) disease of ruminants responsible for mortality and trade limitation. The objective of this study was to provide a descriptive review analysis of global research activity for the period 2000 to 2020. The number of articles, temporal evolution, geographical distribution, countries, funding agencies, authors, research theme, and the source was analyzed and presented in visualization maps. Search query resulted in 3878 documents from 5681 authors, and 2017 articles were analyzed. The annual number of publications showed a steep increase from 2005 to 2020 related to attention to BT as an exotic disease in Europe, as well as the interest in vector over-distribution due to climate change. Most of the studies were performed in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The top active countries in article production were the United Kingdom and the United States. A considerable international collaboration network of the UK with the USA and European countries was observed. However, the collaboration was weak with Asian and African countries. The major research themes are genomic viral studies, the role of Culicoides as a vector, serological and molecular epidemiology, and vaccination. In conclusion, an increase in scientific production and international collaboration was noticed during the last two decades. However, international collaboration needs more attention to African, and South American countries. The current study provides useful references for the policymaker, academics, animal health professionals, and funding agencies to follow the past and except the future BTV themes. 

Histopathological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the liver of Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica

Nazhan M. Ahmed; Ameer M. M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 349-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130223.1771

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have multiple beneficial uses, as they are used in many medical, industrial, economic, and other fields. Despite these many benefits, it is not without harm to humans and animals if used without control. Therefore, the present study aimed to discover the histopathological effects of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the liver of Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. The study included three groups, the first group, the control group, which were dosed with distilled water for four continuous days, and the second and third experimental groups, which were dosed with Titanium dioxide nanoparticles at a concentration of 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively. Four, fourteen, thirty and sixty days after the experiment began, the birds were sacrificed. The results showed the emergence of many histological lesions in the liver of birds of the two experimental groups, to varying degrees, in the four periods, among the most prominent tissue lesions that appeared in the second experimental group, the emergence of necrosis, hemorrhage, vacuolation, congestion, ballooning swelling, in addition to infiltration of inflammatory cells. While in the third experimental group, histopathological lesions appeared similar to second group, in addition to sinuses dilatation, Kupffer cells hypertrophy, hepatocyte enlargement, and necrosis of the walls of blood vessels and bile ducts. The study concluded that direct exposure to Titanium dioxide nanoparticles leads to damage to the liver tissue of these birds, which may affect its function and thus endanger its life.

The effect of retained placenta on the reproductive performance and its economic losses in a Holstein dairy herd

Eman R. Kamel; Hayaa A. Ahmed; Fardos M. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 359-365
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130287.1791

Retention of placenta (RP) is a failure of the fetal membrane to be expelled and remained from 8 to 48 hours, average 12 hours after parturition. There are a variety of risk factors for the occurrence of RP. So, the aim of this study was to quantify the relative risk of calving season, parity, and gestation length on the occurrence of RP, and assess the impact of RP on the subsequent reproductive parameters, and the economic losses. A data of 2940 purebred Holstein-Friesian cows were collected from reliable records of large commercial dairy farm, Sharkia governorate, Egypt. These cows calved during the period extended from January 2018 to December 2019. Cows that did not release the fetal membranes within the first 12 hours after calf expulsion were diagnosed with RP.Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that the important risk factors for the occurrence of RP were summer calving season and short gestation period. Odds ratio estimation for summer calving season compared to spring calving was 2.84. The probability of RP incidence in cows with shorter gestation period was 0.19 times more than cows with longer gestation length, and the total direct economic losses from RP was 47 $/cow.Finally, we can conclude that short gestation length and summer calving season are strongly correlated with the development of RP in dairy cows. Subsequently, the occurrence of RP significantly affects reproductive parameters resulting in economic losses in dairy herds.

Hepato-renal and hematological effects of flunixin and silymarin coadministration in rats

Imtithal A. Mohammed; Khalid A. Shaban; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 367-373
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130323.1800

The study aimed to explore the ameliorative effects of silymarin when administered with flunixin on the liver, kidney, and blood components in rats. The animals were divided into four groups; each one consists of five rats. The first group was served as a control. The second and third groups were treated with silymarin 200 mg/kg b.wt, p.o and flunixin 2.5 mg/kg b.wt, i.p respectively. The fourth group was treated with silymarin and flunixin concurrently. The involved rats were treated for seven consecutive days by a single daily dose. Following the treatment, the biochemical analysis ALT, AST, ALP, Urea, and Creatinine, blood analysis parameters RBC, HGB, HCT, WBC, and PLT, and a histopathological examination liver and kidney were studied for the involved animals. The results showed that flunixin increased the levels of ALT and AST and the concentrations of Urea and Creatinine, and the total number of WBC. Also silymarin caused a remarkable decrease in the flunixin adverse effects on the liver and kidneys. This was reflected from the histological features observed from the diverse tested groups. Based on these findings, the authors concluded that silymarin has the ability to reduce the harmful effects of flunixin on both the liver and the kidneys.

Molecular characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from cows in Mosul city, Iraq

Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 375-380
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130341.1803

Cows are considered as reservoir hosts for many pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to broad-spectrum beta lactamase(ESBL). Presence of ESBL resistant K. pneumoniae in nasal of cows and beef meat constitutes a risk for public health due to transfer of antibiotic resistance gene from cows to environment, humans and farm animals. Therefore, the current study was concluded the detection of molecular characteristics of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae that was isolated from both cow's nostrils and from local beef samples. Fifty nasal swabs were collected from farms cows in Mosul city, and 50 samples of beef from local butcher shops for the period from February to August 2020. Bacterial isolation and identification tests were conducted for ESBL resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae using MacConkey agar medium with-1 μg/ml cefotaxime. PCR was carried out to confirm the results using special primers (SSKP 1 F and SSKP 1 R) for Klebsiella (the target gene 16srRNA). Then, a molecular examination was performed using the precursors CTX-M, TEM and SHV. Through bacterial isolation, 36 (72%) and 28 (56%) isolates were belonging to ESBL resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from nasal samples and beef meat respectively. The CTX-M, TEM and SHV genes formed (100, 89.2, 85.7) % and (100, 72.2, 71.4) % for each the meat and nasal samples respectively. This study showed that cows play a major role in transferring ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from cows to humans as a result of environmental handling or consumption contaminated meat. 

Isolation, identification and genetic analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica in ovine clinical mastitis in Mosul city

Tariq J Rasheed; Dhyaa M. Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 381-386
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130347.1805

The aim of this study was to identify and diagnose of M. haemolytica strains as one of the most important causes of ovine clinical mastitis in Mosul city. One hundred and thirty-three milk samples were directly obtained from the udders of ewes infected by clinical mastitis from November 2020 to January 2021.Standard and conventional methods were followed for isolation and identification of M. haemolytica. Milk samples were cultured on blood agar 7% and MacConkey agar, then it was purified and was stained by Methylene blue. Later, different biochemical tests were Conducted. Molecular identification of M. haemolytica depending on 16srRNA gene, followed by sequencing, similarity and phylogenetic tree was generated. The results showed that 62(46.61%) of samples were positive for bacterial isolation, biochemical tests and conventional PCR technique. Sequencing results showed that the positive samples were belonged to M. haemolytica strains. The similarity within strain Ib001 and within strain 39433 were 100%, and 99.47% respectively. Poor management was associated with the high level of mastitis caused by M. haemolytica, so the application of prophylactic programs should be followed to limit the spread of the disease.

Molecular detection of ESBL/AmpC ß-Lactamase Escherichia coli isolated from sheep in Mosul city

Fatma R. Rafee Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 387-392
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130380.1810

Globally, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/Ampicillin ß-lactamase (AmpC) producing Escherichia coli has become the greatest threat for distributing antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, this study was designed to detect and screen the genes that confer resistance in E. coli isolated from sheep as main livestock in Mosul city. Forty E. coli isolates previously recovered from milk and fecal samples were included in this study. These isolates were obtained from healthy ewes, their lambs, and also from ewes with clinical mastitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the E. coli isolates targeting the 16sRNA gene. Furthermore, screening of different genotypes of ESBL/AmpC was conducted using specific primers. The results showed that the CTX-M gene was predominant among ESBL genotypes and recorded 40/40 (100%). While, SHV and TEM genes recorded 7/40 (17.5%) and 5/40 (12.5%), respectively. Moreover, fecal carriage of resistance genes was more than that obtained from milk in both healthy and diseased animals. However, none of the 40 isolates showed positive results for AmpC genes. The presence of different genotypes of ESBL E. coli isolated from feces or milk origin may act as a potential source for transferring antibiotic resistance to humans, other animals, and the environment.

Effect of orlistat and aquatic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves in histopathological changes in kidney of albino rat

Alya A. Al-Safo; Liqaa H. AlDulaimi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 393-400
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130400.1813

This study investigated the effects of orlistat and rosemary extract on kidney tissue when combined with a high-fat diet, as well as the association between these treatments and body weight, blood lipid profile, and oxidative stress status in male rats. 42 rats weighing 170-200 grams were divided into seven groups, each consisting of six rats. The experiment lasted 20 weeks and was divided into two phases: a stage of induced obesity using high-fat food (fattened), which lasted from week 0 to week 12, except for the control group, which was fed a normal diet. The treatment period lasted from week 12 to week 20, with daily dosing, and the totals were distributed as follows: the first control group was dosed with distilled water alone, the second group was fed a high-fat diet only, the third group was given rosemary aqueous extract at a 10 ml/kg, the fourth group was given orlistat at a dose of 100 mg/kg, the fifth group was given orlistat at a dose of 200 mg/kg, and the sixth group was given orlistat at a dose of 100 mg/kg as well as extract. The seventh group received orlistat at a dose of 200 mg/kg and the extract. When compared to the high-fat diet and the rest of the groups, the weights of the animals increased significantly, as did the lipid profile like TC and LDL, TG, and VLDL in the blood, which were accompanied by decrease in the levels of glutathione and increase malondialdehyde. When given a high-fat diet and orlistat, histopathological examination of the kidneys revealed changes in the renal tissue, including glomerular atrophy, necrosis and cloudy swelling of epithelial cells lining renal tubules, whereas when given the extract with orlistat, these effects were reduced. We conclude that rosemary aqueous extract has preventive and therapeutic antioxidant properties, as evidenced by its improved effect on the histopathological changes induced by orlistat drug in kidney tissue, as well as its improving effect on the state of oxidative stress in the kidney tissue and the level of lipids profile in the blood, and its weight-loss efficacy.

Some immunological responses in rats injected with prepared bacterin toxoid of local methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Abdullah A. Abdulazeez Sheehan; Mohammed H. Khudor; Fanar A. Isihak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 401-406
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130401.1815

This study was aimed to prepare bacterin toxoid from local isolate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from bovine mastitis in Basrah province. Isolated MRSA was detected and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. Then inactivated bacterin toxoid was prepared. A total of 45 male albino rats were used in 3 mainly groups to assess the bacterin toxoid. For immunological response, the concentrations of IL-4, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cells were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed increase in the concentrations of IL-4, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in vaccinated group comparing with non-vaccinated control group. Increasing concentrations of IL-4 enhance humoral immune response by stimulation of Th2 that effect directly on B-cells differentiating them to plasma cells responsible for production of specific antibodies against MRSA. Increased CD4+T-cells also enhance humoral immune response as a result of interaction between them and antigen-presenting cells which presented major histocompatibility complex (MHC) type II on their surface, while increased CD8+T-cells enhance cellular immune response as a result of interaction between them and somatic effected cells presented MHC type I on their surface leading to differentiation them to Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) responsible for the killing of effected cells. It was concluded that locally prepared bacterin toxoid proved their efficacy to stimulate both humoral and cell mediated immunity in rats as an experimental animal model.

Sero-prevalence of hypodermosis in cattle in Mosul city, Iraq

Duaa G. Alhamdany; Nadia S. alhayali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 407-412
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130397.1816

Bovine hypodermosis has been known as a veterinary disease that mainly caused by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum. This study aimed to determine sero-prevalence of cattle grubs in Mosul, Iraq utilizing indirect ELISA as well as effect of some risk factors on prevalence of hypodermosis. A total of two hundred blood specimens were collected from healthy and infested cattle through direct palpation. All samples were collected from cattle at Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Mosul abattoir, Kokjali and Bazwaya region during October 2020 to March 2021. Outcomes of iELISA showed 40.5% as an infestation rate of hypodermosis. Notably, infestation intensity has distributed as light, moderate and sever 11, 18.5 and 70.3% respectively. Interestingly, highest seroprevalence of hypodermosis was recorded in October 67.7%, and the lowest was recorded in February and March 22.2%, 25% respectively. Observations of current study also recorded the infection rate in age was 54.7% in animals less than 3 years old, and the lowest was 16% in animals more than 3 years old. Moreover, breed showed a significant risk factor 53.8% for imported cattle and 14.7% for local breed. Importantly, risk factor concerning area recorded the highest rate in Kokjali 52.2%. In contrast, the lowest rate recorded in Teaching Veterinary Hospital 14.8%. The present study is the first investigation to identify cattle hypodermosis by iELISA in Mosul, Iraq. iELISA has been approved as the best diagnostic tool for early detection of hypodermosis during the migrating phase. Interestingly, age, breed and months of study were significant risk factors. 

Effect of adding carrots as feed supplementation on reproductive performance in Awassi ewes

Nawaf N. Dhahir; Maythem A. Ismaeel; Ziyad T. Aldoori

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 413-417
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130460.1822

The present study was designed to estimate the effect of carrots supplementation on reproductive performance in ewes. Thirty Awassi ewes. Ewes were randomly divided into three equal groups, distributed as 10 ewes for each group. First group consider as control, second group feed 400 g carrot/animal daily, third group feed 800 g carrot/animal daily. Each group were synchronized with intra vaginal sponges and injected with 400 IU of eCG at the time of sponge withdrawal. Estrus ewes were conceived naturally with rams and pregnant ewes were followed until parturition. The results of current study demonstrated that G3 had high estrus response and fertility rate 90% compared with G2 and control 80 and 70% respectively. Fecundity rate increased significant in G3 200% compared to G2 and 125 and 100% respectively. Ewes in G3 showed the highest multiple lambing rate 66.67% compared with G2 25% and control 0%. Blood progesterone concentration was high increasing at the 18th day of estrus in the ewes for G3 and G2 compared with control, also, estrogen level at the day of estrus showed high increasing in G3 compared with G2 and control group. We concluded that carrots fed as a supplementation have essential effect on enhancement of reproductive performance in ewes. 

Histopathological changes on the pregnant rat's lung induced by sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 419-424
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130464.1824

Food additives and preservatives are widely used globally, which, despite their many benefits, have great harm if they are used without health restrictions or control, as they cause many health problems and tissue lesions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the histopathological effects on the lung of pregnant rats of two types of these substances: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and Sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Twenty-four pregnant rats used for this study, and they were divided into four groups equally. The control group was dosed with distilled water from the sixth day to the fifteenth day of pregnancy. The second was dosed with MSG at a 12g /kg concentration for the same period in the first group. The third injected with a concentration of 120 mg/kg of NaNO2 for the same period. The fourth was dosed with MSG and NaNO2 together, with the same concentrations and the above period. The results showed that the second group''s lungs showed many histopathological changes, including strong infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, necrosis of bronchioles and alveolar septa, and emphysema of some alveoli. In the third group, changes included hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, hemorrhage in the alveoli, desquamation and necrosis in bronchioles, peri-bronchial fibrosis, blood vessel congestion. The fourth group showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, necrosis in multiple lung areas, emphysema, fibrosis in some alveoli, and hypoplasia of the muscle fibers around the blood vessels. The study concluded that MSG and NaNO2 caused much tissue damage in the lungs of pregnant rats.

Effect of Aloe vera gel on the healing of cutaneous wounds in donkeys

Durgham M. Al-Sabaawy; Osama Hazim Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 425-432
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130479.1830

The efficiency of fresh Aloe vera gel was tested on the healing of large cutaneous wounds of the forelimbs in donkeys. Twelve adult donkeys from both sexes were used in this experimental study. They were divided into equal groups. A square shape cutaneous wound about 8*8cm, was induced on the lateral aspect of the forelimb exactly between humeral and knee joint. In group one, the induced wound was left without treatment, while in second group the wound was treated by local application of fresh Aloe vera gel. The evaluation of healing process results was based on monitoring the gross signs of wound healing, in addition to the study the histopathological changes at 15th, 30th, 45th postoperative days. In group one, the wound healing process was characterized by infection, congestion, inflammatory exudate, excessive granulation tissue formation, and no decrease in wound size, while in group two, the healing of wound was characterized by absence of granulation tissue overgrowth with decrease in wound size and little occurrence of infection and congestion. The histopathological observations in first group was showed intensive granulation tissue formation with massive infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and delay of reepithelization, while in second group, overgrowth of granulation tissue was lesser, little infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, rapid reepithelization with more maturation and stretching of collagen fibers. It was concluded that the Aloe vera gel can be used successfully as topical treatment to improve and enhance large cutaneous wound healing in donkeys

3-D nanocomposite scaffolds: Tissue engineering for bone reconstruction

Saffanah Khuder Mahmood; Intan Shameha Binti Abdul Razak; Mohammad Tariq Yaseen; Loqman Mohamed Yusof; Zaid K. Jeber; Fufa Gimba; Md Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 433-444
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130481.1831

A challenge to the orthopedic surgeons in veterinary and human fields is the treatment of delayed union, malunion and nonunion. Apart from renovation of arrangement and constant fixation, in many cases, adjunctive measures such as bone-grafting or the use of bone-graft substitutes, are of dominant significance. In general bone-graft materials comprise one or more components: an osteoconductive matrix, which acts as a scaffold to new bone growth; osteoinductive proteins, backing the mitogenesis of indistinguishable cells; and osteogenic cells, which can form bone in the proper environment. Our review focuses on the currently existing bone graft and graft substitutes for the novel therapeutic approaches in the clinical situation of orthopedic surgery. This review is based on an extensive literature search of different composite scaffolds developed as bone regenerative therapies. The settlement and drawbacks of different composite scaffold developed techniques, the properties of generally used ceramics and polymers, and the properties of presently investigated synthetic composite grafts. To follow, an exhaustive review of in vivo models is used to test composite scaffolds in segmental bone defects (SBDs) to serve as a guide to design suitable translational studies and to recognize the challenges that require to be overcome in scaffold design for successful transformation. This includes the formative of the anatomical position within the animals, selecting the accurate study period, and an overview of scaffold presentation evaluation.

Molecular detection of Trypanosoma species in sheep and goats in Mosul city

Marwa S. Mahmood; Wasan A. Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 445-449
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130488.1835

In this study, we examined blood samples of 385 sheep and goats of different ages, sexes, and sources under routine microscopic examination of the blood smear (wet, thin, thick, buffy coat layer smears) to detect Trypanosoma. Results show that 81 samples were positive. These samples are succumbed to the molecular detection of Trypanosoma and other species by the extraction of parasitic DNA this parasitic DNA is detected in samples using KIN1, KIN2, and AITSF, AITSR primers. After that, conventional polymerase chain reaction was applied, and the results showed that 81 samples had a positive reaction in using KIN1 and KIN2 primers, while the positive samples were 76 when using AITSF, AITSR primers. Moreover, results showed a high rate of infection in sheep as compared with goats using both pairs of primers and two species of Trypanosoma in sheep and goats. Molecular was recorded, which include T. conglense and T. vivax. Animals more than 1-2 years old group showed a high rate of infection as compared with other ages group, and females have recorded a high rate of infection as compared with males. According to the source of animals, imported animals showed a high infective rate compared to native ones. This study is the first recorded Trypanosoma species in small ruminants in Mosul city.

A comparative study of nano magnesium oxide versus platelets rich fibrin to repair the induced radial fracture in dogs

Yassir F. Abdulmawjood; Moyaser G. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 451-458
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130500.1836

This project evaluated the effects of nano magnesium oxide versus platelets rich fibrin on induced radial fracture bone healing. Eighteen males and nonpregnant females of adult local stray dogs, weighing 17.6±0.85 kg and aged 2.08±0.13 years, were used. These trials animals were randomly divided into three groups of equal numbers. In the first group, Control group (C), a transverse radial fracture was induced then immobilized by external fixation as gypsum. In this group, the fracture line was not treated with any bioactive material. In the second group, platelets rich fibrin group (PRF), the fracture line was treated by adding platelets rich fibrin. In the third group, nano magnesium oxide (NMO), the fracture line was treated by adding a suspension of nano magnesium oxide. The radiographic results showed that the fractured bone healing was faster in the second group than in the first and third groups, while the third group was better than the first group. The concentration rates of serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were increased in the weeks followed the surgical operation. Depending on the radiographic pictures and serial rates of alkaline phosphatase, the second PRF and the third NMO groups were the better-fractured bone healing than the first one. In conclusion, this study revealed that using each platelets rich fibrin and nano magnesium oxide enhanced and improved the healing of the induced radial fracture.

Effect of autologous peritoneum and platelet-rich fibrin graft on healing of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

Nebras M. Raffea; Asmaa H. Allawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 459-470
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130529.1840

In the present study, the effect of autogenous peritoneum graft (PG) with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) was evaluated on intestinal anastomosis healing in dogs. Eighteen local breed adult dogs were anesthetized then jejunal intestinal resection and anastomosis were created on all animals. Animals were divided into 3 equal groups (6 for each). In first group (control): An end-to-end intestinal anastomosis was performed using simple interrupted suture pattern only. In group PG: The anastomosis site was sutured as in control group and was wrapped with PG. Where as in PRF+PG group: The anastomosis site was sutured also as in first group and was wrapped with PRF and PG. Healing process was studied in all above mentioned groups clinically, grossly, histologically and radiographically at 15 and 30 days post operation. Results were revealed that the utilizing of PG caused a valuable influence on anastomosis site healing. This impact was manifested by faster re-epithelization of mucosa, increased collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, reduced adhesions, and decreased stenosis degree comparison with control group. Also there was less adhesions, less stenosis degree, increased in epithelization of the mucosa in the group treated with PRF+PG than the group treated with PG alone. In conclusion the current study has shown that autologous peritoneal graft application has a positive and beneficial effect on intestinal anastomosis healing. Also the results highlighted the promising effects of PRF in conjunction with PG on intestinal anastomosis healing. The application of PRF with PG at the intestinal anastomosis site is successful, safe, and highly efficient with no complications.

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs at Basrah, Iraq

Jihad A. Ahmed; Hassanin H. Al-Autaish; Kamal M. AlSaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 471-477
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130539.1841

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs due to vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency was suspected in local adult lambs of Basrah, Iraq. The study was conducted on 82 adults local breed lambs 8-11 months of age. Suspected animals show panting with increase abdominal respiration and mouth breathing, recumbence and unable to stand with acute death within 24-48 h. Fifteen clinically healthy lambs were considered as controls. The hematological changes indicated a significant decrease in RBC, Hb, and PCV reflected macrocytic hypochromic type of anemia. Indices of clotting factors show significant changes in diseased adult lambs. Results of the biochemical changes indicated a significant decrease of vitamin E, and the glutathione peroxidase, in diseased animals, whereas, a significant increase indicated in the values of AST, CK and troponin I. Results of the post-mortem examinations showed enlargement of the heart with a white-colored irregular patch. Furthermore, results of histopathological changes indicated an acute cellular degeneration of myocardial fibers associated with diffuse interstitial edematous fluid in the myocardial parenchyma and acute cellular degenerative myocardial fibers with a marked degree of degeneration in the myocardial parenchyma. It has been concluded that, acute enzootic muscular dystrophy has an adverse harmful clinical effect on adult diseased lambs which could always be terminated with death.

Traditional and molecular diagnosis of Haemonchus contortus in sheep in Babylon province, Iraq

Balkes F. Hade; Suha T. Al-Biatee; Haider M. Al-Rubaie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 479-481
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130533.1842

Haemonchus contortus one of gastrointestinal helminthes characterized by miner intraspecific variation and a major variation among species which exploited to determine species simultaneously depend on PCR techniques, by amplification of DNA from parasites so goal of study was traditional and molecular detection of this parasite in sheep. Experiment was conducted using adult worms collected from abomasum of sheep obtained from abattoir in Babylon province. All worms divided into two groups, first group for morphological study and second group stored in 70% ethanol for DNA extraction, ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene were amplified using PCR technique sequenced and analysis with a phylogenic tree.According to the available data this study recordedHaemonchus contortus in sheep depend on ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene sequences for the first time in Iraq with accession no. LC552170 and LC552171 using molecular data.The phylogeny analysis depended on ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene partial sequences were closely related and high identity 94% with Germany H. similis sequence MN708992.1 and 93% identity with New-Zealand and Austria H. contortus sequence KC998713.1 and KJ724288.1 respectively, with a low genetic variation among all comparison sequenced isolates.

Efficacy of Urtiea dicica extract for amelioration of brain lesions induced by ethylene glycol in male rabbits

Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya; Hana Kh. Ismail; Enas S. Mostafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 485-488
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130563.1848

The nervous system is the most delicate organ to neurotoxic substances that affects the development of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters, and organization of ion channels. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is one of the medicinal plants, which has been increasingly highlighted used for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative components. This study aimed to evaluate the improvement effects of Urtica dioica extract on the histopathological lesions of nervous system in rabbit model. Fifteen male rabbits of 700-800 grams separated into three groups, the first group is the control, and the second group were treated with 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) in water for 30 days, group three were combination treated group with both EG and Urtica dioica at 100 mg/kg for 10 days. Microscopic histological examination discovered generalized congestion of blood vessels at the cerebrum and cerebellum, degeneration and necrosis of the neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex which characterized by swelling of the degenerative cells, while necrotic cells characterized by shrunken and pyknosis of the cells in the cerebellum cortex presents of inflammatory cells in the meninges. In conclusion, the histopathological examination of brain sections of rabbits treated with ethylene glycol in addition to Urtica dioica extract showed slight improvement in the histological pictures of the cerebellum and cerebrum.

Infections and molecular characterization of anisakid nematodes from two species of marine fish northwest Arabian gulf

Majid A. Bannai; Muna M. Jori

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 489-497
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130613.1851

The present study provides new insight into valuable information on the diverse structure of the anisakid population, discusses the limited species richness, and also discusses the relationship with other closely diversity-related taxa in NCBI databases in the Epinephelus diacanthus and Epinephelus coioides fish. The fishing area consists of various locations in the Arabian Gulf. A total of 69 E.coioides and E. diacanthus were examined, (n= 48) were infected. Larval stages (n=1,119). Isolated larvae were encysted within the mesenteries peritoneum and viscera of fish organs, with a prevalence of 81.25% of infection and 59.459 % in the E. diacanthus and E. coioides respectively. Molecular analysis was carried out on thirty individuals of nematode parasites who have examined the morphology and showed some appearance differences, by amplifying internal transcribed spacers ITS and ITS-1 of nuclear rDNA (rDNA) by PCR using the primer sets NC5/NC2 and SS1/NC13R of DNA products. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA X. based on the identity percentage in the GenBank database showed that they belong to anisakid nematodes, in particular, they belong to nine distinct taxa within the Hysterothylacium spp. The presence of the same species individuals in one host may be the cause of these genetic variations at the species level, and that's what the current study has recorded. It has been found that there is an overlap in the order of nitrogen bases between the same species, and this occurs through the fertilization process, while the rest is clean or have only a few parasites. 

A Comparison between ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-midazolam or all of them to induce balance anesthesia in rabbits

Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 499-506
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130618.1852

The objective of this projectwas to study the induction of smooth anesthesia characterized by good induction (hypnosis), analgesia and good recovery with mild side effects caused by drugs. The effect of using Ketamine with both xylazine and midazolam KXM was investigated in adult rabbitsand compared with the positive control group that was administered with ketamine alone K at 40 mg/kg i.m, and with ketamine - xylazine group KX at 40 and 4 mg/kg i.m respectively, and with ketamine - midazolam group KM also at 40 and 4 mg/kg i.m respectively. Administration of xylazine and midazolam each one alone at 4 and 2 mg/kg I.M induced analgesia in a dose-dependent manner through a significant elevation of the electrical voltage after injection when compared with its value before injection. A minimum doses of a mixture KXM at 20,2 and 2 mg/kg i.m respectively, induced good hypnosis with rapid induction and long duration with recovery periods without significant variations in vital physiological parameters (respiratory rate, heart rate, and rectal temperature) and some biochemical parameters (GPT and GOT and glucose level) comparing with groups K, KX and KM. The outcomes of this work were revealed to the induction of proficient general anesthesia that was described by effective hypnosis with analgesic efficacy throughout the administration a minimum doses of ketamine/xylazine/midazolam combination in rabbits.

Ultrasound image analysis for detection of fatty liver and grading its severity in buffaloes at Mosul, Iraq

Ziena H. Hasan; Osamah M. aliraqi; Ielaf O. Abdul Majjed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 507-511
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130666.1864

The study aimed to (ⅰ) examines whether quantitative and qualitative digital analysis of hepatic ultrasound images can be used to detect fatty liver and grading its severity, (ⅱ) to estimate the concentration of serum β-hydroxybutyrate content in normal and diseased animals. A total of 50 buffaloes (15 clinically normal and 35 suffered from decreased milk production, loss of appetite, and loss of body weight) 2-4 weeks after parturition were studied. Buffaloes were examined by real-time ultrasound using a 3.5 MHz convex probe. Ultrasound images were saved for qualitative and quantitative analysis, using computer aid Fatty-Liver software (programmed in Matlab language). Based on the digital analysis of ultrasound images, the diseased buffaloes were classified as mild (n=20), moderate (n=7) and severe (n=8) fatty liver affection. Results indicated that the concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate estimated via ELISA were 0.409, 0.735, 0.923, 1.708 mmol/dL in normal, mild, moderate, and severe diseased buffaloes respectively. However, a significant difference has been encountered among normal and diseased animals. It has been concluded that buffaloes at Mosul suffered from fatty liver and digital analysis of ultrasound images was a suitable method for clinical diagnosis, furthermore, estimation of β-hydroxybutyrate was a suitable method for laboratory diagnosis.

The effect of vitamin E on the histological structure of kidney in rats treated with cyclophosphamide

Ahmed A. Obaid; Maha I. Alsammak; Mustafa S. Salah Fadhil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 513-517
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130689.1865

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a cytotoxic alkylating drug that is commonly used to treat autoimmune disorders and cancer. CP causes nephrotoxicity by producing highly reactive radicals devoid of oxygen. A fat-soluble vitamin E that interacts as a free radical scavenger, inhibiting nitrosamine production and blocking lipid peroxidation from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this research was to see if vitamin E may help combating CP induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty-two adult albino female Westar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and received daily treatment for thirty days. Group A considered as control group, receiving normal saline IP at dose of 0.3 ml, group B given 15 mg/kg b.w. of cyclophosphamide IP, while group C received cyclophosphamide with vitamin E at dose 200 mg/kg, oral administration of vitamin E one hour before injection of cyclophosphamide, in group D they received vitamin E orally at dose of 200 mg kg body weight mixed with olive oil daily by oral gavage. In group B the cyclophosphamide causes highly significant reduction in body weight and histologically showed atrophy of most glomeruli, distention in bowman’s space, tubular degeneration and luminal hyaline cast material, while in group C showed most of the glomeruli normal except atrophy of few number of glomeruli and focal epithelial degeneration of renal tubules. Our study found that one of the primary mechanisms induced by cyclophosphamide may be nephrotoxicity due to oxidative stress, and pretreatment with vitamin E reduces cyclophosphamide-induced nephrotoxicity.

Detection of endoparasites in mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in north Sumatra province, Indonesia

Eri Yusni; Agung Batubara; Cahya Frantika

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 519-524
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130703.1867

The purpose of this study was to determine the species and the prevalence value of endoparasites that infect male and female mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in Tanjung Balai Port, North Sumatra Province. This research was conducted from August to September 2020. Research on endoparasite identification was carried out at the Laboratory of the Technical Implementation Unit for the Implementation of Fishery Product Quality (UPT PMHP), Medan. The method used in this study is a survey method with direct collection at the research location. The sample was taken using random sampling techniques. Endoparasite research was conducted on 30 fish samples, divided into 15 samples of male mackerel tuna with an average size of 26.92 cm and an average weight of 258.451 g, and 15 samples of female mackerel tuna with an average size of 29.50 cm and an average weight of 352.249 g. Four genera of endoparasites were found that infect male and female mackerel tuna, namely Rhadinorhynchus sp., Echinorhynchus sp., Acanthocephalus sp., and Neoechinorhynchus sp. with the highest prevalence value, namely the type of Rhadinorhynchus sp. 6.66% in the stomach and 76.66% in the intestine, the type of Echinorhynchus sp. 3.33% in the stomach and 33.33% in the intestine, as well as Acanthocephalus sp 26.66% and Neoechinorhynchus sp 13.33% only in the intestine.

Effects of Hypericum perforatum on serum lipid vascular systems in mice

Zena S. Hamed; Rana R. Abed; Mohammed S. Almashhadany; Marwan M. Merkhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 525-530
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130708.1868

Herbal products are increasingly used against lipid to attenuate its negative impact on vasculature system. However, there are uncertainty regarding the best administration approaches and preparation of herbal product to be used due to variation in absorption rate and extent with subsequent impaction on the lipid levels. The aim of the present study was comparing the pharmacological and analytical aspects of soaked versus powder form of Hypericum perforatum; a well-known anti-hyperlipidemic herbal product, using atorvastatin drug as a reference drug for comparison in addition to controlling groups (on/off lipid diet) handled as an additional control group. To conduct this research, the hyperlipidemia mice models were created by exposing the mice to a fatty diet and using H. perforatum and atorvastatin for evaluation. The plant extracts were also analyzed for active constituents. The results indicate that the plant analysis detected the presence of different antihyperlipidemic agents and the plant has effectively reduced plasma lipid parameters in exposed mice compared to control group; especially when taken forms of the plant was used. The study concluded that; soaked H. perforatum extract shown an effective reduction of lipid parameters and analysis of which revealed the presence of herbal active constituent which might be utilized in industrial pharmacy for new drug innovation.

Genotyping of Salmonella enterica strains from animal and human origin using three molecular techniques

Juan S. Cruz-Méndez; Julián D. Ortiz-Muñoz; Iang S. Rondon-Barragan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 531-538
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130764.1877

This study aims to characterize different Salmonella enterica subsp molecularly. enterica strains (n=49) were isolated from human gastrointestinal cases in the Tolima region and poultry from Santander and Tolima regions using PCR-RFLP, PCR-ribotyping, and PCR-SSCP. The band patterns obtained with each technique were analyzed by building dendrograms based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method and using the Dice coefficient. On the other hand, the discriminatory power of each technique was assessed using Simpson's discriminatory index. The genetic profiles of the gnd gene obtained with AciI restriction enzyme and the PCR-SSCP carried out with groEL gene allowed the inter-and intraserovar differentiation. Finally, the PCR-ribotyping method exhibited the highest discriminatory power (0.8571). In conclusion, we show three PCR-based genotyping methods providing an alternative for identifying similarities and differences within Salmonella enterica strains from different geographic and biological regions.

Improved vaccination protocol to enhance immunity in lambs of Kuwait farms

Hana A. Burezq; Faten Khalil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 539-548
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130837.1883

The susceptibility of lambs to infective diseases should be minimized by improving the immunity of lambs through effective vaccination procedures to abate lamb mortality in sheep farms. In this regard, field experiments were carried out with 180 pregnant ewes of Naeemi sheep breed at the PAAFR (Public Authority for Agriculture and Fisheries Research Station, Kuwait). The results revealed that the concentration of serum Ig’s in blood samples collected from ewes vaccinated during pregnancy with Pasteurella, Clostridia, FMD (Foot and Mouth Disease) and PPR (Peste des Petits Ruminants) vaccines was significantly elevated as vaccination against these four diseases agents would have ultimately resulted in circulating antibodies protecting the animals against natural exposure. Theconcentration of colostral Ig’s produced by vaccinated ewes during the pregnancy period was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the normal colostrum secreted from unvaccinated ewes during pregnancy, ensuring the positive role of the colostrum in transferring passive immunity. The results clearly illustrated no cases of mortality and abortion, as vaccination has played a role in maintaining the health of ewes by overcoming the targeted pathogens and preventing any abnormalities in the pregnant ewes. The present study confirmed the improved immune status of young lambs born to ewes vaccinated twice during pregnancy, reflecting improved health status. It is recommended to maintain 21 days’ intervals in vaccinating ewes with different vaccines for specific diseases.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Osteocranium Anatomy of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) from Cultured Pond in Aceh, Indonesia

Ilham Zulfahmi; Yusrizal drh.yusrizal.akmal.msi@gmail.com; Andi Iqbal Burhanuddin; Yeni Dhamayanti; Epa Paujiah; Kizar Ahmed Sumon; Dina Nath Pandit; Firman M Nur

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130884.1888

To date, information related the skeletal morphology of fish in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, we firstly described the morphology of the cranium of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected from aquaculture pond in Aceh Province, Indonesia. In the present study, research methodology included the preparation of cranium, photographing, editing images and identifying the terminology of cranium. The cranium was prepared physically and chemically. Each part of the cranium was documented using a Canon EOS 700D camera and edited using Adobe Photoshop CS6. The cranium nomenclature was determined by comparing the similarity of the shape and location of each part of the fish cranium that has been studied previously. The cranium of African catfish was divided into two major parts, namely neurocranium (ossa neurocranii) and splanchnocranium (ossa splanchnocranii). Neurocranium had four regions belonging to etmoidal, orbital, otic and occipital, while splanchnocranium had five regions belonging to maxillaris, mandibularis, arcus mandibularis, arcus hyoideus, and apparatus operculare. The African catfish had a strong and thick neurocranium structure. However, orbital, arcus hyoideus and apparatus operculare regions were not well developed. The results of this study could be used as a basic for further research, especially in the field of taxonomy and phylogeny of fish.

The role of adding Hyaluronic Acid in the grafting process for the repair of experimentally induced tibial defect in dogs model

Fouad M. Albaroudy; Layth M Alkattan; Ahmed M Shareef; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130889.1891

Abstract
The study was designed to determine the role of adding hyaluronic acid as a supportive filling material to improve grafting process of experimentally defective tibial bone in dog model. Eighteen local breed dogs of both sexes weighted 18± 0.4 kg and aged (12± 0.6Months) were randomly allocated in two equal groups. In the first group, twelve dogs underwent experimental tibial bone defect (2.5×0.7 cm ) and replaced with deprotenized lamb ribs. The second group were treated as that for the first, but supported by adding 1% hyaluronic acid, to their grafts. The bone in both groups was firmly fixed by cerclage wire. All dogs were; followed-up clinically, radiologically and macroscopically at (14, 30 and 60 days after the intervention. In all study dogs the systemic infections, signs of seromas, hematoma and sever lameness were not developed along the period of the study . Grossly, dogs in the second group at 60 days showed an increase in the size of the filler of bone at the edges and in the mid of the defect, improvement and acceleration in the bone healing, and formation of bone bridges compared to the first group. Radiological finding exhibited complete healing of the fixated bone segment with the surrounding area; however, some cortical irregularities denoted chronic periosteal reaction and callus formation in the treatment with hyaluronic acid. In conclusion, the study indicated that hyaluronic acid with xenograft materials exhibited remarkable beneficial effects on improvement of the tibial bone defect augmentation

Evaluation of Fracture Healing After Thyroidectomy in Rabbits Model

Omar A. Bader

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130893.1897

This research aims to investigate the fracture healing effects caused by thyroidectomy. The experiment involved sixteen matured male rabbits of local breed which divided into 2 equal groups (control and treated). Rabbits anesthetized by premedicated atropine sulphate, then 15 minutes later, a mixture of Xylazine Ketamine was used. The control group rabbits were induced with mid-shafted femoral fracture, with that, the fixation by intramedullary pinning was considered Meanwhile, the treated group rabbits were induced with same method mentioned above, but fracture were fixed after thyroidectomy and measurement of thyroxin a week after thyroidectomy. Results which were obtained from the clinic revealed signs of severe inflammatory reaction in control group which were higher comparing to treated group. These sings were disappeared within 4-5 days in treated group, while, it took 5-6 days in control animals. Also, radiological results of 2 groups showed that a periosteal reaction was observed towards the end of the 2nd week in the control group, whereas, the treated group showed its reaction at the end of fourth week, there was an invisible fracture line for both control and treated groups at the end of fourth and seventh week, respectively. In addition, bony bridge in the control groups became remodeled into a lamellar bone earlier than treated group. The results of measuring thyroxin hormone before and after the thyroidectomy confirmed the essential role of this hormone in fracture healing. To conclude that the fracture healing maturity was greater in control group than in treated group.

Renal ameliorating effect of resveratrol in hydrogen peroxide induced male rats

Noor T. Khudair; Bara N. Al-Okaily

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.130939.1898

The study aimed to investigate the potential effect of resveratrol (RS) supplementation in attenuating kidney injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in male rats. Forty adult male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (10 each). The control group was orally supplemented with distilled water, and group G1 was orally supplemented with tap water containing 0.5% of H2O2, G2: was orally supplemented with tap water containing 0.5% of H2O2 and RS 87 mg/kg BW, and G3 was orally supplemented with RS 87 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were obtained before treatment and after 45 days of daily treatment. Serum concentrations of creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (UN), and total bilirubin were assessed. On day 45, male rats were euthanized, and kidney samples were taken to estimate malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations, and other samples were obtained for histopathological examination. The results showed a significant increase in creatinine and BUN concentrations accompanied by a significant increase in MDA and a decrease in SOD in kidney tissue in G1 group male rats compared to other groups. Resveratrol partially restored the studied criteria related to renal functions by modulating the histopathological changes in the kidney induced by hydrogen peroxide. It could be concluded that supplementation of resveratrol to oxidatively stressed rats maintains the antioxidant defenses mechanism and could be helpful in the prevention of renal oxidative stress.

In vivo study of Impact Transplantation Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells on Induced Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rabbits Model

Zahraa K. Zedan; Salah A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130949.1899

The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (HSCs) on full-thickness cutaneous wounds healing in rabbits. Twenty clinically healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study; under aseptic technique and general anesthesia full-thickness excisional cutaneous wound; 20 mm x 20 mm were made on the back. The rabbits were randomly partitioned into two. In first group (control group), the wounds were treated with 3ml of saline solution. In second group (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group); wounds were treated with 5x106 (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells). The result of molecular evaluation along the interval of following-up recorded a significant differences (P<0.05) of the level Fibroblasts Growth Factor (FGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) recorded at 7, 14 and 35 day post-surgical operation in (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group) compare than control group. These outcomes were parallel with the finding of the clinical and histopathological assessment showed that Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group reduces inflammation and promotes epithelialization during 3th weeks with increased vasculature than those in untreated wounds. This study confirms that local implantation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells leads to enhance and develop of cutaneous wound healing in rabbit model.

Rapid diagnosis of leishmania spp. in blood samples using gold nanoparticles.

Musafer H. Al-Ardi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130985.1906

There are many methods to diagnose Leishmania spp. a microscopic, serological or molecular methods. However, finding a fast and accurate diagnostic assay is a necessary and urgent requirement nowadays. here, we improved nano detection method to diagnose Leishmania spp. In blood samples. In this study, we used a probe of oligonucleotide sequences associated with AuNPs (20 nm) to diagnose different Leishmania spp. in blood samples of dogs. For this purpose, three series replicates of 10 μl of 23 ng / μl of Leishmania spp. DNA are used. A change in the solution colour to red is an indicator of a positive result, while the change to purple is a negative result. Then we compared these results with the molecular assay of (IST1) gene. The overall relative sensitivity of the result is (90%). The result shows that 10 out of 10 samples of visceral Leishmania are positive with relative sensitivity and specificity (100%). Eight out of 10 samples of cutaneous leishmania are positive with relative sensitivity and specificity (80%). The present method is a fast and accurate method for detecting small amounts of DNA, and it is easy to distinguish by visual inspection.

A study of primary ossification centers in the hind limbs of Awasi sheep fetuses by double stains method and radiography.

Saif A. Salih; Naziha S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131008.1909

Forty Local Awasi sheep fetuses were collected from several areas in Ninevah Governorate, further than local slaughterhouse. Their estimated ages calculated depending on crown-rump length with the aid of Richardson formula. The study aimed to detect the site and the time of appearance of ossification centers in the hind limb bones of Awasi sheep fetuses by using modified double staining method to demonstrate cartilage and bone , or by using radiography. The first ossification centers appeared in the hind limb bones was the primary center of the tibia and femur ,metatarsus with ilium then ischium at 45 , 46 , 48, 50-52 days of fetal age respectively. The ossification centers of pes phalanges appeared in the following sequence ; distal phalanx ,followed by the proximal phalanx and end by middle phalanx , at 58 ,60, 64 days respectively. Ossification centers of tarsal bones began to appear in calcaneus at 64 day , talus at 77 day , central & 4th tarsal bones at 96 day ,, followed by centers of 3rd & 2nd tarsal bones at 100 day while, the center of 1st tarsal bone appeared lastly at 105 day.Femur , tibia and metatarsus studied statistically by follow up the relative increase of their total lengths and length of their ossified part of diaphysis , the results show high significant variance in their growth and ossification of the three bones in first studied period (46-60 days) in comparison with the next sixth successive fortnightly periods

Molecular Detection of uidA gene in Escherichia coli Isolated from the Dairy Farms in Nineveh Governorate/Iraq.

Leena H. Alsanjary; Omar Hashim Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131046.1913

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative environmental micro-organism- which causes intramammary infections in mammals, In addition, to cause food poisoning in human. Four hundred samples were obtained from various areas of the dairy farm . Fifty samples from each of bedding, soils, feces, feed, milk, water, workers hands, and flies were randomly collected from different regions located around Nineveh Governorate between September 2020 and January 2021. E. coli isolates were identifed using the classical methods based on the morphological and biochemical methods for the detection the E. coli isolates and PCR had been used to detect the uidA gene in it. The results of our study revealed that out of 400 samples collected from different dairy herds, 140 (35%) of E. coli were positive. The percentage of E. coli isolated from flies, bedding, feces, milk, soils, feed, water, and worker's hands was 76% (38/50), 46% (23/50), 38% (19/50), 34% (17/50), 28% (14/50), 28% (14/50), 18% (9/50), and 12% (6/50), respectively. All the positive E. coli isolates have been possessing the uidA gene which is the species-specific gene .The results of classical methods had concurred with the results of the PCR test. The current study showed that milk, workers' hand, and flies played an important role to spread E. coli in the dairy farms. The PCR technique is a rapid method that helps to give the suitable drugs in the treatment of the cattle suffered from mastitis and prevent E. coli from distribution among the dairy herds.

Histological and histochemical observations of the prostate gland at resting and stimulating status in adult local Dog (Canis familiaris)

Mohammed I. Hammodi; Luay O. Hamza

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131095.1915

The present investigation was done to clarify the histological and histochemical characteristics of the well-developed prostate gland in the adult local dogs (Canis familiaris). The tissue specimens were taken from the prostate gland, the samples were processed by routine histological techniques and stained. Histologically, the body of the prostate in resting was characterized by abundant amounts of fibrous tissue with little glandular lobes that were surrounded by a very thick fibromuscular capsule. Each lobe was composed of numerous variable size lobules that contained several alveoli lined by simple cuboidal cells. While in stimulating status, the gland is characterized by much amount of glandular tissue, thin fibro muscular capsule and thin interlobar connective tissue. The disseminated part of the prostate gland was composed of little scattered small size glandular lobules within the subepithelial cavernous tissue of the urethra about (1-2) cm post body of prostate. Histochemical, the stimulating prostate showed marked intense magenta colour which referred to the presence of both acidic and neutral glycoprotein secretory products when stained with Combine Alcian blue (2.5 pH) + PAS stain. In conclusion, this study showed the differences between the prostate glands in the resting and stimulating status in local breed dogs.

EXPRESSION OF KI-67 IN SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLANDS OF RABBITS AFTER BTX INJECTION: HISTOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY

Abdullah Abdalmawjood Ahmed; Jawnaa Khalid Mammdoh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131101.1919

This study aimed to examine histological effects of local injections of BTX in rabbits submandibular SGs and to find the dose-dependent and time relationship between injections and study Immunohistochemistrical expression of Ki-67. Thirty male rabbits randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits for Each) 1st group: control (without treatment), 2nd group treated with 5U of BTX and 3rd group treated with 10U of BTX, Five animals of each group were sacrificed in 1st week of treatment and another five animals sacrificed in 4th week of treatment. The rabbit was anesthetized then injected with the BTX. The histopathological changes in Group 5, 10 Unit BTX (1st week) were vacuolar degeneration of mucous acini cells, degeneration of serous acini cells, while the lesions showed hyperplasia and necrosis of epithelial cells lining striated ducts, necrosis of serous acini.The Diameter of mucous acini were found to be significantly increased in 10 Unit BTX groups.During the 1st and 4th weeks, the surface area of the striated ducts in the 5 and 10 unit BTX groups increased significantly, and the number of striated ducts in the 10 Unit BTX group decreased significantly when compared to the 1st week period of the same group. BTX groups revealed moderate to weak positive cytoplasmic reactivity for Ki-67 protein in the parenchymal tissue of the glands. We conclude that BTX causes histological changes in the salivary gland as well as affecting Ki-67. This data could be used in a future study to investigate the usage of BTX in cancer treatment

Prediction of the ovulation time in estrus Mares by Different Methods

Mohammed Abdulelah Rahawy; Thamer Ahmed Alrashidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131093.1922

The aim of the study was to evaluate the prediction of ovulation time by three different methods body temperature, Dramineski estrus detection apparatus, and observation of the mature follicle daily by Ultrasonography in Mares estrus. Sixteen mature cycling mares were used during the breeding season in15 March and15 June of 2021, aged 5-6 years old, at the Nineveh Equestrian club in Mosul City-Iraq, Mares were daily examined by rectal palpation and ultrasound with a 5.5-7MHz linear-array transducer probe for scanning the ovaries and uterus, the mare's follicle diameter, body temperature was recorded daily and Dramineski estrus detection apparatus for prediction of ovulation time when the data up to 400 degrees.
The result showed that the body temperature was increased significantly at the 1st day to 3rd day of estrus at p<0.05, Dramineski estrus exhibit s elevation on 4th days showing high significant variation at the 1st day to 3rd day and 4th day of estrus at p In conclusion, the combination of Dramineski estrus detection and preovulatory follicle diameter recorded daily is a best method to predict the time of ovulation. Mares that have a follicle diameter larger than 40 mm, mares predicted the ovulation it has been pregnancy rate up to75% after natural breeding service for only one time.

Radiographic and Ultrasonic study of pelvic bones in awassi ewes and local she goat and relationship with age of sexual puberty

Adnan Ali Alhasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131175.1925

By using the US-origin portable X-ray machine with the 40KV and rectal probe of Veterary Ultrasound CD66V ultrasound V2.2. The average distance of the transverse pelvic inlet TPI and vertical pelvic inlet VPI in awassi ewe lambs with first singes of sexual puberty was 7.70 ±0.09 cm, 10.61 ±0.03 cm respectively and the average length and width of the ovary 1.20±0.08, 0.80±0.06 cm, respectively while The average distance of the transverse pelvic inlet and vertical pelvic inlet in local she goat lambs with first singes of sexual puberty was 7.15 ±0.06 cm, 10.55 ±0.10 cm respectively and the average length and width of the ovary 1.66±0.03, 1.24±0.02 cm respectively.
inlet and vertical pelvic inlet in local she goat lambs with first singes of sexual puberty was 7.15 ±0.06 cm, 10.55 ±0.10 cm respectively and the average length and width of the ovary 1.66±0.03, 1.24±0.02 cm respectively.inlet and vertical pelvic inlet in local she goat lambs with first singes of sexual puberty was 7.15 ±0.06 cm, 10.55 ±0.10 cm respectively and the average length and width of the ovary 1.66±0.03, 1.24±0.02 cm respectively.

Histological effects of the interaction of some food additives on the kidney of pregnant rats

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha; Raghad A. Abbas

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131181.1926

Food additives are still the subject of many studies to know their positive and negative effects, especially as they are widely used globally. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the histological effects of sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate on the histological structure of the kidney in pregnant rats. To achieve the aim of the study, 24 pregnant rats were used, classified into four groups, the first being the control group, the second treated with monosodium glutamate (10g/kg), the third injected with sodium nitrite (115 mg/kg), and the fourth for interaction between the two substances and for the same concentrations. The results showed the occurrence of many lesions in the kidneys of experimental groups rats. The second group included interstitial tissue hyperplasia and necrosis of the glomeruli, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, hydropic degeneration of some tubules, and necrosis of some of them. The third group included congestion, hemorrhage in the pulp area, degeneration of some urinary tubules, necrosis, and deformation of the glomerulus. While in the fourth group, degeneration of some tubules and necrosis in some of them were seen, hyperplasia of the glomerulus, reduction of Bowman's space, an increase in acidity of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the tubules, hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, and the desquamation of some tubules. The study concluded that these substances have harmful effects on the kidneys in pregnant rats, especially when they are overlapped, so they must be avoided during pregnancy to maintain the kidney health

Classical and Molecular Identification of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Infestation Cattle Wounds with Myiasis in Basrah Governorate / Iraq

Mohanad Faris Abdulhameed; Moaed Hanoon Sayhood; Abeer laily Mohammed; Muna Mohammed Jori

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131196.1930

The present study was carried out to describe some epidemiological facts of Myiasis infestations in cattle, so Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified from various infested sites with maggots during the period from February to September 2019, and it involved three districts (Shatt-Alarab, Al-Qurnah, and Al-Dyr) in the north of Basrah Governorate/Iraq. A total of 54 herds/owners were visited, with 150 of cattle were found to be infested with maggots and diagnosed from different sites of the animal body. The result was indicated that 31% (95%Cl, 26.9-35.4) of examined animals were infested with myiasis, and there were no significant differences detected between sex and ages of animal groups under study. Staphylococcus aureus was diagnosed using classical methods as morphological characteristics, physiological (coagulase tube method), biochemical tests and growth on selective medium as Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) at a percentage of 32% (48/150). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for amplification of the nuc gene in this isolated species indicated presence of nuc size (423) bp in comparing with ladder used. The study clearly states that myiasis is a serious threat to cattle populations, and that control measures must be recalled by veterinary and agriculture authorities. These measures should be forged to include using a trapping/catch system, applying effective treatment, spraying pesticides, and sterilizing male flies with radiation to inhibit producing offspring.

Detection of Campylobacter fetus in Aborted Ewes in Sulaimani Province by PCR

Eman Dhahir Arif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131225.1931

Abortion is one of the most important factors affecting lambing rates and, as a result, sheep farm profitability. It is also significant from a zoonotic viewpoint. In addition to financial losses. In sheep flocks, Campylobacter fetus causes infectious infertility, embryonic death, and miscarriages. The study investigated C. fetus from aborted fetuses and vaginal swab samples collected from sheep flocks in the Sulaimani province by the polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-eight aborted fetuses and 70 vaginal swabs were collected from sheep flocks in three districts of Sulaimani province (Kalar, Said Sadiq, and Chamchamal) from March 2018 to June 2019. The pathogen was identified in clinical specimens using conventional PCR. C. fetus was isolated in 16 of 38 aborted fetuses (42.1%) and 13 of 70 vaginal swabs from aborted ewes (18.6 %). The C. fetus gene 16s rRNA was sequenced and received the accession number MW694741 in NCBI GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences designated that the C. fetus isolate formed a separate branch and displayed the highest similarity and clustered with MN203686.1 and EU773268.1 accessions in a specific clade. A lower degree of affinity of C. fetus was revealed with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni.

Relationship between the leptin, progesterone, body weight, and onset of puberty in ewe lambs

Mohammed Abdulelah Rahawy; Mohammed Qassim Al ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131232.1932

The aim of the current study was to find out the relationship between leptin, progesterone, bodyweight with the onset of puberty in the ewe lambs.
Eight healthy weaned local breeds of ewe lambs at the age of 90 days were introduced in the study, Body weights were recorded, blood samples serum was collected and stored at -20°C until hormonal assays. ovaries and ovarian follicles were checked by ultrasound used to measure follicular diameter every two weeks until estrus was detected.
The result showed that the earliest estrus behavior was noticed at age 202 days. Significantly increased body weight was recorded during the trial times at p ≤ 0.05 Moreover leptin level elevated significantly coinciding with the age of puberty at p ≤ 0.05. Also, progesterone level was elevated significantly as the age of puberty at p ≤ 0.05. In addition to that the follicular diameter record a significant increase from day 160 till the end of the trial. Studying the correlation among, leptin, progesterone, and follicle diameter revealed a direct correlation with puberty and total weight body at pre-puberty days. In addition, a close positive direct correlation was observed between the level of progesterone and the diameter of the follicle with the level of the leptin as progressing age of puberty, and the increase in the diameter of the follicle with a rise in the level of progesterone.
The study concludes, was found a strong positive correlation among the studied parameters with a time of puberty in ewe lambs.

Control of biofilm-producing Aeromonas bacteria in the water tanks and drinkers of broiler poultry farms using chitosan nanoparticle-based coating thyme oil

Asmaa N. Mohammed; Amira S.A. Attia

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131253.1935

In a drinking water distribution system, biofilm-producing bacteria are considered an alarm bell for increased emergence of waterborne pathogens. This study aims to monitor the prevalence of biofilm-forming Aeromonas species in the drinking water distribution systems in different broiler chicken farms. The antimicrobial activity of thyme essential oil (TEO), thyme essential oil nano-emulsion (TEO-N), chitosan (CS), chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs), and both CS and CS-NP-based coating TEO against the different Aeromonas spp. was evaluated using the broth microdilution and agar well diffusion assay. The overall prevalence rate of Aeromonas spp. was 49.3% (74.0/150). The highest rate of Aeromonas isolates was noted in water drinkers and tanks (75.0% (30/40) and 62.5% (25/40), respectively) followed by feedstuff (40.0% (12/30)). In contrast, the highest percentage of biofilm-producing Aeromonas spp. was Aeromonas hydrophila (70.0% (14/20)) followed by Aeromonas caviae (30.0% (6/20)). The fatal effect of CS-NPs against all isolated Aeromonas spp. was achieved (100%) at 1.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Moreover, chitosan nanoparticles coating thyme essential oil (CS-NPs/TEO) verified the lethal effect (100%) on both A. hydrophila and A. caviae at the ratio of 1:1 and 1:0.75 µg/mL. In conclusion, the main source of Aeromonas spp. in the drinking water distribution system was the unhygienic status of water tanks and drinkers that allowed biofilm to produce due to aggregation of Aeromonas bacteria on the inner surface of that equipment. Both CS-NPs and CS-NPs/TEO could be applied as a sanitizer and/or disinfectant for Aeromonas biofilm control.

Histological changes comparison between the toxic effect of Prednisolone and Cyclophosphamide drug on some organs in male albino mice

Sahar A. H. AL-Sharqi; Amal Kadhem Chaloob; Ilham Abd Allah Ali Al-Saleem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131292.1938

Prednisolone is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat different diseases. They are well known to be used for remediation of many cases like autoimmune diseases, asthma. Cyclophosphamide is a kind of nitrogen mustard treatment that occurs its effects by the alkylation of DNA. It is used as an immunosuppressant in rheumatoid arthritis and the remediation of many cancers as well. The aim of this study is to histological compare the side effects of these two drugs. Seventy-five adult mice were used in this experiment which was divided into three groups, the first group orally treated with 0.1mg/Kg of prednisolone, the second group orally treated with 0.1mg/kg of body weight cyclophosphamide, and the third group received orally distilled water for 30 days. After 24 hours of the last treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the organs (liver, kidney, small intestine) were taken out and placed in 10% formalin solution until histological techniques were performed on them. Results of the study demonstrated histological changes in studied organs when treated the animals with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide represented by congestion and hemorrhage of blood vessels and sinusoids, cellular inflammation and necrosis, and that there is a significant difference for these histological alterations between the prednisolone, cyclophosphamide and controls mice. Our study confirms that these drugs cause histological alterations and that cyclophosphamide has a histological side effect more than prednisolone.

Abortion in ewes in Nineveh governorate, Iraq: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Eman K Alameen; Mohammad Osamah Dahl

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131343.1942

The current study was designed to examine the evidence and knowledge gaps in studies investigated abortion in ewes in Nineveh, Iraq, and quantify the overall incidence of abortion and prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion. PubMed, CABI, and Google Scholar databases were used as search engines to track pertinent peer-reviewed studies. Additional relevant articles were identified by reviewing the reference lists of identified full-text articles and contacting colleagues worked on pertinent topic. Identified studies were divided into two main groups including studies reported abortion rate in ewes and studies reported potential infectious etiology of abortion in ewes. A meta-analysis was performed for each group. A total of 17 studies were qualified for review including 6 studies reported abortion rate. All of the 17 studies examined the prevalence of potential etiology of abortion. The overall incidence of abortion was 7.32%, and the pooled prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion indicated that 51.43%, 31.92%, and 6.83% was for Toxoplasma gondii, Brucella spp., and other pathogens, respectively. In conclusion, it is important to identify epicenters of abortion in Nineveh, the association between incidence of abortion and parity, the effect of pregnancy season on incidence of abortion, and to confirm that the prevalence of T. gondii in aborted ewes is high.

The Histological Effect of The Injection of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs on Sciatic Nerve of Rats

Mustafa Muhammed Altaee; Ahmed Hisham Qassim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131529.1961

The ongoing work aims to compare the effect of extraneural and intraneural injection of therapeutic doses of meloxicam and diclofenac sodium on sciatic nerve of rats. Six groups of adult albino rats were used with 5 animals per group. Control group (A), Group (B) and Group (C) received single extraneural injection of normal saline (NS) (0.25ml/kg/rat), meloxicam (M) (0.11mg /kg /0.25ml/rat) and diclofenac sodium (V) (1.1mg /kg /0.25ml/rat) respectively, while Control group (D), Group (E) and Group (F) received single intraneural injection of the same doses of normal saline, meloxicam and diclofenac sodium respectively. Histological evaluation reveals an increased thickening of epineurium, dilatation and congestion of epineurial blood vessels, intrafascicular edema, axonal degeneration , myelin degeneration and vacuolization in group C, which was higher than those in group B. These changes were also higher in group F compared to groups D and E. The histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were greatest in the case of intraneural injection of saline, meloxicam and diclofenac sodium, which means that, the damage effect of intraneural injection of the drug was greater than the extraneural injection of the same drug. It is concluded that extraneural and intraneural injections of therapeutic doses of meloxicam cause less damage to sciatic nerve compared to diclofenac sodium, thus it is considered to be securer than diclofenac sodium after intramuscular injection. Sciatic nerve injury can occur following intramuscular injection into the gluteal region particularly if the needle hits the nerve.

Prevalence of Avian Influenza in Humans and Different Bird Species in Indonesia- A Review

Saifur Rehman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131590.1976

Avian influenza commonly called bird flu is highly contagious and pandemic zoonosis of global importance mostly affecting birds and other mammals including humans. The present review is intended to highlight a report on the prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species of Indonesia. The study is based on 27 scientific articles from 2004 to May 2021 in which the prevalence of avian influenza is determined mainly by the following molecular, virological, and serological tests: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ®Rapid antigen detection test. A vast divergence in the prevalence of avian influenza was observed due to the diversity in sensitivity and specificity of the tests applied. The prevalence of avian influenza varies due to spatial and temporal factors, bird species, and breed differences. An average maximum prevalence (25%) was found in poultry (domestic and commercial birds) as compared to ducks (20.13%) and other birds (10.66%). An average documented prevalence (16.3%).) was found in humans. Birds sold in live bird markets showed maximum prevalence due to different geographical distribution. The already published studies dissection illustrates that avian influenza does infect all types of birds and also humans in Indonesia. A proper surveillance system, effective vaccination plan, and execution of segregation and culling strategy regarding avian influenza-infected birds are desperately needed for the eradication of avian influenza in Indonesia.

Histopathological and histochemical study of mastitis in sheep

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131595.1978

Ovine mastitis considered one of the problems that causes economic losses through its impact on the milk production ,which is unfit for human consumption . The current study aimed to shed light on mastitis in sheep in different areas of Mosul city .The results of the current study showed the presence of mammary macroscopic and microscopic changes. The macroscopic changes were represented by the large size of the udder and a changes in the color and texture, as well as clarity of sloughing and desquamation of the skin with clear exudation ,especially in advanced cases .While other sample showed the presence of hard nodules on the udders ,while the histological changes represented by degenerative and necrotic changes( 3.5%), and (21.4%)of sample appeared to suffer from liquifactive necrosis and abscesses infiltrated with inflammatory cells,(25%) of the samples infected with granulomatous mastitis (nodular mastitis),other samples showed that the udder infected with atrophy and metaplasia in the rate of (21%), thickening of the blood vessel wall with clot represented (14.2%)and the deposition of calcium salt was (14.2%). From the current study we conclude that mastitis in sheep is common and widespread in sheep raised in different areas of the Mosul city

Comparative Morphological and Morphometrical Study of Adrenal gland in Adult Males Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) and Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

abdulrazzaq baqer; iman mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131618.1983

Given the physiological significance and the need for further physiological and morphological knowledge of the adrenal glands, the objectives of the current study were to compare morphometric data between the right and left adrenals of male squirrel and hamster. The study was conducted on five squirrel males and five hamster males. The glands in both animals were removed and fixed in neutral formalin solution. It was found that the squirrel contains two brown-colored right and left adrenal glands connected anteriorly and medially to each cranial pole of the kidney, and the right adrenal gland had a longitudinal shape, while the left gland had an oval shape. Hamsters had two pairs of brown adrenal glands located anteriorly attached to each cranial pole of the kidney, the right adrenal gland was round in shape, while the left was oval in shape. The statistical results showed a significant difference between the left and right adrenal glands in both animals, as well as a significant difference between the squirrel gland and the hamster gland, where it was found that the right and left squirrel glands are larger, heavier, longer and thicker than the adrenal gland in hamsters after the following measures were adopted: weight, length, thickness, width and size.

Molecular Investigation of Feline Calicivirus In Cats in the City of Mosul

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131706.1993

The study included 200 cats of different ages, genders, types of breeding, source, vaccination programs, as well as health status. They were examined clinically and traditionally and recorded clinical signs appearing on them, and swabs were collected from the conjunctiva of the eye and the pharyngeal area. for the purpose of investigating of viral nucleic acid from collected swabs then extracting RNA from the swabs and then converting it to a cDNA molecule, and then detecting the open reading template gene 2 through the use of the primer for this within the polymerase chain reaction technique that was applied., the Molecular method was found that the highest rate of infection in oropharyngeal swabs compared with conjugtival swabs and it was found in highest percentage of infection in the age group less than 6 months, and the rate of infection decreased with age.. and in cats indoors management as well as imported ones. While vaccinated cats recorded the highest rate of infection with the feline calicivirus,.in conclusion feline calicivirus affected the cats in Mosul, Iraq..

Comparative anatomical, histometrical, and histochemical study of esophagus between ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and black-shouldered kite (Elanus caeruleus)

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131742.1998

The present study aimed to investigate the anatomical, histometrical, histochemical aspects of the esophagus in the Ring-necked parakeet and Black-shouldered Kite. The esophagus in the parakeet was shorter and narrower than the kite esophagus. In the parakeet, the crop was a well‐developed sac shape while in the kite, the crop was hardly recognizable. Histological study shows that the esophagus in both species was composed of four layers arranged from inner to outer (mucosa, submucosa, musculosa finally serosa). These layers showed variances in the height of the fold, the glands number, and the wall layers thickness. The mucosa in the esophagus of the kite consisted of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, while in the parakeet mucosa consisted of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The esophageal glands were compound tubuloalveolar in the parakeet, while in the kite there were simple alveolar glands. The folds in the kite were longest and contained more esophageal glands, while in the parakeet glands were bigger and had fewer numbers within the submucosa. The submucosa layer in the parakeet was thicker than that of the kite. The histochemical results showed a positive reaction of esophageal glands with Alcian blue (PH 2.5), while reacting negatively with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stains, due to the acidic mucopolysaccharides secretions nature.

Gonadotropin Profile in Experimentally Induced Hypothyroid and Hyperthyroid Cyclic Female Rats

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131830.2007

Current study was conducted to examine the association of thyroid disorders with reproductive dysfunction, by determining its effect on gonadotropins secretion in cyclic female rats. Sixty cyclic females were assigned to three groups (20 each) and drenched, for 30 days plus 2 consequent estrous cycles, with drinking water (control), methimazole in drinking water (0.02% w/v) (hypothyroid group), and thyroxin in drinking water (0.002% w/v) and gastric gavage of thyroxin (200 μg/kg bw) (hyperthyroid group). At late proestrus, 10 females from each group (for each cycle) were anesthetized, dissected, and blood samples were obtained for assessment of thyroid stimulating hormone, free and total triiodothyronine, free and total thyroxin, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin concentrations. Ovarian and pituitary tissue samples were obtained for molecular analysis of ovarian thyroid receptor genes and pituitary TSH, FSHβ, and LHβ genes. In comparison with control, Hypo group revealed increased serum concentrations of TSH and PRL and the expression levels of pituitary TSH and ovarian TRs genes and significant decrease of FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, FSH, and LH concentrations and the expression levels of pituitary FSHβ and LHβ genes, whereas Hyper group showed increased serum FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, and LH concentrations and the expression levels of pituitary LHβ and ovarian TRs genes and decreased serum TSH, FSH and PRL concentrations and pituitary FSHβ and TSH gene expression levels. It is concluded that thyroid dysfunction is associated with altered serum gonadotropin secretion and reproductive failure.

Estimation of gestational age in Shami goats based on transabdominal ultrasonographic measurements of fetal parameters

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131845.2011

The study was aimed to estimate the gestational age of Shami does by transabdominal ultrasonographic measurement of fetal parameters. Thirty-three Shami does aged 2-2.5 years with confirmed conception dates were used. The does were examined in standing position using a transabdominal 3.5 MHz convex sector probe of real-time ultrasonography. The does were examined weekly starting on 21 day of pregnancy until parturition. Measurements of the fetal parameters that includes; the crown rump length, head diameter, chest diameter, trunk diameter were obtained from the ultrasonographic images using the software Screen Calipers. Results showed that the gestational sac and embryos were observed first on 21 and 35 day of pregnancy, respectively. The litter size of pregnant does ranged between two and three kids. Crown rump length ranged between 24.68±1.32 - 71.71±1.84 mm on 41-60 day, head diameter was 15.63±0.82 - 45.04±0.92 mm on 41-120 day, chest diameter was 11.52±0.84 - 56.35±0.93 on 51-110 day, trunk diameter was 10.69±0.85 - 57.38±0.85 mm on 41-130 day of gestation. The highest positive correlations were obtained between the gestational age chest diameter (r=0.935), crown rump length (r=0.917), head diameter (r=0.917) and trunk diameter (r=903). In conclusion, is a practical method for pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring of embryo in Shami goats. Also, it is reliable to estimate gestation age starting on 41 day of pregnancy. The chest diameter was the best fetal parameter, but trunk diameter can be used for longest period to estimate the gestational age of Shami goats.

secondary bacterial infection of hydatid cysts infected livestock animals (In vitro study)

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131873.2016

Isolation and identification of the bacteria-infected hydatid cysts of livestock animals were carried out. The study lasted for five months. A total of 302 slaughtered livestock were checked to find hydatid cyst naturally infected livers and lungs of sheep and goat at local Mosul abattoir/ Nineveh/ Iraq. Each cysts' aspirated fluid was cultured separately on blood or nutrient agar at 37C for 24 hours then detected secondary bacteria. Each bacterium was incubated independently with 1000 viable protoscolices in a culture tube containing tryptic soy broth at 37°C and examined every two hours for 6 hours, followed by 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours afterward. The degeneration rate of protoscolices as a result of treatment with bacteria isolated depending on viability was studied in vitro. The results were revealed that the liver was the preponderant affected organ in sheep and goats. About 57.1% of sheep and 50% of goats harbored fertile cysts. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were observed in the infected cysts. The most common bacteria infect the cyst was Escherichia coli. the protoscoleces treated with the bacterial isolates had completely deteriorated, whereas 97% of protoscoleces throughout the control groups were still alive and intact even after completing the incubation time. The experiments detect a significant (p≤0.05) time-dependent scolicidal effect on decreased viability of protoscolices in vitro study. This could pave the door for more research into the scolicidal validity of bacteria or their by-products as protoscolicides both in vitro and in vivo.

Studying an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis in broilers in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131932.2024

The aim of this study was to provide field outbreaks data with FAdVs in Ninevah governorate to emphasize the importance of the disease due to high mortality and production losses. A total of 729,500 broilers collected from 64 flocks at 14 different locations in Nineveh governorate during the second half of 2020. were included in this study. Histopathological changes of the liver in infected birds have been studied. Molecular identification of FAdV was accomplished by DNA extraction from liver samples using DNeasy Tissue Kit. Results reviled that there were 51892 mortalities representing 7.11%. It was noted that the broiler flocks were infected during their 2nd-6th weeks of age, being the highest in the 5th week of age. Decreased mortality was detected from July to December. being 11.3, 7.91, 7.08, 6.38, 5.94 and 4.95%, respectively. Microscopical examination of the liver manifested the pathognomonic presence of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies related to the disease . PCR findings revealed positive results of FAdVs. It could be concluded that the environmental stress and immunosuppressive agents could contribute to the percentage and duration of mortalities in broiler flocks.

Psychrotrophic Count Influence on Oxidative Stability and Aflatoxins in Milk and Cooking Butter

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131958.2029

Milk and butter are among the precious foods susceptible to spoilage and rancidity due to psychrotrophic microorganisms' activities, which grow in abundance due to the richness of milk and butter in the nutrients and also their ability to resist the cold environment in which milk and butter are stored. In this study the total psychrotropic bacterial and fungal counts were recorded. The rancidity, represented by the Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value and aflatoxins B1 and M1 levels were also measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The results reflected a strong correlation between the total number of psychrotrophic bacteria and the rate of the rancidity, as well as between the total number of molds and the levels of the aflatoxins in the milk and butter. In conclusion the psycgrotrophic bacterial and mold counts in the milk and butter must be monitored carefully and be added as a routine examination to the list of the butter examinations.

The macroscopical and microscopical characters of the trachea in different avian species: A comparative study

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132095.2046

This study aimed to explain and compare the anatomical, histological, histochemical and histomorphometrical analyses of the trachea in different species of birds. This study includes 21 healthy birds from geese (Anser anser domesticus), cattle egrets (Bublucus ibis) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), 7 seven from each species. Anatomically, the trachea of the goose (the proximal and distal parts) was the longest of all the studied species, yet it had fewer cartilaginous rings than those of the cattle egret. Also, the tracheal length, beside the tracheal muscle in geese plays an important role in the phonation process. Histologically, the trachea is composed of four distinct tunicae: mucosa, propria submucosa, fibrocartilaginous, and adventitia. The epithelium that lined the trachea was ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium) with simple mucous tubuloalveolar glands in either proximal or distal parts depending on the species. The proximal part is made up of overlapped hyaline cartilaginous rings that partially ossified in geese and cattle egrets but did not ossify in sparrows. In the distal part, the overlapping faded in three investigated species.

Transabdominal ultrasonographic determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in mares

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132142.2054

The study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of transabdominal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and determination of fetal viability in mares, as an alternative approach to the transrectal ultrasonography, to reduce the probability of misdiagnosis and to avoid the harmful effect of transrectal invasive. Forty-five mares were examined by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography. Results showed that 26 mares were pregnant and 19 mares were non-pregnant. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of both approaches were 100%. Transabdominal ultrasonography required less time in comparison to transrectal ultrasonography to get the final decision for non-pregnant mares (5.26±0.27 vs. 8.11±0.31 min), mares at 2nd trimester (4.36±0.49 vs. 5.57±0.29 min) and 3rd trimester (4.12±0.51 vs. 5.86±0.26 min), respectively. In both methods, no significant correlation was recorded between the scanning time and the gestational age. The overall positive predictive values for the determination of fetal viability were 26.9% for transrectal and 80.8% for transabdominal ultrasonography. A significant variance (P<0.01) was reported between the positive predictive values that obtained by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography. It can be concluded that the transabdominal is an effective, practical and often essential approach of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and determination of fetal viability in mares, especially at the second and third trimesters of gestation. We recommended the transabdominal ultrasonography as a first examination for mares that presented for pregnancy diagnosis, if this approach does not give an accurate diagnosis, the mares can be scan transrectaly. So, we can minimize the stress and hazard of the transrectal examination.

Antidiabetic of Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Ethanolic Extract on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132178.2061

Diabetes is a disease characterized by high blood glucose due to the abnormal response of the cells in the body on produced insulin or insulin resistance. Indeed, the treatment for diabetes mellitus lasts for a lifetime and causes various side effects, such as headache, hypoglycemia, vomiting, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Interestingly, Dragon fruit has the potent anti-diabetic activity and without side effect . Thirty Wistar mice were included in the study. Alloxan with a dose of 150 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally to all groups except normal control group. Mice with blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and employed throughout the study. Mice were divided 5 groups consisted of normal control group without alloxan, diabetic control group with alloxan, treatment group of 100 mg/kg and 300mg/kg H. polyrhizus peel extract, and positive control group with 600 µg/kg glibenclamide. All treatments were given orally. Blood glucose level was checked on day 1, 7, and 14 on all groups using Accu-check instant glucometer. This study revealed that administration of alloxan to diabetic control group significantly increase blood glucose level in comparison with normal control group on day-1, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of H. polyrhizus peel extract and glibenclamide are shown to be effective in decreasing blood glucose level especially on day-7 and 14 in comparison of control group (P < 0.05).

Assessment of the analgesic effect of Alpha lipoic acid by three acute pain models

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132184.2062

Abstract:Abstract: Alpha-lipoic acid is known as a good analgesic agent for neuropathic pain, especially in diabetic patients. This research aimed to assess the analgesic activity of this organic acid in broiler chicks using three acute pain models. These included the use of electrical stimulation, hot water, and formalin tests to elicit acute pain. The up-down method was applied in the calculation of the median effective analgesic dose. The ED50 of ALA was 45.18 and 74.56 mg/kg intraperitoneally tested by electrical stimulation and hot water test respectively. We demonstrated that the peak of analgesic effect was after one hour by using different doses and different times. ALA at 0, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally produces a dose-dependent analgesic effect by formalin test. In conclusion: ALA induced analgesic activity, probably by closing voltage-gated calcium and or voltage-gated sodium channels. These outcomes show that therapeutic doses of ALA can affect pain and may mask or reduce nociception induced by acute pain models.

In vitro study of Curcumin Calcium Carbonate Phosphate Nanoparticles (Curcumin-NPs) impacts on the Meriz goat’s coccidian Oocysts

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132196.2067

Nanoparticles biosynthesis have an essential and increased role in the delivery of medical compounds.
Calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (CaCO3-NPs) were prepared as a stabilized amorphous and incorporated with herbal curcumin extract as an anticoccidial agent In Vitro. CaCO3 – NPs was tested against local Meriz goat coccidian oocysts.
Concentrations were used (2, 4, 8, 16, 30 and 50 mg/ml) shows oocysticidal effects (Sporulation inhibition) and sporocystidal effects (concentration of 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000µg).
Sporulation inhibition assay was used for 24 and 48 hours. Results of significant oocysticidal effect (P=0.001) seen in concentration of 30 - 50 mg/ml and able to inhibited the sporulation of Meriz coccidian parasite oocysts at a rate of 92.54 ± 3.51%.
The sporocysticidal effect also significant (P=0.001) with curcumin nanoparticles concentration of 400-1000 µg/ml with rate of 98.1 ± 2.11%.
Stability of prepared curcumin nanoparticles was examined against various pH levels (4.01, 7 and 9.21) at multiple temperatures (4, 25, 60 and 100 oC). Investigation after 1, 6, 12 and 24 hrs. of treatment. Stability was assessed by spectrophotometric indicated significant reductions for pH 4 and 9 after one hour of treatment (P=0.001) as well as at the temperature of 60 oC and 100 oC after 12-24 hours of treatment (P=0.001).
These results reflect promising hopes of exploiting CaCO3 curcumin nanoparticles for the eradication of coccidiosis as they are composed of and prepared from natural substances.

Effect of dietary BHA supplementation on certain physiological values in broiler chicken

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132202.2068

Butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) manufactured from a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tertiary-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. widely used in poultry feed as a phenolic free radical scavenger. The current search investigated the impact of different doses of BHA on some hematological and hormonal features of broiler. 54 one-day-old birds were utilized in this study randomly divided into three groups, the control group was given a standard ratio, the 2ed group was given a standard diet fill up with BHA at a rate of 2.5 mg/kg feed, and the 3rd group was given a standard ration fill up with BHA at a rate of 5 mg/kg feed by 18 birds/group, each with 3 replicates (6 birds/ repeated cycle). The study included three age stages (15, 30, and 45) days. The results showed a significant rise in RBC, WBC, lymphocytes, MCH, SOD, and CAT for the two groups of BHA during 30 and 45 days of treatment compared with the control with a significant improvement in the stress index, as well as a significant decrease in MCV during the three periods of treatment. Supplemented with BHA in both doses caused a significant rise in the level of T3 and T4 during a period of 45 days of the study compared with the control. We deduce from this research that adding BHA to the poultry diets resulted in improvement in some physiological and hormonal characteristics as a result of its ability to scavenge free radicals, it promotes greater health and growth.

Detection of the nuc gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from swamps and ponds in Mosul city by using PCR techniques

Omar Hashim Sheet; Reem Ayad Talat; Ibtihal Idrees Kanaan; Ashwaq Hazem Najem; Ali Saeed Alchalabi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.173276.2069

In most developing countries, rainwater is considered as a major source of water for drinking, washing, bathing, and cooking purposes, on the another hand, this water is the medium for transporting different types of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi to humans and animals. Most domestic and wild animals drink this kind of water-borne illnesses that leads to various types of diseases which causes huge economic losses. The current study was aimed to isolate Staphylococcus (S.) aureus from the swamps and ponds in various areas included (Qawseat, Kukagle, Besan, Al-Arabi, and Al-Shlalat) that surrounding the Mosul city during the rainfall season. A one hundred samples of rainwater were collected from swamps and ponds in various areas the Mosul city. The classical method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique had used to identify S. aureus isolates. The present study showed that the prevalence rate of S. aureus isolated from swamps and ponds was 12% (12/100) based on the classical and PCR methods used. All the positive S. aureus isolates possess the specific-species nuc gene. In addition, the results of the classical methods are similar to the results of the PCR technique. The present study concludes that the water of swamps and ponds is formed by rainwater that has been exposed to contamination by S. aureus which posed in the ground and it is not fit for the drinking of animals and humans.

New surgical model to induce irreversible liver fibrosis by surgical closure of major duodenal orifice in dogs

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132219.2071

This study was conducted to induce and evaluate irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs by surgical closure of the major duodenal orifice. The study was performed on six healthy local adult dogs. Irreversible hepatic fibrosis was surgically induced in all animals by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla using non-absorbable suture material for 60 days. Induced hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by clinical, ultrasonographical examination, laboratory and histopathological methods. The clinical manifestation of the jaundiced dogs showed reduced food intake, pale-yellowish mucus membrane, inflammatory signs of wound site and severe post-operative pain. Biochemically, there was significant increased values of the aspartate aminotransferase , alkaline phosphatase , alanine aminotransferase , indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin especially during first two days after surgery followed by a gradual decrease of these values until the end of the but still higher than normal values. Ultrasonographic examinations showed abnormal change in the liver tissue such as increase in both size and wall thickness of the gall bladder and mottled heterogeneous appearance of the liver during the first two weeks following the surgical induction of the hepatic fibrosis and lasted until the end of the study. Histopathological evaluation of liver samples revealed necrosis of hepatocytes and deposition of eosinophilic material, infiltration of inflammatory cells, recent thrombus in the hepatic vein, fatty change. In conclusion, surgical induction of irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs was feasible technique by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla and the results were confirmed by the clinical, ultrasonographical, laboratory and histopathological examination.

Indicative parameters for liver fascioliasis at pre-clinical and clinical phases in cows from Al-Diwaniyah City, Iraq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132266.2076

The current work emphasized on understanding the liver functions while having a pre-clinical or clinical fascioliasis for the accurate detection of the disease phase from cows in Al-Diwaniyah City, Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq. The experimental design included the use of 30 cows in a farm divided into 10 clinically healthy cows , 10 acutely infested cows with no obvious clinical signs (pre-clinical group), and 10 chronically infested cows with observed clinical signs (clinical group), such as yellowish discoloration of the mucus membranes. Blood samples were collected from each cow for performing the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase , alanine transaminase , aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase , pyruvate, lactate, and cholesterol. The results showed that all the enzymes from the pre-clinical group were significantly (p˂0.05) higher in their serum levels compared with those from the control group to elevate to significantly (p˂0.05) higher levels in the clinical group in comparisons with those from the control and pre-clinical groups, excluding the ALT that revealed no significant (p˃0.05) difference between the pre- and clinical groups. For the cholesterol, significant (p˂0.05) increases were seen in the pre-clinical group compared to those from the control group with no significant (p˃0.05) difference between the pre- and clinical groups. At the levels of serum pyruvate and lactate, no significant (p˃0.05) differences were recorded between all study group. The present study reveals that the fascioliasis, dependent on the infestation phase, can progressively change the serum levels of the above mentioned parameters.

Morphometric and molecular characterization of Moniezia species in sheep in Mosul city, Iraq

Eman Ghanim; Nadia Alhayali; Ahlam Fathi AL-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132278.2077

The current study examined 100 small intestines collected randomly from sheep slaughtered in the abattoir and butcher’s shops from different Mosul city / Iraq areas of both sexes (55 females, 45 males) and different ages. Moniezia expansa was diagnosed in 9 samples of intestines by studying the morphometric characteristics of these tapeworms, especially the mature segments, in which both the ovaries and vitelline glands appeared in the ring shape on either side of the body segments and the rosette-like shape of the interproglotidial glands. No significant difference was noticed between males and females of sheep in our study, and the infection rate was 10% in sheep less than a year old and older than two years, with no significant difference between the age groups. The results of the molecular analysis by using conventional polymerase chain reaction technique confirmed the diagnosis of these worms, which belong to the genus Moniezia, with a product reaction of 700 base pairs. The sequencing result shows two strains of Moniezia expanza, which isolated from Iraq (Moniezia expansa-Iraqi one and Moniezia expansa-Iraqi 2) were similar to each other had a significant distance to other strains. The study also showed that Moniezia expansa is different from the same species in other countries.

The Impact of Various Antioxidant supplementation on Ram's Sperm Quality, Fertilization, and early embryo development, in vitro

Saif Al-Hafedh; FATİN CEDDEN

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132426.2092

The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) is very stressful for gametes. Gametes are subjected during in vitro manipulation to many different types of stress; oxidative stress is the most prominent one, which will cause damage or alter the genetic material of the sperm and reduce the quality of the oocytes, and has a crucial impact on the possibility of developing embryos even after implantation. This study aimed to determine the influence of antioxidants on the achievement of In vitro culture (IVC) and sperm's ability to adhere to and penetrate further into In vitro maturated oocytes. For this purpose, we have incubated ram sperm using four different treatments in terms of antioxidants: melatonin, cysteamine, vitamin C, and vitamin E. They were incubated by the standard methods of maturation and capacitation of sperm. The oocytes were fertilized by spermatozoa that had been capacitated with two groups of fertilization media, the first group containing melatonin and the second group containing cysteamine. Compared with other groups, sperms treated with melatonin demonstrated hyperactivity, and the fertilization rate was significantly increased. As for the IVF medium containing melatonin, it was superior to cysteamine in embryo development rates. In conclusion, melatonin could be a promising tool for improving sperm competence for fertilizing oocytes and embryo development in sheep.

Clinical and Molecular Detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in Iraqi Camels

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132573.2106

Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the most frequent zoonotic species of mites causing mange in camels worldwide. The prevalence of camel’s mange in Iraq is still little studied. Thus, this research was conducted to detect S. scabiei from camels distributed in four provinces of the Middle-Furat area which includes; Al-Muthaana, Al-Diwaniyah, Najaf, and Babil, beginning from January 2020 until December 2020. The Molecular technique depending on the conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) was performed for direct detection of S. scabiei based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene from skin scrape lesion samples. The results revealed that 125 out of 425 samples (29.41%) of examined camels were infested with S. scabiei. According to sex of the infested animals, the infestation rate was high in females compared with males, where it was 85 (30.91 %) and 40 (26.67%), respectively. In addition, the age 1.5 years old showed the highest number of infestation (83 out of 85) with a percentage 97.65%, while the percentages were 21 out of 60 (35%) and 4 out 68 (5.88%) in animals with 2 and 7 years old, respectively. The results also recorded that infested animals found in Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah had the highest number of infestation, with percentages 36% and 35%, respectively. The finding also demonstrated that the highest infestation percentage was in winter months (January and February) with percentages 92.31% and 80%, respectively. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the local isolates of Iraqi camels were consistent with isolates recorded in China.

Pregabalin potentiates the analgesic effect of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol in chicks: Isobolographic analysis

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132586.2108

The study aimed to reveal the median effective analgesic dose (ED50) of pregabalin and to determine the type of analgesic interaction with each of tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks.
Methods: The electrical stimulator device was used to detect pain before and after treatment and through ascending and descending in doses and depending on the up and down method, the median effective analgesic doses were determined for all drugs used in the study, and then the interaction experiment was conducted at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of pregabalin with each of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol of their individual ED50 values, the results were subjected to the isobolographic analysis to determine the type of interaction.
Results: ED50s for pregabalin, tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol in chicks were 156.5, 0.82, 5.65 and 10.74 mg/kg respectively. Concomitant administration of drugs (pregabalin: tramadol), (pregabalin: diclofenac) and (pregabalin: paracetamol) at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to (36.2: 0.18), (64.3: 2.3) and (64.3: 4.3) mg/kg respectively. Isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs interaction. The calculated interaction indexes were 0.45, 0.81, and 0.81 respectively.
Conclusion: We conclude from the outcomes that the analgesic interaction was synergistic between pregabalin and tramadol significantly, while the analgesic interaction of pregabalin with both diclofenac and paracetamol was also synergistic, but to a lesser extent.

Pathological and bacteriological study of bovine renal lesions slaughtered in Mosul region

O.A. Abdullah; H.Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 51-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145565

This study was carried out on 100 Kidney Samples collected from clinically healthy cattle slaughtered at Mosul abattoir to investigate the renal lesions and to isolate the bacterial causes of these lesions. The bacterial isolation included E. Coli 32%, Corynebacterium spp 27%, Proteus spp 16%, Staphylococus spp 12%, Streptococsus spp 7% while 6% of samples showing no bacterial isolation. The most common gross lesions were seen included multifocal white spots, swallen pale kidneys, congested enlarged kidneys, hyperemic hemorrhagic kidneys. The common observation in histopathological examination reveled to multifocal infiltration of inflammatory cells (Monocytes, Macrophages and Lymphocytes), degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells lining renal tubules with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues with atrophy of glomerular tufft. Additionally cysts were observed in kidney tissues.

Prevalence of Anaplasma ovis infection in Angora goats of Duhok province, Kurdistan region-Iraq

I.A. Naqid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145599

Acute Anaplasma ovis infections can cause severe clinical symptoms and might lead to significant economic losses in small ruminant flocks. However, little information has been provided related the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Angora goats. The study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma ovis serologically (cELISA) and microscopically (Giemsa stained blood smears) among Angora goats from Duhok districts of the northern part of Iraq. A total of 92 blood samples were randomly collected from three localities of Duhok city; Zakho, Batel and Sumil during the study period from April to October 2009. The infection rate of A. ovis was 38.04% by Giemsa stained blood smear and 66.3% by cELISA. The prevalence of A. ovis in female goats was higher than that in males, but statistically not significant difference (P>0.05) by using both methods. The prevalence was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in goats more than three years old than in younger ones. The highest prevalence of A. ovis was found in Zakho, whereas the lowest was reported in Sumail. Results of hematological parameters indicated microcytic hypochromic type of anemia.It is concluded that A. ovis can infected Angora goats in district Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq and this might be due to high distribution of the disease and its transmitters which were lead to substantial effect followed by high mortalities

Detection the some developmental stages of Babesia spp in hemolymph and midgut of adult females of Boophilus microplus naturally on cattle in Mosul city

E.G. Suleiman; A.F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-75
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145600

This study involved the detection of vermicules of Babesia spp in the hemolymph of Boophilus microplus adult females naturally fed on cattle after their remaining a live for 5 to 8 days under laboratory conditions and the detection of some developmental stages (schizonts, rupture of schizonts, small dark collar bodies and migration of vermicules from the hemolymph to different tissues of tick). Both vermicules of B. bovis and B. bigemina were diagnosed. The vermivules of B. bovis appeared as croissant or club-shaped bodies with a broad anterior ending and pointed posterior one and having a central nucleus and a vacuole in the anterior end with a curved or semi curved tail. The vermicules of B. bigemina had a croissant or club –shaped bodies with a lesser width in their anterior end than in B. bovis with no vacuole and with a straight tail. The average length of B. bovis was 13.92 ±1.34 µ with a range of 11.8-15.8µ and average width of 3.23±0.44 µ with a range of 2.7-4µ. The average length of B. bigemina was 11.39±1.12µ with a range of 9.5-13µ and average width of 2.2±0.51µ with a range of 1.5-3µ. The results of current study revealed that their was a direct and proportional relationship between the parasitemia of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle blood smears and the number of vermicules in the hemolymph of female of Boophilus microplus. No significant differences were noticed between (number and percentage of Boophilus microplus females) infected with vermicules of Babesia spp at different aged cattle.

Effect of endurance exercise on sweat constituents of athletic Iraqi Arabian horses

B.J. Mohamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 95-100
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145604

It is well known that Iraq has dry hot weather, especially during summer, so horses sports competitions are stopped. The aims of our research were to study the effect of endurance exercise on sweat constituents of Iraqi Arabian horses. The results show that, after trot, the body temperature was 37.600±0.058, the heart rate was 45.875±0.819, and the respiration rate was 35.750±0.708. After canter, the body temperature was 38.512±0.058, the heart rate was 76.000±0.819 and the respiration rate was 49.250±0.708. After gallop, the body temperature was 39.512±0.058, the heart rate was 99.875±0.819, and the respiration rate was 60.875±0.708. All mean values were significantly different at P≤0.01. The mean of body weight was 460.5 kg. The total body surface mean was 396.1Cm2. The mean values of albumin, globulin, Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca++, Mg++, Fe++, Cu++, and Zn+, in trot were 3.512±0.089, 3.875±0.725, 3.637±0.072, 2.062±0.086, 5.962±0.141, 0.167±0.006, 0.987±0.007, 4.875±0.700, 0.712±0.515, 11.750±0.422 and 0.180±0.002, respectively, while the results in canter were 3.925±0.086, 4.750±0.111, 4.787±0.104, 3.637±0.285, 6.637±0.090, 1.487±0.953, 0.161±0.008, 5.537±0.105, 0.987±0.666, 12.262±0.106 and 0.236±0.007, respectively. In gallop were 5.612±0.107, 6.012±0.158, 6.675±0.144, 5.062±0.138, 7.550±0.090, 2.750±0.122, 0.256±0.009, 6.400±0.070, 1.600±0.845, 12.650±0.073 and 0.276±0.004, respectively. Our results indicate clearly a high loss of essential proteins and minerals during sweating which must be compensated by food additives specially during summer, to prevent many healthy problems so we believe that ratios of these proteins and minerals must be calculated according to many factors like, weather climate, the type of the horse jobs (jump, polo, races, show,…..etc.) and the body weights and ages.

Femur fractures and treatment options in 20 dogs admitted to our clinic from January 2013 to December 2015

M. Abd El Raouf; N.H.M. Mekkawy; A.M. AbdEl-Aal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145608

The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment of 20 dogs with femur fractures. Twenty (20) dogs with different ages, breeds, and gender admitted to the clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology-Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Zagazig University from January 2013 to December 2015 with a complaint of hind limb lameness and were diagnosed as femur fractures through clinical and radiographic examination. German shepherd dogs (85%) and immature dogs (70%) were more susceptible to femur fractures. The most common site of the fracture was the femoral diaphysis (65%) followed by metaphysis (20%). Open reduction and internal fixation techniques were applied using intramedullary (IM) pins with or without cerclage wire (40%) and bone plate (15%) for treatment of diaphyseal fractures, and two cross pins (30%) for treatment of metaphyseal and distal physeal fractures. Pin migration after complete healing (1 case) and bone re-fracture due to jumping (1 case) was the postoperative complications. It was concluded that open reduction and internal fixation methods are the proper treatment for femur fractures if the proper surgical techniques were applied.

Histopathological changes on the pregnant rat's lung induced by sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 419-424
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130464.1824

Food additives and preservatives are widely used globally, which, despite their many benefits, have great harm if they are used without health restrictions or control, as they cause many health problems and tissue lesions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the histopathological effects on the lung of pregnant rats of two types of these substances: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and Sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Twenty-four pregnant rats used for this study, and they were divided into four groups equally. The control group was dosed with distilled water from the sixth day to the fifteenth day of pregnancy. The second was dosed with MSG at a 12g /kg concentration for the same period in the first group. The third injected with a concentration of 120 mg/kg of NaNO2 for the same period. The fourth was dosed with MSG and NaNO2 together, with the same concentrations and the above period. The results showed that the second group''s lungs showed many histopathological changes, including strong infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, necrosis of bronchioles and alveolar septa, and emphysema of some alveoli. In the third group, changes included hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, hemorrhage in the alveoli, desquamation and necrosis in bronchioles, peri-bronchial fibrosis, blood vessel congestion. The fourth group showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, necrosis in multiple lung areas, emphysema, fibrosis in some alveoli, and hypoplasia of the muscle fibers around the blood vessels. The study concluded that MSG and NaNO2 caused much tissue damage in the lungs of pregnant rats.

Effect of sodium benzoate on some biochemical, physiological and histopathological aspects in adult male rats

Safa A. Al-Ameen; Eman H. Jirjees; Fadwa Kh. Tawfeeq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 267-272
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129935.1705

Sodium benzoate SB is a white powder, used as preservative and food additive. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of SB been tested in adult male rats. Twenty-four adult albino male rats aged100 day and weighted 250-350 g were used. Animals were divided into 4 groups. The first group considered as control, which received normal saline orally, other groups treated with SB by 300, 400, 500 mg/Kg of body weight respectively for 30 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected from retro orbital sinus. Heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were obtained for weight recording. The results indicated a significant decrease of super oxide dismutase SOD activity and a significant increase of nitric oxide NO level of treated group 500 mg/Kg of body weight. Moreover, findings revealed that there are no significant changes in growth hormone GH activity and body weight. A significant reduction of heart weight of treated group 500 mg/Kg of body weight were observed. The histopathological changes ranged from mild to severe in the brain cortex, as focal gliosis, satellitosis, mild vacuolation and vasogenic edema in treated groups with SB by different doses. Also, some changes were observed in liver represented by congestion of portal vein, mild hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, stenosis of sinusoids, steatosis and necrosis of hepatocytes in treated groups with SB compared to control group. It concluded that short-term exposure to high doses of SB may be considered an oxidant substance that caused oxidative stress. Furthermore, SB can harm various organs in the body. 

Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and some risk factors in cross breed and imported breed dairy cows in Mosul, Iraq

Mohsin H. Ali; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 273-277
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129949.1707

Although ongoing control strategies are attempting to minimize certain metabolic disorders such as hyperketonemia, factors such as genetics, management, environment, and geography still present a potential challenge to the achievement of the desired results. In light of this, this study was conducted (i) to determine the prevalence of subclinical and clinical ketosis based on the concentration of ketone bodies (BHB) using ELISA Kit, and (ii) to examine a number of epidemiological risk factors related to the conditions. From October, 2020 to the January, 2021. A 80 blood samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey in different areas of Mosul. Data included age, management systems, parity, and origin. At the cut-off point ≥1.2-≤ 1.4 mmol / L, the prevalence of subclinical ketosis was 27.5% and for clinical ketosis it was 5%. Results revealed that the animals aged > 3 years were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to animals aged ≤ 3 years RR = 2.6471. Multiparous animals were more at risk compared to the primiparous (two or less births) RR = 2.0652. No significant difference between the animals’ origins RR = 0.6863. Indoor and outdoor system animals were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to the indoor system only RR = 2.1389. In conclusion, hyperketonemia is prevalent in Mosul. Certain risk factors should be taking into account when planning control programs. Attention should be paid to diagnosis, management, and control of this disease during the risk stage to avert economic loss to the dairy farmers.

Histomorphometrical and histochemical postnatal development of cornea in indigenous rabbits

Omar Y. Younis Altaay; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 291-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130031.1722

The present study aims to clarify corneal development via analyzing of the histomorphologic and some histochemical parameters in local rabbits. Samples were collected from 25 Rabbits divided into five different age groups at 1, 10, 15, 30, and 40 postnatal day (PND), then the samples sectioned, processed, and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson’s trichrome stain. Some sections were further stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and toluidine blue (TB) stain for histochemical evaluation. Measurements of corneal layers performed for morphometric comparison among age groups. The finding revealed thickening of corneal epithelium, stroma, and corneal endothelium progressively with age and decrease of corneal layer’s cellular density concurrently with alteration of corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium cell’s type. The histochemical finding revealed late appearance of bowman’s and Descemet’s membranes after eyelid opening which responded strongly to PAS technique while stroma became metachromatic strongly responded to toluidine blue stain. In conclusion, cornea showed highly active histological development and cellular differentiation before and after eyelid opening.

Protective effect of quercetin against corneal toxicities induced by cisplatin in male mice

Semaa A. Baker; Mahdi A. Ali Abdullah; Ali A. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 321-326
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130145.1741

The Aim of study was conducted to evaluate the potential protective role of quercetin against the corneal toxicity which caused by administration of cisplatin in male mice. Thirty-six adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups; Group I control, Group II cisplatin mice injected as single dose I.P of cisplatin 10 mg/kg, and Group III mice received Q 75 mg/ kg with cisplatin 10 mg/ kg. The treatment continues for eight days then the tissues were collected for histopathological study. The histopathological changes in the cornea of eye were demonstrated in groups of mice received cisplatin. The changes represented by damages of superficial epithelial layer, vacuolar degeneration, hyperplasia, separation of stromal layer and sever damage of the stromal hemorrhage, and perforation of sclera, edema and inflammatory cells infiltration as well as separation of descement membrane from stroma layer. While these changes were diminished when the mice are treated with Q in the combination of cisplatin in comparison to treated cisplatin alone mice. Cisplatin induced structural and histopathological changes in the cornea of adult albino rat that could be ameliorated by concomitant treatment with quercetin.

Effect of sodium benzoate on some biochemical, physiological and histopathological aspects in adult male rats

Safa A. Al-Ameen; Eman H. Jirjees; Fadwa Kh. Tawfeeq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 267-272
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129935.1705

Sodium benzoate SB is a white powder, used as preservative and food additive. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of SB been tested in adult male rats. Twenty-four adult albino male rats aged100 day and weighted 250-350 g were used. Animals were divided into 4 groups. The first group considered as control, which received normal saline orally, other groups treated with SB by 300, 400, 500 mg/Kg of body weight respectively for 30 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected from retro orbital sinus. Heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were obtained for weight recording. The results indicated a significant decrease of super oxide dismutase SOD activity and a significant increase of nitric oxide NO level of treated group 500 mg/Kg of body weight. Moreover, findings revealed that there are no significant changes in growth hormone GH activity and body weight. A significant reduction of heart weight of treated group 500 mg/Kg of body weight were observed. The histopathological changes ranged from mild to severe in the brain cortex, as focal gliosis, satellitosis, mild vacuolation and vasogenic edema in treated groups with SB by different doses. Also, some changes were observed in liver represented by congestion of portal vein, mild hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, stenosis of sinusoids, steatosis and necrosis of hepatocytes in treated groups with SB compared to control group. It concluded that short-term exposure to high doses of SB may be considered an oxidant substance that caused oxidative stress. Furthermore, SB can harm various organs in the body. 

Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and some risk factors in cross breed and imported breed dairy cows in Mosul, Iraq

Mohsin H. Ali; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 273-277
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129949.1707

Although ongoing control strategies are attempting to minimize certain metabolic disorders such as hyperketonemia, factors such as genetics, management, environment, and geography still present a potential challenge to the achievement of the desired results. In light of this, this study was conducted (i) to determine the prevalence of subclinical and clinical ketosis based on the concentration of ketone bodies (BHB) using ELISA Kit, and (ii) to examine a number of epidemiological risk factors related to the conditions. From October, 2020 to the January, 2021. A 80 blood samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey in different areas of Mosul. Data included age, management systems, parity, and origin. At the cut-off point ≥1.2-≤ 1.4 mmol / L, the prevalence of subclinical ketosis was 27.5% and for clinical ketosis it was 5%. Results revealed that the animals aged > 3 years were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to animals aged ≤ 3 years RR = 2.6471. Multiparous animals were more at risk compared to the primiparous (two or less births) RR = 2.0652. No significant difference between the animals’ origins RR = 0.6863. Indoor and outdoor system animals were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to the indoor system only RR = 2.1389. In conclusion, hyperketonemia is prevalent in Mosul. Certain risk factors should be taking into account when planning control programs. Attention should be paid to diagnosis, management, and control of this disease during the risk stage to avert economic loss to the dairy farmers.

Molecular characterization and microbial resistance of different bacterial isolates in some dairy products

Waleed K. Alkhafaje; Zakia A. Olama; Safaa M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 333-339
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130206.1764

Bacterial contamination of milk and dairy products is a common problem. In the last two years, the foodborne diseases caused by the intake of milk and dairy products have been mostly disturbed with Salmonella entertica, Listeria monocytogenes Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Campylobacter jejune. The study aims to isolate multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria in dairy products and study of the molecular characterization of that isolates. MDR bacteria were found in 30 out of the 131 bacterial isolates. The incidence of MDR bacterial isolates revealed the abundance of Staphylococcus sp. with 43.3%, Bacillus sp 16.7%, Salmonella 13.3%, E. coli 10 %, Enterococcus 6.7 % Psedoumonas 3.3 %, Shegella 3.3 % and Proteous 3.3 %. Molecular studies of genes presence or absence for class A contain TEM, CTX and BSHV, class B contain VIM, IMP, KPC and NDM, class C contain FOX and class D contain OXA-10, OXA-24 and OXA-58 were tested. NDM, TEM, CITM and OXA -10 genes were the most abundant the selected bacterial isolates. The results of this study indicate that cheese made from unpasteurized milk can pose a significant risk to consumers. Product manufacturing processes should be subject to health control-to-control pathogens. The novelty in this work depend on screening of gene responsible of the resistance from the bacteria isolated from dairy product using the molecular technique.

Evaluation the antihyprlipidemic effect of apigenin flavonoid in mice

Zena S. hamed; Ahmad Sh. Altaweel; Khalid A. Shaban; Ghada A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 279-283
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130008.1718

The study’s aim was to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of apigenin in mice as a model. Healthy adult albino mice of either sex were selected to use for this study. Four groups of animals were formed of 5 mice each. Animals Group 1 served as a negative control and fed the standard diet and tap water. Groups 2,3 and 4 were fed fatty diet and 1% water with H2O2 for 90 days to induce hyperlipidemia. After hyperlipidemic induction, group 2 served as a positive control, whereas group 3 was treated orally with apigenin 50 mg/kg/day for 14 constitutive days. Group 4 was treated by rosuvastatin (an antihyprlipidemic drug) orally at 7 mg/kg for 14 constitutive days. Blood samples were collected from all of the animals at the beginning of the study to measure the lipid profile. Then these were rechecked again after 12 weeks of feeding a high-fat diet, and then at the end of the experiment for the treated groups. The results demonstrated that the apigenin at 50mg/kg significantly reduced hyperlipidemia manifested by decreased TC, LDL-C, Triglyceride and elevation of HDL-C in comparison with the positive control group. The results, obtained by apigenin were the in accordance with those of the standard drug rosuvastatin for TC and LDL-C. This study concluded that apigenin lowered plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels in mice. 

Histomorphometrical and histochemical postnatal development of cornea in indigenous rabbits

Omar Y. Younis Altaay; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 291-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130031.1722

The present study aims to clarify corneal development via analyzing of the histomorphologic and some histochemical parameters in local rabbits. Samples were collected from 25 Rabbits divided into five different age groups at 1, 10, 15, 30, and 40 postnatal day (PND), then the samples sectioned, processed, and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson’s trichrome stain. Some sections were further stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and toluidine blue (TB) stain for histochemical evaluation. Measurements of corneal layers performed for morphometric comparison among age groups. The finding revealed thickening of corneal epithelium, stroma, and corneal endothelium progressively with age and decrease of corneal layer’s cellular density concurrently with alteration of corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium cell’s type. The histochemical finding revealed late appearance of bowman’s and Descemet’s membranes after eyelid opening which responded strongly to PAS technique while stroma became metachromatic strongly responded to toluidine blue stain. In conclusion, cornea showed highly active histological development and cellular differentiation before and after eyelid opening.

Publisher: College of Veterinary Medicine / University of Mosul

Email:  vetmedmosul@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Muneer S. Al-Badrany

Managing Editor: Professor Dr. Dhafer Mohammad Aziz

Print ISSN: 1607-3894

Online ISSN: 2071-1255

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IJVS became A Q2 member
NEW UPGRADE   The Iraq Journal of Veterinary Sciences has a new upgrade in Scimago Journal Ranking (SJR), this upgrade represents by increase the Q level, in which the IJVS upgraded from Q4 level ...

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IJVS editorial board inviting researcher all over the glob to join the reviewer community belong to IJVS, by filling the Google forum that available at this link https://bit.ly/3bNer3b

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IJVS will publish the accepted articles related to COVID-19 in volume 34, issue 2, year 2020, which will appear in next few days, this rapid publishing come from fulfillment of obligation from IJVS to ...

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